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Kurşun, Civa, Kadmiyum: Çocuk Sağlığına Etkileri ve Temasın Belirlenmesinde Saç Örneklerinin Kullanımı

Year 2011, Volume 3, Issue 2, 73 - 81, 01.10.2011
https://doi.org/10.1501/Csaum_0000000056

Abstract

Ağır metaller yaygın kullanımları nedeniyle en zararlı çevresel kirleticilerdendir. Kurşun, civa ve kadmiyum çevresel kaynakları, vücuda alınış yolları, toksik etkileri ve vücutta saptanma yöntemleri iyi bilinen metallerdir. Çocukluk döneminde ağır metal temasının saptanmasında saç materyalinin kullanılması, toplanması, saklanması ve taşınması kolay ve düşük maliyetlidir. Bununla birlikte saçın alınacağı yer ve miktarının net olmaması, kontaminasyon riski, güvenilir referans aralıklarının olmayışı dezavantajlarıdır. Günümüzde kan ve saç düzeyleri ile büyüyen fetusta etkileri arasında ilişki için yeterli verisi olan tek element metil civadır. Bununla birlikte kurşun ve kadmiyum temasının ve toksik etkilerinin değerlendirmesinde saç örneklerinin kullanılması sınırlıdır. Çevresel teması göstermede saç analizinin iyi bir yöntem haline gelmesi için birçok bilimsel konunun aydınlatılmaya ihtiyacı vardır

References

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  • Hu, H., Rabinowitz, M., ve Smith, D. 1998. Bone lead as a biological marker in epidemiologic studies of chronic toxicity: conceptual paradigms. Environ Health Perspect. 106(1):1-8.
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  • Järup, L.2003. Hazards of heavy metal contamination. Br Med Bull, 68, 167-82.
  • Järup, L., ve Akesson, A. 2009. Current status of cadmium as an environmental health problem. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1;238(3):201-8.
  • Markowitz, M. Lead Poisoning In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanton BF. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics.18 th ed. Saunders 2007( pp: 2913-2917).
  • Marques, R.C., Garrofe Dórea, J., Rodrigues Bastos, W., de Freitas Rebelo, M., de Freitas Fonseca, M., ve Malm, O. 2007. Maternal mercury exposure and neuro-motor development in breastfed infants from Porto Velho (Amazon), Brazil. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 210(1):51-60.
  • Mortada, W.I., Sobh, M.A., ve El-Defrawy, M.M. 2004. The exposure to cadmium, lead and mercury from smoking and its impact on renal integrity. Med Sci Monit 10:CR112-116.
  • Ng, D.K., Chan, C.H., Soo, M.T., ve Lee, R.S. 2007. Low-level chronic mercury exposure in children and adolescents: meta- analysis. Pediatr Int. 49:80-7.
  • Nowak, B., ve Chmielnicka, J. 2000. Relationship of lead and cadmium to essential elements in hair, teeth and nails of environmentally exposed people. Ecotoxicol and Environ Safety 46;265-274.
  • Omarova, A., ve Phillips, C.J.C. 2007. A meta-analysis of literature data relating to the relationships between cadmium intake and toxicity in humans. Environ Research 103:432-440.
  • Omokhodion, F.O., ve Crockford, G.W. 1991. Lead in sweat and its relationship to salivary and urinary levels in normal healthy subjects. Sci Total Environ.103:113-22.
  • Ozden, T.A., Gökçay, G., Ertem, H.V., Süoğlu, O.D., Kiliç, A., Sökücü, S., ve Saner, G. 2007. Elevated hair levels of cadmium and lead in school children exposed to smoking and in highways near schools. Clin Biochem. 40(1-2):52-6.
  • Özden, T.A., İşsever, H., Gökçay, G., ve Saner, G. 2003. 0-2 Yaş arası çocuklarda saç Pb düzeyleri ve kronik Pba maruz kalma nedenleri. İst. Tıp Fak. Mecmuası 66:4, 2003.
  • Patrick, L. 2003. Toxic metals and antioxidants: Part II. The role of antioxidants in arsenic and toxicity. Altern Med Rev. 8(2); 112-116.
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  • Sakamoto, M., Kubota, M., ve Matsumoto, S. 2002. Declining risk of metylmercury exposure to infants during lactation. Environ Res 90:185-189.
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  • Souad, C., Farida, Z., Nadra, L., François, B., Bougle, D., ve Azeddine, S. 2006. Trace element level in infant hair and diet, and in the local environment of the Moroccan city of Marrakech. Sci Total Environ.370(2-3):337-42.
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Lead, Mercury, Cadmium: Effects on Child Health and Using Hair Samples in Determination of Exposure

