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Evaluation of Water-in-Diesel Emulsion Fuel in Compression Ignition Engines: Effects, Advantages, and Drawbacks

Year 2022, Volume: 1 Issue: 3, 8 - 14, 30.09.2022

Abstract

The reduction of pollutants released from diesel engines is one of the major challenges that scientists are trying to overcome. There are some emission control techniques that are developed for this purpose. The utilization of Water-in-Diesel Emulsion (WiDE) fuel is an efficient method for emission reduction with no need to any additional engine modification. Especially, simultaneous reduction effect on nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions is the most remarkable side of WiDE. Another important phenomenon that emerged when WiDE combustion is micro-explosion which causes to improvement on combustion efficiency. In this study, diesel-water emulsion fuels, their effects on diesel engine performance and emissions, advantages and disadvantages are reviewed and revealed.

References

  • [1] Bello, Y.H., Ookawara, S.A., Ahmed, M.A., El-Khouly, M.A., Elmehasseb, I.M., El-Shafai, N.M., et al., (2020). Investigating the engine performance, emissions and soot characteristics of CI engine fueled with diesel fuel loaded with graphene oxide-titanium dioxide nanocomposites. Fuel. 269(January): 117436. doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2020.117436.
  • [2] Mohamed Y. E. Selim., Mamdouh T. Ghannam., Adel M. M. Hussein., (2015). Physical-Chemical Properties of Water-in-Diesel Fuel Emulsions. International Journal of Petroleum Technology. 2(2): 45–52. doi: 10.15377/2409-787x.2015.02.02.2.
  • [3] Basha, J.S., Anand, R.B., (2011). An experimental study in a CI engine using nanoadditive blended water-diesel emulsion fuel. International Journal of Green Energy. 8(3): 332–48. doi: 10.1080/15435075.2011.557844.
  • [4] Reşitoʇlu, I.A., Altinişik, K., Keskin, A., (2015). The pollutant emissions from diesel-engine vehicles and exhaust aftertreatment systems. Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy. 17(1): 15–27. doi: 10.1007/s10098-014-0793-9.
  • [5] Ogunkunle, O., Ahmed, N.A., (2021). Overview of Biodiesel Combustion in Mitigating the Adverse Impacts of Engine Emis-sions on the Sustainable Human–Environment Scenario. Sustainability. 13(10): 5465. doi: 10.3390/su13105465.
  • [6] Kim, M.K., Park, D., Kim, M., Heo, J., Park, S., Chong, H., (2021). The characteristics and distribution of chemical compo-nents in particulate matter emissions from diesel locomotives. Atmosphere. 12(1): 1–17. doi: 10.3390/atmos12010070.
  • [7] Serrano, J., Jiménez-Espadafor, F.J., Lora, A., Modesto-López, L., Gañán-Calvo, A., López-Serrano, J., (2019). Experimental analysis of NOx reduction through water addition and comparison with exhaust gas recycling. Energy. 168(x): 737–52. doi: 10.1016/j.energy.2018.11.136.
  • [8] Chen, Z., Wang, L., Wang, X., Chen, H., Geng, L., Gao, N., (2022). Experimental study on the effect of water port injection on the combustion and emission characteristics of diesel/methane dual-fuel engines. Fuel. 312(December 2021): 122950. doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2021.122950.
  • [9] Vellaiyan, S., Amirthagadeswaran, K.S., Vijayakumar, S., (2017). Combustion of stable water-in-diesel emulsion fuel and per-formance assessment. Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization and Environmental Effects. 39(5): 505–13. doi: 10.1080/15567036.2016.1233304.
  • [10] Sartomo, A., Santoso, B., Muraza, O., (2020). Recent progress on mixing technology for water-emulsion fuel: A review. Energy Conversion and Management. 213(February): 112817. doi: 10.1016/j.enconman.2020.112817.
  • [11] Kegl, B., Lesnik, L., (2019). Influence of Water/Diesel Emulsified Fuel on Diesel Engine Characteristics. Thermal Science. 23: 1745–55.
