Infectious animal diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms such as bacteria and viruses threaten the health and well-being of wildlife, livestock and human populations, limit productivity and causes significant economic losses for each. Avian oncogenic viruses are one of the most dangerous pathogenic microorganisms that threaten the poultry industry and cause damage of over billions dollars annually worldwide. These viruses include a highly contagious herpesvirus Marek’s disease virus (MDV), as well as retroviruses such as avian leukosis virus (ALV) and reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV). Each group is distinguished by its nucleic acid type, antigenicity, epidemiology, host range and molecular characteristics. These viruses are cells associated with tumors and are in all organs except in the feather follicle where enveloped infectious virions egress from the body. It is difficult to detect diseases caused by these viruses and at the same time, vaccines that can provide sterile immunity against these diseases and prevent infection are incomplete. In order to be able to fight oncogenic viruses more effectively in the future, it is vital to learn more about the host immunity-oncovirus interaction and to determine powerful diagnostic techniques. In this review, oncogenic viruses and effective diagnostic techniques for these viruses are emphasized in poultry.
Avian oncogenic viruses, Molecular diagnosis, Marek’s disease virus, Avian leukosis virus, Reticuloendotheliosis virus