Research Article
PDF EndNote BibTex RIS Cite

Türklerin Etnik Kökenleri, Anadolu’nun “Türk”leşmesi ve Türk Ulusal Kimliğinin Oluşumu

Year 2014, Volume 11, Issue 1, 41 - 63, 01.05.2014

Abstract

Bu makale Türklerin etnik kökenlerini, iç Asya steplerinden başlayıp Anadolu yarımadasında sona eren ve tarih öncesi çağlardan günümüze kadar devam eden süreçte incelemektedir. Bu uzun süreç boyunca Türkik halklar ile diğer halklar arasında devam eden yoğun etnik alışveriş ve tek bir etnik, “ırk” ve kültüre indirgenemeyecek olan Türk etnik aidiyeti ve Türk Milletinin oluşumu araştırılmıştır. Türkiye Cum- huriyeti ile Orta Asya Cumhuriyetleri halkları arasında var olan ve köklerini her iki bölge arasındaki 550 yıl süren ilişki yokluğundan, komşu halklar ve uzun süren göçler sonucu yerleşilen coğrafyaların yerli halkları ile süren yoğun etnik karışım sonucu oluşan etnik, kültürel, antropolojik ve linguistik farklılıklar da incelenmiştir

References

  • Adl›, Ayfle, Ulus Devlete Göç. Aksiyon 998, (2014). Altay Grubu Diller, eriflim adresi: http://www.etnologue.com/subgroups/altaic, 1 Eylül 2014. Aray, Osman, The New Independent States of Inner Asia and Turkey’s Policy (Tokyo: Nira, 1999), ss.34-35. Akda¤, Mustafa, Celali ‹syanlar› (Ankara: Medya Takip Merkezi, 1963), ss.250-254. Avc›o¤lu, Do¤an, Türklerin Tarihi, (‹stanbul: Tekin,1978). Barkan, Ömer Lütfi, Türkiye’de Din ve Devlet (Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu, 1975). Barthold, Vasily Vladimirovich, Four Studies on the History of Central Asia (Netherlands: Leiden, 1944). Bell, Mark, Racism and Equality in the European Union (New York: Oxford University Press, 2009). Berktay, Halil, Osmanl› Devletinin Yükselifline Kadar Türklerin ‹ktisadi ve Sosyal Tarihi, Sina Akflin (der.), (‹stanbul: Cem, 1995). Brass, Paul, Ethnicity and Nationalism (New Delhi: Sage,1991). Cahen, Claude Osmanl›lardan Önce Anadolu’da Türkler (‹stanbul: E yay›nlar›, 1984). Central Intelligence Agency, World Fact Book, People and Society, Turkey, eriflim adresi: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/tu.html, 14 Haziran 2014 Cinnio¤lu, Cengiz, Roy King, Thomas Kivisild, Ersi Kalfao¤lu, Sevil Atasoy, Gianpiero L. Cavalieri, Anita S. Lillie, Charles c. Roseman, Alice A. Lin, Kristina Prince, Peter J. Oefner, Peidong Shen, Ornella Semino, L. Luca Cavalli-Sforza, Peter A. Underhill “Excavating Y-Chromozome Haplotype Strata in Anatolia” Human Genetics, 114/2,(2004). Çeçen, An›l, Türk Devletleri (‹stanbul: ‹nk›lâp, 1986). Di Benedetto, Giulietta, Ayfle Ergüven, Michele Stenico, Loredano Castri, Giorgio Bertorelle, ‹nci Togan, Guido Barbujani, “DNA Diversity and Population Admixture in Anatolia,” American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 115, ss.44-150. Hambaryan, Azat S., Aghayan Tsatur, (eds.), Hay Zhoghovrdi Patmut’yun [Ermeni Halk›n›n Tarihi] (Erivan: Ermenistan Bilimler Akademisi, 1981), eriflim adresi: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Armenian_Genocide. ‹nalc›k, Halil, Osmanl› ‹mparatorlu¤unun Ekonomik ve Sosyal Tarihi (‹stanbul: Eren, 2000). Grousset, Rene, The Empire of the Steppes (Cambridge: Rutgers University, 1970). Golden, Peter, “Some Thoughts on the Origins of the Turks and the Shaping of the Turkic Peoples,” Victor H. Mair (der.), Contact and Change in the Ancient World (Honolulu: University of Hawaii, 2006). Güvenç, Bozkurt, Türk Kimli¤i (Ankara: Kültür Bakanl›¤›, 1995), s.125. Mutlu, Servet, “Late Ottoman Population and Its Ethnic Distribution,” Turkish Journal of Population Studies, 25 (2003). Fisher, Alan, The Crimean Tatars (California: Hoover Institute Press, 1978). Kafeso¤lu, ‹brahim, Türk Milli Kültürü (‹stanbul: Ayd›nlar Oca¤›, 1983). Karafet, Tatiana M., Fernando L. Mendez, Monica B. Meilerman, Peter A. Underhill, Stephen L. Zegura, Michael F. Hammer, “New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and ‹ncrease Resolution of The Human Y chromosomal Haplogroup Tree,” Genome Research 18/5, (2008). Karpat, Kemal, Osmanl› Nüfusu 1830-1914, Demografik ve Sosyal Özellikleri (‹stanbul: Tarih Vakf› Yurt Yay›nlar›, 2003). Kunt, Metin, “Siyasal Tarih 1300-1600,” Sina Akflin (der.), Türkiye Tarihi Osmanl› Devleti (‹stanbul: Cem, 1995). Matley, Ian Murray, Population and the Land in Central Asia: A Historical Overview, Edward Alworth (der.), (London: Duke University Press, 1994). Mergen, Hatice, Reyhan Öner, Cihan Öner “DNA Sequence Variation in the Anatolian Penissula,” Journal of Genetics, 1/1, (2009), ss.39-47. Mc Govern, William Montgomery, The Early Empires of Central Asia (New York: University of North California Press, 1965). Mutlu, Servet, “Late Ottoman Population and Its Ethnic Distribution,” Türkiye Nüfusbilim Dergisi, 2003, 25, ss.3-38. Noyak, Annop, “After Race: Ethnograply, Race and Post-Race Theory” Ethnic and Racial Studies, 29/3, (2006), ss.411-430. Okladnikov, Alexey, “Inner Asia in the Down of the History,” Denis Sinor (der.), The Cambridge History of Early Inner Asia, (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990). Özkan, ‹zgi “Central Asia After the Mongol Invasion – Islam and Sedentary Life as a Consequence” Bülent Ar› ve Selim Aslantafl (der.), Osmanl›lardan Önce Anadolu’da Türkler (Ankara: Milli E¤itim Bakanl›¤›, 2006). Özbek, Metin, ‹nsan ve Irk (‹stanbul: Remzi, 1973). Renfrew, Colin, The Puzzle of Indo-European Origins (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1988). Smith, Anthony, State Making and Nation Building [derleyen John A.Hall] (Oxford: Basil Blackvell, 1986). Smith, Anthony, The Nation in History (Israel: Brandeis University, 2000). Tekin, Talat ve Mehmet Ölmez, Türk Dilleri (Ankara: T.C. Kültür Bakanl›¤›, 1995). T-24 Haber Sitesi; 15 fiubat 2014. Tracqui, Christine Keyser, Eric Crubezy, Bertrand Ludes, “Nuclear and Mitocondrial DNA Analysis of a 2000 Year Old Necropolis in the Eygin- Gol Valley of Mongolia,” American Journal of Human Genetics, 73, ss.247-260. Toledano, Eduard, Osmanl› Köle Ticareti, 1840-1890 (‹stanbul: Tarih Vakf› Yurt Yay›nlar›, 1994). TU‹K “Statistical Indicators 1923-1990,” D‹E, Ankara, 1995, s.5. Verdansky, George The Mongols and Russia (London: Yale University Press, 1953). Vryonis, Speros The Decline of Medieval Hellenism in Asia Minor and the Process of Islamization From the Eleventh Century (Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1971). Yinanç, Mükrimin Halil, Türkiye Tarihi Selçuklu Dönemi 1; Anadolu’nun Fethi (‹stanbul: ‹stanbul Üniver- sitesi. Yay›nlar›, 1944). Yuval›, Abdülkadir “Turkification of Anatolia and the Mongols,” Bülent Ar› ve Selim Aslantafl (der.), Osmanl›lardan Önce Türkler (Ankara, Milli E¤itim Bakanl›¤›, 2006).