Year 2011, Volume 3, Issue 2, 73 - 81, 01.10.2011
https://doi.org/10.1501/Csaum_0000000056

Abstract

Heavy metals are the most harmful environmental pollutants, due to widespread use. Lead, mercury, and cadmium are well-known regard as environmental resources, ways of receiving the body, the toxic effects, detection methods in biological markers. Using hair sample have many advantages such as easily and noninvasively collected with minimal cost collection, and it is easily stored and transported to the laboratory for analysis. However, it have disadvantages risk of contamination, lack of reliable reference values, and no consensus exists on the length of the hair specimen to be collected, or the amount, or the position on scalp. Nowadays, methylmercury is the only element for which sufficient data exist to define the relationship between concentrations in blood, concentrations in hair, and effects on the target (the developing fetus). But, analysis of lead and cadmium in hair samples is limited to use for the exposure to lead and cadmium and their toxic effects. Many scientiŞc issues need to be highlighted before hair analysis can become a useful tool in understanding environmental exposures

References

  • Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) 2007. CERCLA Priority List of Hazardous Substances. U.S.Department of Health and Human Services. Atlanta, GA (http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/cercla/07list.html. (Ulaşılma Tarihi: 20.02.2012).
  • Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 2008. Toxicological Profile for Cadmium. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health service (http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp5.pdf)
  • Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) 2001. The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, Georgia. Summary report on hair analysis panel discussion exploring the state of the science. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/HAC/hair_analysis/hair_analysis.pdf (Ulaşılma tarihi: 12.02.2012)
  • Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) 2011. Hair Analysis Panel Discussion: Section: Appendix C, Sharon Seidel. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/HAC/hair_analysis/Appendix_c_sharon.html. (erişim tarihi: 13.03.2012).
  • Afridi,H.I., Kazi, T.G., Brabazon, D., ve Naher, S. 2011. Association between essential trace and toxic elements in scalp hair samples of smokers rheumatoid arthritis subjects. Sci Total Environ. 412-413:93-100.
  • Ali, M.M., Murthy, R.C., ve Chandra, S.V. 1986. Developmental and long term neurobehavioral toxicity of low level in utero cadmium exposure in rats. Neurobehav Toxicol Teratol. 8:463-468.
  • Amin-Zaki, L., Majeed, M.A., Elhassani, S.B., Clarkson, T.W., Greenwood, M.R., ve Doherty, R.A. 1979. Prenatal methylmercury poisoning. Clinical observations over five years. Am J Dis Child. 133(2):172-7.
  • Atabek, M.E., Kurtoglu, S., Pirgon, O., Uzum, K., ve Saraymen, R. 2007. Relation of in utero lead exposure with insulin-like growth factor-I levels and neonatal anthropometric parameters. Int J Hyg Environ Health, 210(1): 91-5.
  • Baranski, B. 1985. Effect of exposure of pregnant rats to cadmium on prenatal and postnatal development of the young. J Hyg Epidemiol Microbiol Immunol 29:253-262.
  • Barbosa, Jr.F., Tanus-Santos, J.E., ve Gerlach, R.F. 2005. A Critical Review of Biomarkers Used for Monitoring Human Exposure to Lead: Advantages, Limitations, and Future Needs. Environ Health Pers. 113(12):1669-74.
  • Barton, H.J. 2011. Advantages of the use of deciduous teeth, hair, and blood analysis for lead and cadmium bio-monitoring in children. A study of 6-year-old children from Krakow (Poland). Biol Trace Elem Res. 143(2):637-58.
