Year 2020, Volume , Issue 4, Pages 11 - 34 2020-06-20

Soviet-Turkish Relations in 1921-1923: A Few Nuances from the Bulgarian Archives

Tsvetelina TSVETKOVA [1]


The article aims at presenting information from unpublished and unexplored until now Bulgarian archival documents about Soviet-Turkish relations. It follows their development in the period 1921-1923, based on the reports of the Bulgarian diplomats, residing in Istanbul - Todor K. Pavlov, Todor Markov and Ivan Altanov. Among the topics concerned were the status of the Soviet-Turkish relations; the Soviet military and financial support for Ankara Government; Soviet-Turkish rivalry for the influence over Muslim peoples in the Near East and Asia; international conferences; internal politics and developments within the Grand National Assembly; important Turkish personages that influenced directly or indirectly the Soviet-Turkish relations etc. The presented documents reveal not only some important nuances of already known facts and events, but open new unexplored topics in the historiography, related to the Soviet-Turkish relations during the period under consideration.
Bulgarian archives, Bulgarian diplomats’ reports, Soviet-Turkish relations, Soviet support, Ankara government, Turkish politicians and leaders
  • TsDA, f. 321К, op. 1, а.е. 2740
  • TsDA, f. 321К, op. 1, а.е. 2759
  • TsDA, f. 321К, op. 1, а.е. 2764
  • TsDA, f. 321К, op. 1, а.е. 2772
  • TsDA, f. 321К, op. 1, а.е. 2788
  • TsDA, f. 321К, op. 1, а.е. 2789
  • TsDA, f. 321К, op. 1, а.е. 2797
  • TsDA, f. 321К, op. 1, а.е. 2799
  • TsDA, f. 176, op. 4, а.е. 1951
  • Aralov, Semen. Vospominaniya sovetskogo diplomata. 1922-1923. Moskva: Izdatel'stvo IMO, 1960.
  • “Bulgaria Armistice Convention, September 29, 1918.”, The American Journal of International Law, Vol. 13, No. 4 (1919): 402–404, www.jstor.org/stable/2212836 (accessed October 29, 2019).
  • Cebesoy, Ali Fuat. Moskova Hatırları. Milli Mücadele ve Bolşevik Rusya. Istanbul: Temel Yayinlari., 2017.
  • Conference on Near Eastern Affairs. 1923. Lausanne Conference on Near Eastern Affairs, 1922-1923: records of proceedings and draft terms of peace. London: H.M.S.O., 1923.
  • Frunze, Mihail. Sobranie sochineniy. Moskva: Gosudarstvennoe izdatel'stvo, 1929, Vol. 1 (1905-1923 gody).
  • Moskovskiy dogovor mezhdu Rossiyey i Turtsiyey 16 marta 1921 goda, http://www.amsi.ge/istoria/sab/moskovi.html (accessed November 17, 2019).
  • "Mudros Agreement: Armistice with Turkey (October 30, 1918)", German History in Documents and Images, Vol. 6. Weimar Germany, 1918/19–1933, http://germanhistorydocs.ghi-dc.org/pdf/eng/armistice_turk_eng.pdf (accessed October 29, 2019).
  • Yunan zulümlerine dair insanlik âlemine beyanname (12. IV. 1921). Atatürk'ün Tamim, Telgraf ve Beyannameleri, Vol IV (Istanbul: Türk Tarih Kurumu Basimevi, 1991), 393-394, http://kitaplar.ankara.edu.tr/dosyalar/pdf/355.pdf (accessed November 17, 2019).
  • Bilge, A. Suat, Ahmet Şükrü Esmer, Mehmet Gönlübol, Oral Sander, Cem Sar, Duygu Sezer, Haluk Ülman. Olaylarla Türk Diş Politikasi (1919-1965). Ankara: Ankara Üniversitesi SBF Yayini, 1969.
  • Gorlov, Sergei. Sovershenno sekretno: Al’ians Moskva – Berlin, 1920–1933 gg. (Voenno-politicheskie otnoshenia SSSR — Germania). Moskva: Olma-Press, 2001.
  • Gökay, Bülent. “Turkish Settlement and the Caucasus, 1918-20”. Middle Eastern Studies, Vol. 32, No. 2 (1996): 45-76.
  • Craig, Gordon A., Felix Gilbert (ed.). The Diplomats, 1919-1939. Princeton, New Jursey: Princeton University Press, 1994.
  • Grüsshaber, Gerhard. The "German Spirit" in the Ottoman and Turkish Army, 1908-1938: A history of military knowledge transfer. Berlin; Boston : De Gruyter Oldenbourg, 2018.
  • Kapur, Harish. Soviet Russia and Asia, 1917–1927: A Study of Soviet Policy towards Turkey, Iran, and Afghanistan. Geneva: V. Chevalier, 1966.
  • Macar, Oya Dağlar, Elçin Macar. Beyaz Rus Ordusu Türkiye’de. Istanbul: Libra Kitapçılık ve Yayıncılık, 2010.
  • Mateeva, Mariya, Hristo Tepavicharov. Diplomaticheskite otnosheniya na Balgariya (1878–1988). Sofia: BAN, 1989.
  • Masayuki, Yamauchi. The Green Crescent under the Red Star. Enver Pasha in Soviet Russia 1919-1922. Tokyo: Institute for Study of Languages and Cultures, 1991.
  • Metev, Lalyu. Vidni balgarski pravnitsi 1879 – 1944. Sofia: Atlas-L, 2013, https://en.calameo.com/read/0004463717c0432b3e042 (accessed October 15, 2019)
  • Smyslov, Oleg. Prokli͡atye legiony. Izmenniki Rodiny na sluzhbe Gitlera. Moskva: Veche, 2017, https://www.litmir.me/br/?b=569635&p=8 (accessed March 2, 2020)
  • Sonyel, Salahi. “Mustafa Kemal and Enver in Conflict, 1919-1922”. Middle Eastern Studies, Vol. 25, № 4 (1989): 506-515.
  • Spasov, Lyudmil. “Balgaroro-turski diplomaticheski otnosheniya 1925–1934 g.” Voennoistoricheski sbornik, Issue 2 (2014), https://logos.uni-plovdiv.net/documents/35514/508268/Bulgaro-turski_otnoshenia.pdf/62024a35-6364-48d9-bb99-0b26cb4fd0f6 (accessed October 15, 2019)
  • Photograph sources:
  • 1.http://www.pan.bg/view_article-61-30258-zabravenite-geroi-na-bylgariya-general-major-todor-markov-markov.html (accessed November 15, 2019)
  • 2. http://kuzeykafkasyacumhuriyeti.org/biyografi/said-samil.html (accessed November 15, 2019)
  • 3. Personal archive.
  • 4.https://www.msxlabs.org/forum/siyaset-tr/244314-yusuf-kemal-tengirsenk.html (accessed November 15, 2019)
  • 5. https://audiovis.nac.gov.pl/obraz/71164/ (accessed November 15, 2019)
  • 6. http://visualrian.ru/hier_rubric/photo/773673.html (accessed November 15, 2019
Primary Language en
Subjects Social
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Orcid: 0000-0001-6290-9736
Author: Tsvetelina TSVETKOVA (Primary Author)
Institution: YILDIZ TEKNİK ÜNİVERSİTESİ, BALKAN VE KARADENİZ ARAŞTIRMALARI MERKEZİ
Country: Bulgaria