Year 2014, Volume 11, Issue 1, 41 - 63, 01.05.2014

Abstract

This article analyzes the ethnic origins of the Turkic people from pre-historic times to the modern era, and from the steppes of Inner Asia to the Anatolian Peninsula in close connection with the formation of Turkish nationalist ideology and the process of nation building. Intensive ethnic exchanges between the Turks and other people which took place during this long journey, and the formation of Turkish ethnic identity and the Turkish Nation, which can not be based on a single ethnicity, race or culture is explored. The ethnic and cultural differences between Turkey and the Central Asian republics, due to the lack of contact which lasted for 550 years, are also presented 

References

  • Adl›, Ayfle, Ulus Devlete Göç. Aksiyon 998, (2014). Altay Grubu Diller, eriflim adresi: http://www.etnologue.com/subgroups/altaic, 1 Eylül 2014. Aray, Osman, The New Independent States of Inner Asia and Turkey’s Policy (Tokyo: Nira, 1999), ss.34-35. Akda¤, Mustafa, Celali ‹syanlar› (Ankara: Medya Takip Merkezi, 1963), ss.250-254. Avc›o¤lu, Do¤an, Türklerin Tarihi, (‹stanbul: Tekin,1978). Barkan, Ömer Lütfi, Türkiye’de Din ve Devlet (Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu, 1975). Barthold, Vasily Vladimirovich, Four Studies on the History of Central Asia (Netherlands: Leiden, 1944). Bell, Mark, Racism and Equality in the European Union (New York: Oxford University Press, 2009). Berktay, Halil, Osmanl› Devletinin Yükselifline Kadar Türklerin ‹ktisadi ve Sosyal Tarihi, Sina Akflin (der.), (‹stanbul: Cem, 1995). Brass, Paul, Ethnicity and Nationalism (New Delhi: Sage,1991). Cahen, Claude Osmanl›lardan Önce Anadolu’da Türkler (‹stanbul: E yay›nlar›, 1984). Central Intelligence Agency, World Fact Book, People and Society, Turkey, eriflim adresi: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/tu.html, 14 Haziran 2014 Cinnio¤lu, Cengiz, Roy King, Thomas Kivisild, Ersi Kalfao¤lu, Sevil Atasoy, Gianpiero L. Cavalieri, Anita S. Lillie, Charles c. Roseman, Alice A. Lin, Kristina Prince, Peter J. Oefner, Peidong Shen, Ornella Semino, L. Luca Cavalli-Sforza, Peter A. Underhill “Excavating Y-Chromozome Haplotype Strata in Anatolia” Human Genetics, 114/2,(2004). Çeçen, An›l, Türk Devletleri (‹stanbul: ‹nk›lâp, 1986). Di Benedetto, Giulietta, Ayfle Ergüven, Michele Stenico, Loredano Castri, Giorgio Bertorelle, ‹nci Togan, Guido Barbujani, “DNA Diversity and Population Admixture in Anatolia,” American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 115, ss.44-150. Hambaryan, Azat S., Aghayan Tsatur, (eds.), Hay Zhoghovrdi Patmut’yun [Ermeni Halk›n›n Tarihi] (Erivan: Ermenistan Bilimler Akademisi, 1981), eriflim adresi: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Armenian_Genocide. ‹nalc›k, Halil, Osmanl› ‹mparatorlu¤unun Ekonomik ve Sosyal Tarihi (‹stanbul: Eren, 2000). Grousset, Rene, The Empire of the Steppes (Cambridge: Rutgers University, 1970). Golden, Peter, “Some Thoughts on the Origins of the Turks and the Shaping of the Turkic Peoples,” Victor H. Mair (der.), Contact and Change in the Ancient World (Honolulu: University of Hawaii, 2006). Güvenç, Bozkurt, Türk Kimli¤i (Ankara: Kültür Bakanl›¤›, 1995), s.125. Mutlu, Servet, “Late Ottoman Population and Its Ethnic Distribution,” Turkish Journal of Population Studies, 25 (2003). Fisher, Alan, The Crimean Tatars (California: Hoover Institute Press, 1978). Kafeso¤lu, ‹brahim, Türk Milli Kültürü (‹stanbul: Ayd›nlar Oca¤›, 1983). Karafet, Tatiana M., Fernando L. Mendez, Monica B. Meilerman, Peter