  • Berglund, M., Lind, B., Björnberg, K.A., Palm, B., Einarsson, O., ve Vahter, M. 2005. Inter-individual variations of human mercury exposure biomarkers: a cross-sectional assessment. Environmental Health, 3;4:20.
  • Bonithon-Kopp, C., Huel, G., Moreau, T., ve Wendling, R. 1986. Prenatal exposure to lead and cadmium and psychomotor development of the child at 6 years. Neurobehav Toxicol Teratol. 8(3):307-10.
  • Butler, W.J., Houseman, J., Seddon, L., McMullen, E., Tofflemire, K., ve Mills, C. 2006. Maternal and umbilical cord blood levels of mercury, lead, cadmium, and essential trace elements in Arctic Canada. Environ Res, 100(3): 295-318.
  • Chevrier, C., Sullivan, K., White, R.F., Comtois, C., Cordier, S., ve Grandjean, P. 2009. Qualitative assessment of visuospatial errors in mercury-exposed Amazonian children. Neurotoxicology. 30(1):37-46.
  • Clarkson, T.W. 1998. Human Toxicology of Mercury. J Trace El Exper Med. 11:303–317.
  • Cox, C., Clarkson, T.W., Marsh, D.O., Amin-Zaki, L, Tikriti, S., ve Myers, G.G. 1989. Dose-response analysis of infants prenatally exposed to methyl mercury: an application of a single compartment model to single-strand hair analysis. Environ Res. 49(2):318-32.
  • Davidson, PW., Myers, G.J, ve Weiss, B. 2004. Mercury exposure and child development outcomes. Pediatrics,113:1023-29.
  • Dietz, R., Outridge, P.M., ve Hobson, K.A. 2009. Anthropogenic contributions to mercury levels in present-day Arctic animals--a review. Sci Total Environ. 407(24):6120-31.
  • Díez, S., Delgado, S., Aguilera, I., Astray, J., Pérez-Gómez, B., ve Torrent, M. 2009. Prenatal and early childhood exposure to mercury and methylmercury in Spain, a high-fish-consumer country. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol, 56(3): 615-22.
  • Esteban, E., Rubin, C.H., Jones, R.J., ve Noonan, G. 1999. Hair and blood as substrates for screening children for lead poisoning. Arch Environ Health. 54:436-440.
  • Esteban, M., ve Castaño, A. 2009. Non-invasive matrices in human biomonitoring: a review. Environ Int, 35(2):438-49.
  • Gerhardsson, L., Englyst, V., Lundström, N.G., Nordberg, G., Sandberg, S., ve Steinvall, F. 1995. Lead in tissues of deceased lead smelter workers. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 9(3):136-43.
  • Grandjean, P., Weihe, P., Jİrgensen, P.J., Clarkson, T., Cernichiari, E., ve Viderİ, T. 1992. Impact of maternal seafood diet on fetal exposure to mercury, selenium, and lead. Arch Environ Health. 47(3):185-95.
  • Grandjean, P., Weihe, P., White, RF., Debes, F., Araki, S., ve Yokoyama, K. 1997. Cognitive deficit in 7-year-old children with prenatal exposure to methylmercury. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 19:417-28.
  • Holmes, A.S., Blaxill, M,F., ve Haley, B.E. 2003. Reduced levels of mercury in first baby haircuts of autistic children. Int J Toxicol. 22(4):277-85.
  • Hu, H., Rabinowitz, M., ve Smith, D. 1998. Bone lead as a biological marker in epidemiologic studies of chronic toxicity: conceptual paradigms. Environ Health Perspect. 106(1):1-8.
  • Huel, G., Everson, R.B., Menger, I. 1984. Increased hair cadmium in newborns of women occupationally exposed to heavy metals. Environ Res. 35(1):115-21.
  • Järup, L.2003. Hazards of heavy metal contamination. Br Med Bull, 68, 167-82.
  • Järup, L., ve Akesson, A. 2009. Current status of cadmium as an environmental health problem. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1;238(3):201-8.
  • Markowitz, M. Lead Poisoning In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanton BF. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics.18 th ed. Saunders 2007( pp: 2913-2917).
