Year 2019, Volume 3 , Issue 1, Pages 77 - 86 2019-03-30

The wild goat (Capra aegagrus) has a very widespread area in our Turkey and is an important species in terms of hunting tourism. Every year, inventory studies are regularly carried out in all areas where these species have distributed in Turkey. Native and foreign hunters are allowed to hunting these species by giving certain quota determined for each year and thus economic income is provided to the country. Generally, in hunting tourism, male individuals older than the age of 8 years are important. In this study, presence data matrix was prepared by determining the areas where the individuals aged 8 years and above have been located according to the counts made after hunting in Antalya region in 2016. Slope, elevation, aspect, topographic position index and ruggedness variables that are selected considering of  the biology of wild goat were use for modelling. These variables were cut in local scale by using ArcGIS 10.2 software and each was prepared as a layer in ascii format. The modelling process was carried out using MaxEnt method that run via maximum entropy approach and use only presence data, and Random Forest method that run via both presence and absence data. The Roc value for MaxEnt was 0.852 and the Roc value for Random Forest method was 0.927. These results show that the models obtained by both methods are valid. The maps obtained by both models were intersected to determine the most suitable areas for wild goats. The hunting tourism map of the wild goat was obtained by using 0.6 reference value for suitable areas on the map that was acquired using intersect. And the map show that current and potential hunting areas were determined. As a result, this map is very important in terms of being a guide for hunting tourism in study area and being the first hunting tourism map of wild goats.