  • [12] Rajammagari, H.V., Mohmad, M.W., (2020). The effect of mixed nanoadditive‐blended diesel–water emulsion on the perfor-mance, combustion, and emission characteristics of a DI diesel engine. Heat Transfer. 49(6): 3531–48. doi: 10.1002/htj.21786.
  • [13] Hossain, A.K., Refahtalab, P., Omran, A., Smith, D.I., Davies, P.A., (2020). An experimental study on performance and emis-sion characteristics of an IDI diesel engine operating with neat oil-diesel blend emulsion. Renewable Energy. 146: 1041–50. doi: 10.1016/j.renene.2019.06.162.
  • [14] Hoseini, S.S., Sobati, M.A., (2019). Performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine operating on different water in diesel emulsion fuels: optimization using response surface methodology (RSM). Frontiers in Energy. 13(4): 636–57. doi: 10.1007/s11708-019-0646-7.
  • [15] Raheman, H., Kumari, S., (2014). Combustion characteristics and emissions of a compression ignition engine using emulsified jatropha biodiesel blend. Biosystems Engineering. 123(x): 29–39. doi: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2014.05.001.
  • [16] Ithnin, A.M., Noge, H., Kadir, H.A., Jazair, W., (2014). An overview of utilizing water-in-diesel emulsion fuel in diesel engine and its potential research study. Journal of the Energy Institute. 87(4): 273–88. doi: 10.1016/j.joei.2014.04.002.
  • [17] Vellaiyan, S., Amirthagadeswaran, K.S., (2016). The role of water-in-diesel emulsion and its additives on diesel engine perfor-mance and emission levels: A retrospective review. Alexandria Engineering Journal. 55(3): 2463–72. doi: 10.1016/j.aej.2016.07.021.
  • [18] Attar, A., Waghmare, J., Mane, S., (2022). Water in diesel emulsion fuel: production, properties, performance, and exhaust emission analysis. International Journal of Energy and Environmental Engineering. 13(2): 729–38. doi: 10.1007/s40095-021-00459-0.
  • [19] Woo, S., Kim, W., Lee, J., Lee, K., (2021). Fuel properties of water emulsion fuel prepared using porous membrane method for low pollutant engine at various temperatures. Energy Reports. 7: 6638–50. doi: 10.1016/j.egyr.2021.09.082.
  • [20] Syed Masharuddin, S.M., Abdul Karim, Z.A., Meor Said, M.A., Amran, N.H., Ismael, M.A., (2022). The evolution of a single droplet water-in-palm oil derived biodiesel emulsion leading to micro-explosion. Alexandria Engineering Journal. 61(1): 541–7. doi: 10.1016/j.aej.2021.06.043.
  • [21] Park, S., Woo, S., Kim, H., Lee, K., (2016). Effect of Diesel-Water Emulsified Fuel on the NOx and PM Emissions of a Diesel Engine. Energy and Fuels. 30(7): 6070–9. doi: 10.1021/acs.energyfuels.6b00089.
  • [22] Lif, A., Holmberg, K., (2006). Water-in-diesel emulsions and related systems. Advances in Colloid and Interface Science. 123–126(SPEC. ISS.): 231–9. doi: 10.1016/j.cis.2006.05.004.
  • [23] Maiboom, A., Tauzia, X., (2011). NOx and PM emissions reduction on an automotive HSDI Diesel engine with water-in-diesel emulsion and EGR: An experimental study. Fuel. 90(11): 3179–92. doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2011.06.014.
  • [24] Jhalani, A., Sharma, D., Soni, S.L., Sharma, P.K., (2019). Effects of process parameters on performance and emissions of a water-emulsified diesel-fueled compression ignition engine. Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization and Environmental Effects. 00(00): 1–13. doi: 10.1080/15567036.2019.1669739.
  • [25] Yahaya Khan, M., Abdul Karim, Z.A., Hagos, F.Y., Aziz, A.R.A., Tan, I.M., (2014). Current trends in water-in-diesel emulsion as a fuel. The Scientific World Journal. 2014. doi: 10.1155/2014/527472.
  • [26] Hasannuddin, A.K., Wira, J.Y., Sarah, S., Ahmad, M.I., Aizam, S.A., Aiman, M.A.B., et al., (2016). Durability studies of single cylinder diesel engine running on emulsion fuel. Energy. 94(x): 557–68. doi: 10.1016/j.energy.2015.10.144.
  • [27] Kruczyński, P., Orliński, P., Kamela, W., Ślęzak, M., (2018). Analysis of selected toxic components in the exhaust gases of a CI engine supplied with water-fuel emulsion. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies. 27(1): 129–36. doi: 10.15244/pjoes/74689.