  • Marques, R.C., Garrofe Dórea, J., Rodrigues Bastos, W., de Freitas Rebelo, M., de Freitas Fonseca, M., ve Malm, O. 2007. Maternal mercury exposure and neuro-motor development in breastfed infants from Porto Velho (Amazon), Brazil. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 210(1):51-60.
  • Mortada, W.I., Sobh, M.A., ve El-Defrawy, M.M. 2004. The exposure to cadmium, lead and mercury from smoking and its impact on renal integrity. Med Sci Monit 10:CR112-116.
  • Ng, D.K., Chan, C.H., Soo, M.T., ve Lee, R.S. 2007. Low-level chronic mercury exposure in children and adolescents: meta- analysis. Pediatr Int. 49:80-7.
  • Nowak, B., ve Chmielnicka, J. 2000. Relationship of lead and cadmium to essential elements in hair, teeth and nails of environmentally exposed people. Ecotoxicol and Environ Safety 46;265-274.
  • Omarova, A., ve Phillips, C.J.C. 2007. A meta-analysis of literature data relating to the relationships between cadmium intake and toxicity in humans. Environ Research 103:432-440.
  • Omokhodion, F.O., ve Crockford, G.W. 1991. Lead in sweat and its relationship to salivary and urinary levels in normal healthy subjects. Sci Total Environ.103:113-22.
  • Ozden, T.A., Gökçay, G., Ertem, H.V., Süoğlu, O.D., Kiliç, A., Sökücü, S., ve Saner, G. 2007. Elevated hair levels of cadmium and lead in school children exposed to smoking and in highways near schools. Clin Biochem. 40(1-2):52-6.
  • Özden, T.A., İşsever, H., Gökçay, G., ve Saner, G. 2003. 0-2 Yaş arası çocuklarda saç Pb düzeyleri ve kronik Pba maruz kalma nedenleri. İst. Tıp Fak. Mecmuası 66:4, 2003.
  • Patrick, L. 2003. Toxic metals and antioxidants: Part II. The role of antioxidants in arsenic and toxicity. Altern Med Rev. 8(2); 112-116.
  • Petering, H.G., Choudhury, H., ve Stemmer, K.L. 1979. Some effects of oral ingestion of cadmium on zinc, copper, and iron metabolism. Environ Health Perspect. 28:97-106.
  • Rabinowitz, M., Leviton, A., ve Needleman, H. 1985. Lead in milk and infant blood: a dose-response model. Arch Environ Health. 40(5):283-6.
  • Razi, C.H., Akın, K.O., Harmancı, K., Ozdemir, O., Abacı, A., Hızlı, S., Renda, R., ve Celik, A. 2012. Relationship between hair cadmium levels, indoor ETS exposure and wheezing frequency in children. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr). 40(1):51-9.
  • Sakamoto, M., Kubota, M., ve Matsumoto, S. 2002. Declining risk of metylmercury exposure to infants during lactation. Environ Res 90:185-189.
  • Schuhmacher, M., Domingo, J.L., Llobet, J.M., ve Corbella, J. 1991. Lead in children's hair, as related to exposure in Tarragona Province, Spain. Sci Total Environ. 15;104(3):167-73.
  • Schütz, A., Bergdahl, I.A., Ekholm, A., ve Skerfving, S. 1996. Measurement by ICP-MS of lead in plasma and whole blood of lead workers and controls. Occup Environ Med. 53(11):736-741.
  • Seifert, B., Becker, K., Helm, D., Krause, C., Schulz, C., ve Seiwert, M. 2000. The German Environmental Survey 1990/1992 (GerES II): reference concentrations of selected environmental pollutants in blood, urine, hair, house dust, drinking water and indoor air. J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol. 10(6 Pt 1):552-65.
  • Serdar, M.A., Akin, B.S., Razi, C., Akin, O., Tokgoz, S., Kenar, L., ve Aykut, O. 2012. The Correlation Between Smoking Status of Family Members and Concentrations of Toxic Trace Elements in the Hair of Children. Biol Trace Elem Res. Feb 10. (Basımda)
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Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Science
Other ID JA27ZF62FS
Journal Section Article
Authors