Antalya, Wild Goat, MaxEnt, Hunting Tourism, Habitat Suitability Modelling and Mapping, Random Forest, Wild Goat
  • Ahmed, A., Vlasseva, V., Kitanova, S., Genov, P. (2015). Bezoar Wild Goat (Capra Aegagrus Erxleben, 1777) – history and opportunities for development of the species in Bulgaria, Annuaire de l’Université de Sofia “St. Kliment Ohridski” Faculte de Biologie First National Conference of Reintroduction of Conservation-reliant Species, Sofia 2015 University Press 2016, pp. 171-175.
  • Baldwin, R.A. (2009). Use of maximum entropy modeling in wildlife research. Entropy, 11(4), 854-866.
  • Elith, J., Graham, C.H., Anderson, R.P., Dudik, M., Ferrier, S., Guisan, A., Hijmans, R.J., Huettmann, F., Leathwick, J.R., Lehmann, A., Li, J., Lohmann, L.G., Loiselle, B.A., Manion, G., Moritz, C., Nakamura, M., Nakazawa, Y., Overton, J.McC., Peterson, A.T., Phillips, S.J., Richardson, K.S., Scachetti-Pereira, R., Schapire, R.E., Soberon, J., Williams, S., Wisz, M.S., Zimmermann, N.E. (2006). Novel methods improve prediction of species distributions from occurrence data, Ecography, 29(2), 129-151.
  • Evans, J. S., & Cushman, S. A. (2009). Gradient modeling of conifer species using random forests. Landscape Ecology, 24(5), 673–683.
  • Gönenç, B., Emir, H., Iajob, O. (2018). Digestive tract helminths of Turkish ibex (Capra aegagrus aegagrus Erxleben, 1877), Ankara Üniv Vet Fak Derg, 65, 247-251.
  • Gündoğdu E, Oğurlu İ. (2009). Population ecology of wild goat Capra Aegagrus Erxleben 1777 in Isparta, Turkey. J Anim Vet Adv, 8, 2318-2324.
  • Gündoğdu E. 2006. Population Ecology of the Wild Goat (Capra aegagrus Erxleben 1777) in Isparta Region (Phd Thesis), SDU Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Department of Forest Engineering, Isparta.
  • Hernandez, P.A., Graham, C.H., Master, L.L., Albert, D.L. (2006). The effect of sample size and species characteristics on performance of different species distribution modeling methods. Ecography, 29(5), 773-785.
  • Hirzel, A. H., Le Lay, G., Helfer, V., Randin, C., & Guisan, A. (2006). Evaluating the ability of habitat suitability models to predict species presences. Ecological Modelling, 199(2), 142–152.
  • Jaynes, E.T., 1957. Information theory and statistical mechanics. Physical Review, 106(4), 620.
  • Kozak, M. A., Bahçe, S. (2009). Özel İlgi Turizmi. Ankara, Detay Yayıncılık.
  • Mert, A., Kıraç, A., 2017. Isparta-Sütçüler Yöresinde Anatololacerta danfordi (Günter, 1876)’nin Habitat Uygunluk Haritalaması. Bilge International Journal of Science and Technology Research 1(1), 16-22.
  • Mert, A., Özkan, K., Şentürk, Ö., Negiz, M.G., 2016. Changing the Potential Distribution of Turkey Oak (Quercus cerris L.) under Climate Change in Turkey, Pol. J. Environ. Stud. Vol. 25, No. 4 (2016), 1-6, DOI: 10.15244/pjoes/62230.
  • Morovati, M., Karami, M., Kaboli, M. (2014). Desirable areas and effective environmental factors of wild goat habitat (Capra aegagrus). International Journal of Environmental Research, 8(4), 1031-1040.
  • Oğurlu, İ., Ünal, Y. (2011). Yaban hayatı çalışmalarında üniversite, yerel halk ve kamu işbirliği: Isparta Aksu örnek avlağında yaban domuzu envanteri. Turkish Journal of Forestry, 12(1), 7-12.
  • Oruç, M.S., Mert, A., Özdemir, İ., 2017. Eskişehir Çatacık Yöresinde, Çevresel Değişkenler Kullanılarak Kızılgeyik İçin (Cervus elaphus L.) Habitat Uygunluğunun Modellenmesi. Bilge International Journal of Science and Technology Research, 1 (2): 135- 142.
  • Özdemir, S., 2018. Random Forest Yöntemi kullanılarak potansiyel dağılım modellemesi ve haritalaması: Yukarıgökdere Yöresi örneği. Turkish Journal of Forestry, 19(1): 51-56.
  • Özdemir, S., Ulusan, M.D., 2018. Modelling Potential Distribution of Turkish Oregano (Origanum onites L.) using Random Forest Method in Ovacık Mountain District. International Conference on Science and Technology (September, 5-9), 147, Kosovo.
  • Özer, M. (2014). Büyük memeli av hayvanı sayım teknikleri ve ülkemizdeki populasyonlarının durumu. Ankara: TMMOB Orman Mühendisleri Odası Meslek Mensupluğu Hazırlama Eğitimi Ders Notları, 1-16.
  • Özkan, K., Negiz, M.G., Şentürk, Ö., Kandemir, H., 2012, Göller bölgesi'ndeki bazı önemli rekreasyon alanları ve onların ekolojik özellikleri, I. Rekreasyon Araştırmaları Kongresi 2012, Bildiri Kitabı, 12-15 Nisan 2012, 587-596,Detay Yayıncılık, Kemer-Antalya.
  • Phillips, S.J., Anderson, R.P., ve Schapire, R.E. (2006). Maximum entropy modeling of species geographic distributions. Ecological Modelling, 190(3), 231-259.Sarhangzadeh, J., Yavari, A. R., Hemami, M. R., Jafari, H. R., & Shams-Esfandabad, B. (2013). Habitat suitability modeling for wild goat (Capra aegagrus) in a mountainous arid area, central Iran. Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences, 11(1), 41-51.