A. Underhill, Stephen L. Zegura, Michael F. Hammer, “New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and ‹ncrease Resolution of The Human Y chromosomal Haplogroup Tree,” Genome Research 18/5, (2008). Karpat, Kemal, Osmanl› Nüfusu 1830-1914, Demografik ve Sosyal Özellikleri (‹stanbul: Tarih Vakf› Yurt Yay›nlar›, 2003). Kunt, Metin, “Siyasal Tarih 1300-1600,” Sina Akflin (der.), Türkiye Tarihi Osmanl› Devleti (‹stanbul: Cem, 1995). Matley, Ian Murray, Population and the Land in Central Asia: A Historical Overview, Edward Alworth (der.), (London: Duke University Press, 1994). Mergen, Hatice, Reyhan Öner, Cihan Öner “DNA Sequence Variation in the Anatolian Penissula,” Journal of Genetics, 1/1, (2009), ss.39-47. Mc Govern, William Montgomery, The Early Empires of Central Asia (New York: University of North California Press, 1965). Mutlu, Servet, “Late Ottoman Population and Its Ethnic Distribution,” Türkiye Nüfusbilim Dergisi, 2003, 25, ss.3-38. Noyak, Annop, “After Race: Ethnograply, Race and Post-Race Theory” Ethnic and Racial Studies, 29/3, (2006), ss.411-430. Okladnikov, Alexey, “Inner Asia in the Down of the History,” Denis Sinor (der.), The Cambridge History of Early Inner Asia, (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990). Özkan, ‹zgi “Central Asia After the Mongol Invasion – Islam and Sedentary Life as a Consequence” Bülent Ar› ve Selim Aslantafl (der.), Osmanl›lardan Önce Anadolu’da Türkler (Ankara: Milli E¤itim Bakanl›¤›, 2006). Özbek, Metin, ‹nsan ve Irk (‹stanbul: Remzi, 1973). Renfrew, Colin, The Puzzle of Indo-European Origins (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1988). Smith, Anthony, State Making and Nation Building [derleyen John A.Hall] (Oxford: Basil Blackvell, 1986). Smith, Anthony, The Nation in History (Israel: Brandeis University, 2000). Tekin, Talat ve Mehmet Ölmez, Türk Dilleri (Ankara: T.C. Kültür Bakanl›¤›, 1995). T-24 Haber Sitesi; 15 fiubat 2014. Tracqui, Christine Keyser, Eric Crubezy, Bertrand Ludes, “Nuclear and Mitocondrial DNA Analysis of a 2000 Year Old Necropolis in the Eygin- Gol Valley of Mongolia,” American Journal of Human Genetics, 73, ss.247-260. Toledano, Eduard, Osmanl› Köle Ticareti, 1840-1890 (‹stanbul: Tarih Vakf› Yurt Yay›nlar›, 1994). TU‹K “Statistical Indicators 1923-1990,” D‹E, Ankara, 1995, s.5. Verdansky, George The Mongols and Russia (London: Yale University Press, 1953). Vryonis, Speros The Decline of Medieval Hellenism in Asia Minor and the Process of Islamization From the Eleventh Century (Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1971). Yinanç, Mükrimin Halil, Türkiye Tarihi Selçuklu Dönemi 1; Anadolu’nun Fethi (‹stanbul: ‹stanbul Üniver- sitesi. Yay›nlar›, 1944). Yuval›, Abdülkadir “Turkification of Anatolia and the Mongols,” Bülent Ar› ve Selim Aslantafl (der.), Osmanl›lardan Önce Türkler (Ankara, Milli E¤itim Bakanl›¤›, 2006).

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Osman ARAY This is me (Primary Author)
ÇANKAYA ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Türkiye

Publication Date May 1, 2014
Published in Issue Year 2014, Volume 11, Issue 1

Cite

APA Aray, O. (2014). Türklerin Etnik Kökenleri, Anadolu’nun “Türk”leşmesi ve Türk Ulusal Kimliğinin Oluşumu . Cankaya University Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences , 11 (1) , 41-63 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/cankujhss/issue/44412/551206


Çankaya University Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences
Çankaya Üniversitesi ISSN 1309-6761 Printed in Ankara
cujhss.cankaya.edu.tr