Emel ÖRÜN This is me


S. Songül YALÇIN This is me

Publication Date October 1, 2011
Published in Issue Year 2011, Volume 3, Issue 2

Cite

Bibtex @research article { aucevrebilim477091, journal = {Ankara Üniversitesi Çevrebilimleri Dergisi}, eissn = {2146-1562}, address = {csaum@ankara.edu.tr}, publisher = {Ankara University}, year = {2011}, volume = {3}, number = {2}, pages = {73 - 81}, doi = {10.1501/Csaum\_0000000056}, title = {Kurşun, Civa, Kadmiyum: Çocuk Sağlığına Etkileri ve Temasın Belirlenmesinde Saç Örneklerinin Kullanımı}, key = {cite}, author = {Örün, Emel and Yalçın, S. Songül} }
APA Örün, E. & Yalçın, S. S. (2011). Kurşun, Civa, Kadmiyum: Çocuk Sağlığına Etkileri ve Temasın Belirlenmesinde Saç Örneklerinin Kullanımı . Ankara Üniversitesi Çevrebilimleri Dergisi , 3 (2) , 73-81 . DOI: 10.1501/Csaum_0000000056
MLA Örün, E. , Yalçın, S. S. "Kurşun, Civa, Kadmiyum: Çocuk Sağlığına Etkileri ve Temasın Belirlenmesinde Saç Örneklerinin Kullanımı" . Ankara Üniversitesi Çevrebilimleri Dergisi 3 (2011 ): 73-81 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/aucevrebilim/issue/40109/477091>
Chicago Örün, E. , Yalçın, S. S. "Kurşun, Civa, Kadmiyum: Çocuk Sağlığına Etkileri ve Temasın Belirlenmesinde Saç Örneklerinin Kullanımı". Ankara Üniversitesi Çevrebilimleri Dergisi 3 (2011 ): 73-81
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Kurşun, Civa, Kadmiyum: Çocuk Sağlığına Etkileri ve Temasın Belirlenmesinde Saç Örneklerinin Kullanımı AU - Emel Örün , S. Songül Yalçın Y1 - 2011 PY - 2011 N1 - doi: 10.1501/Csaum_0000000056 DO - 10.1501/Csaum_0000000056 T2 - Ankara Üniversitesi Çevrebilimleri Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 73 EP - 81 VL - 3 IS - 2 SN - -2146-1562 M3 - doi: 10.1501/Csaum_0000000056 UR - https://doi.org/10.1501/Csaum_0000000056 Y2 - 2022 ER -
EndNote %0 Ankara Üniversitesi Çevrebilimleri Dergisi Kurşun, Civa, Kadmiyum: Çocuk Sağlığına Etkileri ve Temasın Belirlenmesinde Saç Örneklerinin Kullanımı %A Emel Örün , S. Songül Yalçın %T Kurşun, Civa, Kadmiyum: Çocuk Sağlığına Etkileri ve Temasın Belirlenmesinde Saç Örneklerinin Kullanımı %D 2011 %J Ankara Üniversitesi Çevrebilimleri Dergisi %P -2146-1562 %V 3 %N 2 %R doi: 10.1501/Csaum_0000000056 %U 10.1501/Csaum_0000000056
ISNAD Örün, Emel , Yalçın, S. Songül . "Kurşun, Civa, Kadmiyum: Çocuk Sağlığına Etkileri ve Temasın Belirlenmesinde Saç Örneklerinin Kullanımı". Ankara Üniversitesi Çevrebilimleri Dergisi 3 / 2 (October 2011): 73-81 . https://doi.org/10.1501/Csaum_0000000056
AMA Örün E. , Yalçın S. S. Kurşun, Civa, Kadmiyum: Çocuk Sağlığına Etkileri ve Temasın Belirlenmesinde Saç Örneklerinin Kullanımı. Ankara Üniversitesi Çevrebilimleri Dergisi. 2011; 3(2): 73-81.
Vancouver Örün E. , Yalçın S. S. Kurşun, Civa, Kadmiyum: Çocuk Sağlığına Etkileri ve Temasın Belirlenmesinde Saç Örneklerinin Kullanımı. Ankara Üniversitesi Çevrebilimleri Dergisi. 2011; 3(2): 73-81.
IEEE E. Örün and S. S. Yalçın , "Kurşun, Civa, Kadmiyum: Çocuk Sağlığına Etkileri ve Temasın Belirlenmesinde Saç Örneklerinin Kullanımı", Ankara Üniversitesi Çevrebilimleri Dergisi, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 73-81, Oct. 2011, doi:10.1501/Csaum_0000000056