  • [28] Kumar, N., Raheman, H., Machavaram, R., (2019). Performance of a diesel engine with water emulsified diesel prepared with optimized process parameters. International Journal of Green Energy. 16(9): 687–701. doi: 10.1080/15435075.2019.1618309.
  • [29] Bidita, B.S., Aien, N., Suraya, A.R., Mohd Salleh, M.A., Idris, A., (2014). Effect of Experimental Variables on the Combustion Characteristics of Water-in-Diesel Emulsion Fuels. Journal of Dispersion Science and Technology. 35(2): 185–92. doi: 10.1080/01932691.2013.780241.
  • [30] Abu-Zaid, M., (2004). Performance of single cylinder, direct injection Diesel engine using water fuel emulsions. Energy Conver-sion and Management. 45(5): 697–705. doi: 10.1016/S0196-8904(03)00179-1.
  • [31] Abdurahman, N.H., Rosli, Y.M., Azhari, N.H., Abdul Adam, A., (2016). The Potential of a Water-in-Diesel Emulsion for Increased Engine Performance and as an Environmentally Friendly Fuel. MATEC Web of Conferences. 70(x). doi: 10.1051/matecconf/20167001003.
  • [32] Hoseini, S.S., Sobati, M.A., (2021). Assessment of the performance and exhaust emission of a diesel engine using Water Emul-sion Fuel (WEF) in different engine speed and load conditions. Journal of Renewable Energy and Environment. 18(1): 58–68. doi: 10.30501/JREE.2020.233709.1115.
  • [33] Seifi, M.R., Hassan-Beygi, S.R., Ghobadian, B., Desideri, U., Antonelli, M., (2016). Experimental investigation of a diesel en-gine power, torque and noise emission using water-diesel emulsions. Fuel. 166: 392–9. doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2015.10.122.
  • [34] Alahmer, A., (2013). Influence of using emulsified diesel fuel on the performance and pollutants emitted from diesel engine. Energy Conversion and Management. 73(x): 361–9. doi: 10.1016/j.enconman.2013.05.012.
  • [35] Dhahad, H.A., Chaichan, M.T., Megaritis, T., (2019). Performance, regulated and unregulated exhaust emission of a stationary compression ignition engine fueled by water-ULSD emulsion. Energy. 181: 1036–50. doi: 10.1016/j.energy.2019.05.200.
  • [36] Vellaiyan, S., Amirthagadeswaran, K.S., (2016). Influence of Water-in-Diesel Emulsion Fuel and Compression Ratio on Com-bustion, Performance and Emission Characteristics of Diesel Engine. Journal of Sustainable Energy Engineering. 3(3): 238–53. doi: 10.7569/jsee.2015.629515.
  • [37] Ithnin, A.M., Yahya, W.J., Ahmad, M.A., Ramlan, N.A., Abdul Kadir, H., Sidik, N.A.C., et al., (2018). Emulsifier-free Water-in-Diesel emulsion fuel: Its stability behaviour, engine performance and exhaust emission. Fuel. 215(May 2017): 454–62. doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2017.11.061.
  • [38] Wahhab, H.A.A., Mashkour, M.A., Madodi, S.A., (2020). Investigation of water-diesel emulsion characteristics using optical technique. Journal of Applied Fluid Mechanics. 13(1): 349–55. doi: 10.29252/jafm.13.01.30133.
  • [39] Attia, A.M.A., Kulchitskiy, A.R., (2014). Influence of the structure of water-in-fuel emulsion on diesel engine performance. Fuel. 116: 703–8. doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2013.08.057.
  • [40] Nazha, M.A.A., Rajakaruna, H., Wagstaff, S.A., (2001). The use of emulsion, water induction and EGR for controlling diesel engine emissions. SAE Technical Papers. (724). doi: 10.4271/2001-01-1941.
  • [41] Mondal, P.K., Mandal, B.K., (2019). A comprehensive review on the feasibility of using water emulsified diesel as a CI engine fuel. Fuel. 237(October 2018): 937–60. doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2018.10.076.
  • [42] Hassan, Z.U., Usman, M., Asim, M., Kazim, A.H., Farooq, M., Umair, M., et al., (2021). Use of diesel and emulsified diesel in CI engine: A comparative analysis of engine characteristics. Science Progress. 104(2): 1–19. doi: 10.1177/00368504211020930.