Dates

Publication Date : June 20, 2020

Bibtex @research article { balkar706352, journal = {Journal of Balkan and Black Sea Studies}, issn = {2667-470X}, eissn = {2667-470X}, address = {}, publisher = {Mehmet HACISALİHOĞLU}, year = {2020}, volume = {}, pages = {11 - 34}, doi = {}, title = {Soviet-Turkish Relations in 1921-1923: A Few Nuances from the Bulgarian Archives}, key = {cite}, author = {Tsvetkova, Tsvetelina} }
APA Tsvetkova, T . (2020). Soviet-Turkish Relations in 1921-1923: A Few Nuances from the Bulgarian Archives . Journal of Balkan and Black Sea Studies , (4) , 11-34 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/balkar/issue/54477/706352
MLA Tsvetkova, T . "Soviet-Turkish Relations in 1921-1923: A Few Nuances from the Bulgarian Archives" . Journal of Balkan and Black Sea Studies (2020 ): 11-34 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/balkar/issue/54477/706352>
Chicago Tsvetkova, T . "Soviet-Turkish Relations in 1921-1923: A Few Nuances from the Bulgarian Archives". Journal of Balkan and Black Sea Studies (2020 ): 11-34
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Soviet-Turkish Relations in 1921-1923: A Few Nuances from the Bulgarian Archives AU - Tsvetelina Tsvetkova Y1 - 2020 PY - 2020 N1 - DO - T2 - Journal of Balkan and Black Sea Studies JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 11 EP - 34 VL - IS - 4 SN - 2667-470X-2667-470X M3 - UR - Y2 - 2020 ER -
EndNote %0 Journal of Balkan and Black Sea Studies Soviet-Turkish Relations in 1921-1923: A Few Nuances from the Bulgarian Archives %A Tsvetelina Tsvetkova %T Soviet-Turkish Relations in 1921-1923: A Few Nuances from the Bulgarian Archives %D 2020 %J Journal of Balkan and Black Sea Studies %P 2667-470X-2667-470X %V %N 4 %R %U
ISNAD Tsvetkova, Tsvetelina . "Soviet-Turkish Relations in 1921-1923: A Few Nuances from the Bulgarian Archives". Journal of Balkan and Black Sea Studies / 4 (June 2020): 11-34 .
AMA Tsvetkova T . Soviet-Turkish Relations in 1921-1923: A Few Nuances from the Bulgarian Archives. BALKAR. 2020; (4): 11-34.
Vancouver Tsvetkova T . Soviet-Turkish Relations in 1921-1923: A Few Nuances from the Bulgarian Archives. Journal of Balkan and Black Sea Studies. 2020; (4): 11-34.
IEEE T. Tsvetkova , "Soviet-Turkish Relations in 1921-1923: A Few Nuances from the Bulgarian Archives", Journal of Balkan and Black Sea Studies, no. 4, pp. 11-34, Jun. 2020