  • Shannon, C.E. (1948). A mathematical theory of communication. The Bell System Technical Journal, 27, 379–423, 623–656.
  • Süel, H., 2014. Isparta-Sütçüler yöresinde av türlerinin habitat uygunluk modellemesi, SDÜ Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Doktora Tezi, 165 p., Isparta.
  • Suel, H., Senturk, Ö., Mert, A., Özdemir, S., Yalçınkaya, B. 2018. Habitat Suitability Modeling and Mapping, IMCOFE V. International Multidisciplinary Congress of Eurasia, 21 May 2018, Edt., Kahramanova, K., pp. 536,549, Barcelona, Spain.
  • Tekin, S., Yalçınkaya, B., Acarer, A., Mert, A., 2018. A research on usage possibilities of satellite data in wildlife: Modeling habitat suitability of Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.) with MaxEnt. Bilge International Journal of Science and Technology Research, 2 (2): 147-156.
  • Ünal, Y., Koca, A., Yelsiz, M. Ş., Bal, O. K. (2016). Wild Goat (Capra aegagrus Erxleben, 1777) population inventory in Turkey. Isparta Region Example (2008-2013). Caucasus Ecosystem: Past, Present and Future (80 years of Zoological Investigations of the Caucasus, International Scientific Conference, 23-24 November 2016. 564-569p. Baku.
  • URL, (2018). http://t24.com.tr/haber/2017-yilinda-kara-avciligi-kanununu-ihlalden-6-bin-912-kisiye-5-milyon-309-bin-lira-para-cezasi-kesildi,562543 adresinden 15.05.2018 tarihinde alınmıştır.
  • Willebrand, T. (2009). Promoting hunting tourism in north Sweden: opinions of local hunters. European journal of wildlife research, 55(3), 209.
  • Wisz, M.S., Hijmans, R., Li, J., Peterson, A.T., Graham, C., Guisan, A. (2008). Effects of sample size on the performance of species distribution models. Diversity and Distributions, 14(5), 763-773.
  • Wisz, M.S., Hijmans, R., Li, J., Peterson, A.T., Graham, C., Guisan, A. (2008). Effects of sample size on the performance of species distribution models. Diversity and Distributions, 14(5),763-773.). Implications of Landslide Typology and Predisposing Factor Combinations for Probabilistic Landslide Susceptibility Models: A Case Study in Lajedo Parish (Flores Island, Azores-Portugal). Geosciences, 8(5), doi:UNSP 153 10.3390/geosciences8050153.
  • Şenel, M., Bedi, Y., Usta M., (2016). 1/100:000 Ölçekli Jeoloji Haritaları Serisi Silifke P-28 Paftası Jeoloji Etütkleri Dairesi No:223 Ss.29 Maden Tetkik Ve Arama Genel Müdürlüğü, Ankara-Türkiye.
  • Taga, H., Zorlu, K., (2017). Dik Yamaçlardaki Kaya Düşme Tehlikesinin Değerlendirilmesi: Ermenek (Karaman, Türkiye). Hacettepe Üniversitesi Yerbilimleri Uygulama ve Araştırma Merkezi Bülteni, 2017, 38(2), 161-178.
  • Tekin, S., Çan, T. (2018). Effects of Landslide Sampling Strategies on the Prediction Skill of Landslide Susceptibility Modelings. Journal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing, 46(8), 1273-1283, doi:10.1007/s12524-018-0800-4.
  • Tekin, S., Çan, T., (2015a). Bulanık Mantık ve Yapay Sinir Aği Yöntemleri İle Heyelan Duyarllılık Değerlendirmesi, 68. Türkiye Jeoloji Kurultayı, Bildiri Özleri Kitabı, s. 112-114. Ankara.
  • Tekin, S., Çan, T., (2015b). “Ermenek Havzasının Yapay Sinir Ağları Yöntemi İle Heyelan Duyarlılık Değerlendirmesi”. Doğu Anadolu Jeoloji Sempozyumu 7-11 Eylül 2015, bildiri özleri kitabı, ss. 114-115. YYU-Van/Türkiye.
  • Tekin, S., Çan, T., Mazman, T., duman, T.Y., (2015), Doğu Akdeniz Bölgesinin Yapay Sinir Ağları Yöntemi ile Heyelan Duyarlılık Değerlendirmesi, MÜHJEO’2015: Ulusal Mühendislik Jeolojisi Sempozyumu, 3-5 Eylül 2015, KTÜ, Trabzon.
Primary Language en
Subjects Forestry
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Author: Halil SÜEL
Institution: ISPARTA UYGULAMALI BİLİMLER ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Country: Turkey


Author: Yasin ÜNAL
Institution: ISPARTA UYGULAMALI BİLİMLER ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Country: Turkey


Author: Serkan ÖZDEMİR
Institution: ISPARTA UYGULAMALI BİLİMLER ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Country: Turkey


Author: Ahmet KOCA
Institution: ISPARTA UYGULAMALI BİLİMLER ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Country: Turkey


Dates

Publication Date : March 30, 2019

APA Süel, H , Ünal, Y , Özdemir, S , Koca, A . (2019). Hunting Tourism Map of Wild Goat: Antalya District . Bilge International Journal of Science and Technology Research , 3 (1) , 77-86 . DOI: 10.30516/bilgesci.536101