Year 2022, Volume: 1 Issue: 3, 8 - 14, 30.09.2022

Abstract

References

  • [1] Bello, Y.H., Ookawara, S.A., Ahmed, M.A., El-Khouly, M.A., Elmehasseb, I.M., El-Shafai, N.M., et al., (2020). Investigating the engine performance, emissions and soot characteristics of CI engine fueled with diesel fuel loaded with graphene oxide-titanium dioxide nanocomposites. Fuel. 269(January): 117436. doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2020.117436.
  • [2] Mohamed Y. E. Selim., Mamdouh T. Ghannam., Adel M. M. Hussein., (2015). Physical-Chemical Properties of Water-in-Diesel Fuel Emulsions. International Journal of Petroleum Technology. 2(2): 45–52. doi: 10.15377/2409-787x.2015.02.02.2.
  • [3] Basha, J.S., Anand, R.B., (2011). An experimental study in a CI engine using nanoadditive blended water-diesel emulsion fuel. International Journal of Green Energy. 8(3): 332–48. doi: 10.1080/15435075.2011.557844.
  • [4] Reşitoʇlu, I.A., Altinişik, K., Keskin, A., (2015). The pollutant emissions from diesel-engine vehicles and exhaust aftertreatment systems. Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy. 17(1): 15–27. doi: 10.1007/s10098-014-0793-9.
  • [5] Ogunkunle, O., Ahmed, N.A., (2021). Overview of Biodiesel Combustion in Mitigating the Adverse Impacts of Engine Emis-sions on the Sustainable Human–Environment Scenario. Sustainability. 13(10): 5465. doi: 10.3390/su13105465.
  • [6] Kim, M.K., Park, D., Kim, M., Heo, J., Park, S., Chong, H., (2021). The characteristics and distribution of chemical compo-nents in particulate matter emissions from diesel locomotives. Atmosphere. 12(1): 1–17. doi: 10.3390/atmos12010070.
  • [7] Serrano, J., Jiménez-Espadafor, F.J., Lora, A., Modesto-López, L., Gañán-Calvo, A., López-Serrano, J., (2019). Experimental analysis of NOx reduction through water addition and comparison with exhaust gas recycling. Energy. 168(x): 737–52. doi: 10.1016/j.energy.2018.11.136.
  • [8] Chen, Z., Wang, L., Wang, X., Chen, H., Geng, L., Gao, N., (2022). Experimental study on the effect of water port injection on the combustion and emission characteristics of diesel/methane dual-fuel engines. Fuel. 312(December 2021): 122950. doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2021.122950.
  • [9] Vellaiyan, S., Amirthagadeswaran, K.S., Vijayakumar, S., (2017). Combustion of stable water-in-diesel emulsion fuel and per-formance assessment. Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization and Environmental Effects. 39(5): 505–13. doi: 10.1080/15567036.2016.1233304.
  • [10] Sartomo, A., Santoso, B., Muraza, O., (2020). Recent progress on mixing technology for water-emulsion fuel: A review. Energy Conversion and Management. 213(February): 112817. doi: 10.1016/j.enconman.2020.112817.
  • [11] Kegl, B., Lesnik, L., (2019). Influence of Water/Diesel Emulsified Fuel on Diesel Engine Characteristics. Thermal Science. 23: 1745–55.
  • [12] Rajammagari, H.V., Mohmad, M.W., (2020). The effect of mixed nanoadditive‐blended diesel–water emulsion on the perfor-mance, combustion, and emission characteristics of a DI diesel engine. Heat Transfer. 49(6): 3531–48. doi: 10.1002/htj.21786.
  • [13] Hossain, A.K., Refahtalab, P., Omran, A., Smith, D.I., Davies, P.A., (2020). An experimental study on performance and emis-sion characteristics of an IDI diesel engine operating with neat oil-diesel blend emulsion. Renewable Energy. 146: 1041–50. doi: 10.1016/j.renene.2019.06.162.
  • [14] Hoseini, S.S., Sobati, M.A., (2019). Performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine operating on different water in diesel emulsion fuels: optimization using response surface methodology (RSM). Frontiers in Energy. 13(4): 636–57. doi: 10.1007/s11708-019-0646-7.
  • [15] Raheman, H., Kumari, S., (2014). Combustion characteristics and emissions of a compression ignition engine using emulsified jatropha biodiesel blend. Biosystems Engineering. 123(x): 29–39. doi: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2014.05.001.
  • [16] Ithnin, A.M., Noge, H., Kadir, H.A., Jazair, W., (2014). An overview of utilizing water-in-diesel emulsion fuel in diesel engine and its potential research study. Journal of the Energy Institute. 87(4): 273–88. doi: 10.1016/j.joei.2014.04.002.
  • [17] Vellaiyan, S., Amirthagadeswaran, K.S., (2016). The role of water-in-diesel emulsion and its additives on diesel engine perfor-mance and emission levels: A retrospective review. Alexandria Engineering Journal. 55(3): 2463–72. doi: 10.1016/j.aej.2016.07.021.
  • [18] Attar, A., Waghmare, J., Mane, S., (2022). Water in diesel emulsion fuel: production, properties, performance, and exhaust emission analysis. International Journal of Energy and Environmental Engineering. 13(2): 729–38. doi: 10.1007/s40095-021-00459-0.
  • [19] Woo, S., Kim, W., Lee, J., Lee, K., (2021). Fuel properties of water emulsion fuel prepared using porous membrane method for low pollutant engine at various temperatures. Energy Reports. 7: 6638–50. doi: 10.1016/j.egyr.2021.09.082.
  • [20] Syed Masharuddin, S.M., Abdul Karim, Z.A., Meor Said, M.A., Amran, N.H., Ismael, M.A., (2022). The evolution of a single droplet water-in-palm oil derived biodiesel emulsion leading to micro-explosion. Alexandria Engineering Journal. 61(1): 541–7. doi: 10.1016/j.aej.2021.06.043.
  • [21] Park, S., Woo, S., Kim, H., Lee, K., (2016). Effect of Diesel-Water Emulsified Fuel on the NOx and PM Emissions of a Diesel Engine. Energy and Fuels. 30(7): 6070–9. doi: 10.1021/acs.energyfuels.6b00089.
  • [22] Lif, A., Holmberg, K., (2006). Water-in-diesel emulsions and related systems. Advances in Colloid and Interface Science. 123–126(SPEC. ISS.): 231–9. doi: 10.1016/j.cis.2006.05.004.
  • [23] Maiboom, A., Tauzia, X., (2011). NOx and PM emissions reduction on an automotive HSDI Diesel engine with water-in-diesel emulsion and EGR: An experimental study. Fuel. 90(11): 3179–92. doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2011.06.014.
  • [24] Jhalani, A., Sharma, D., Soni, S.L., Sharma, P.K., (2019). Effects of process parameters on performance and emissions of a water-emulsified diesel-fueled compression ignition engine. Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization and Environmental Effects. 00(00): 1–13. doi: 10.1080/15567036.2019.1669739.
  • [25] Yahaya Khan, M., Abdul Karim, Z.A., Hagos, F.Y., Aziz, A.R.A., Tan, I.M., (2014). Current trends in water-in-diesel emulsion as a fuel. The Scientific World Journal. 2014. doi: 10.1155/2014/527472.
  • [26] Hasannuddin, A.K., Wira, J.Y., Sarah, S., Ahmad, M.I., Aizam, S.A., Aiman, M.A.B., et al., (2016). Durability studies of single cylinder diesel engine running on emulsion fuel. Energy. 94(x): 557–68. doi: 10.1016/j.energy.2015.10.144.
  • [27] Kruczyński, P., Orliński, P., Kamela, W., Ślęzak, M., (2018). Analysis of selected toxic components in the exhaust gases of a CI engine supplied with water-fuel emulsion. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies. 27(1): 129–36. doi: 10.15244/pjoes/74689.
  • [28] Kumar, N., Raheman, H., Machavaram, R., (2019). Performance of a diesel engine with water emulsified diesel prepared with optimized process parameters. International Journal of Green Energy. 16(9): 687–701. doi: 10.1080/15435075.2019.1618309.
  • [29] Bidita, B.S., Aien, N., Suraya, A.R., Mohd Salleh, M.A., Idris, A., (2014). Effect of Experimental Variables on the Combustion Characteristics of Water-in-Diesel Emulsion Fuels. Journal of Dispersion Science and Technology. 35(2): 185–92. doi: 10.1080/01932691.2013.780241.
  • [30] Abu-Zaid, M., (2004). Performance of single cylinder, direct injection Diesel engine using water fuel emulsions. Energy Conver-sion and Management. 45(5): 697–705. doi: 10.1016/S0196-8904(03)00179-1.
  • [31] Abdurahman, N.H., Rosli, Y.M., Azhari, N.H., Abdul Adam, A., (2016). The Potential of a Water-in-Diesel Emulsion for Increased Engine Performance and as an Environmentally Friendly Fuel. MATEC Web of Conferences. 70(x). doi: 10.1051/matecconf/20167001003.
  • [32] Hoseini, S.S., Sobati, M.A., (2021). Assessment of the performance and exhaust emission of a diesel engine using Water Emul-sion Fuel (WEF) in different engine speed and load conditions. Journal of Renewable Energy and Environment. 18(1): 58–68. doi: 10.30501/JREE.2020.233709.1115.
  • [33] Seifi, M.R., Hassan-Beygi, S.R., Ghobadian, B., Desideri, U., Antonelli, M., (2016). Experimental investigation of a diesel en-gine power, torque and noise emission using water-diesel emulsions. Fuel. 166: 392–9. doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2015.10.122.
  • [34] Alahmer, A., (2013). Influence of using emulsified diesel fuel on the performance and pollutants emitted from diesel engine. Energy Conversion and Management. 73(x): 361–9. doi: 10.1016/j.enconman.2013.05.012.
  • [35] Dhahad, H.A., Chaichan, M.T., Megaritis, T., (2019). Performance, regulated and unregulated exhaust emission of a stationary compression ignition engine fueled by water-ULSD emulsion. Energy. 181: 1036–50. doi: 10.1016/j.energy.2019.05.200.
  • [36] Vellaiyan, S., Amirthagadeswaran, K.S., (2016). Influence of Water-in-Diesel Emulsion Fuel and Compression Ratio on Com-bustion, Performance and Emission Characteristics of Diesel Engine. Journal of Sustainable Energy Engineering. 3(3): 238–53. doi: 10.7569/jsee.2015.629515.
  • [37] Ithnin, A.M., Yahya, W.J., Ahmad, M.A., Ramlan, N.A., Abdul Kadir, H., Sidik, N.A.C., et al., (2018). Emulsifier-free Water-in-Diesel emulsion fuel: Its stability behaviour, engine performance and exhaust emission. Fuel. 215(May 2017): 454–62. doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2017.11.061.
  • [38] Wahhab, H.A.A., Mashkour, M.A., Madodi, S.A., (2020). Investigation of water-diesel emulsion characteristics using optical technique. Journal of Applied Fluid Mechanics. 13(1): 349–55. doi: 10.29252/jafm.13.01.30133.
  • [39] Attia, A.M.A., Kulchitskiy, A.R., (2014). Influence of the structure of water-in-fuel emulsion on diesel engine performance. Fuel. 116: 703–8. doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2013.08.057.
  • [40] Nazha, M.A.A., Rajakaruna, H., Wagstaff, S.A., (2001). The use of emulsion, water induction and EGR for controlling diesel engine emissions. SAE Technical Papers. (724). doi: 10.4271/2001-01-1941.
  • [41] Mondal, P.K., Mandal, B.K., (2019). A comprehensive review on the feasibility of using water emulsified diesel as a CI engine fuel. Fuel. 237(October 2018): 937–60. doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2018.10.076.
  • [42] Hassan, Z.U., Usman, M., Asim, M., Kazim, A.H., Farooq, M., Umair, M., et al., (2021). Use of diesel and emulsified diesel in CI engine: A comparative analysis of engine characteristics. Science Progress. 104(2): 1–19. doi: 10.1177/00368504211020930.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Engineering
Journal Section Reviews
Authors

Erdi TOSUN
Çukurova Üniversitesi
0000-0001-5733-2047
Türkiye


Sinan KEİYİNCİ
ÇUKUROVA ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0003-2948-3846
Türkiye

Early Pub Date September 12, 2022
Publication Date September 30, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022 Volume: 1 Issue: 3

Cite

Bibtex @review { cunas1159670, journal = {Cukurova University Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences}, eissn = {2822-2938}, address = {Çukurova Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Sarıçam ADANA}, publisher = {Cukurova University}, year = {2022}, volume = {1}, number = {3}, pages = {8 - 14}, title = {Evaluation of Water-in-Diesel Emulsion Fuel in Compression Ignition Engines: Effects, Advantages, and Drawbacks}, key = {cite}, author = {Tosun, Erdi and Keiyinci, Sinan} }
APA Tosun, E. & Keiyinci, S. (2022). Evaluation of Water-in-Diesel Emulsion Fuel in Compression Ignition Engines: Effects, Advantages, and Drawbacks . Cukurova University Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences , 1 (3) , 8-14 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/cunas/issue/72424/1159670
MLA Tosun, E. , Keiyinci, S. "Evaluation of Water-in-Diesel Emulsion Fuel in Compression Ignition Engines: Effects, Advantages, and Drawbacks" . Cukurova University Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences 1 (2022 ): 8-14 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/cunas/issue/72424/1159670>
Chicago Tosun, E. , Keiyinci, S. "Evaluation of Water-in-Diesel Emulsion Fuel in Compression Ignition Engines: Effects, Advantages, and Drawbacks". Cukurova University Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences 1 (2022 ): 8-14
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Evaluation of Water-in-Diesel Emulsion Fuel in Compression Ignition Engines: Effects, Advantages, and Drawbacks AU - ErdiTosun, SinanKeiyinci Y1 - 2022 PY - 2022 N1 - DO - T2 - Cukurova University Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 8 EP - 14 VL - 1 IS - 3 SN - -2822-2938 M3 - UR - Y2 - 2022 ER -
EndNote %0 Cukurova University Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences Evaluation of Water-in-Diesel Emulsion Fuel in Compression Ignition Engines: Effects, Advantages, and Drawbacks %A Erdi Tosun , Sinan Keiyinci %T Evaluation of Water-in-Diesel Emulsion Fuel in Compression Ignition Engines: Effects, Advantages, and Drawbacks %D 2022 %J Cukurova University Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences %P -2822-2938 %V 1 %N 3 %R %U
ISNAD Tosun, Erdi , Keiyinci, Sinan . "Evaluation of Water-in-Diesel Emulsion Fuel in Compression Ignition Engines: Effects, Advantages, and Drawbacks". Cukurova University Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences 1 / 3 (September 2022): 8-14 .
AMA Tosun E. , Keiyinci S. Evaluation of Water-in-Diesel Emulsion Fuel in Compression Ignition Engines: Effects, Advantages, and Drawbacks. Cukurova University Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences. 2022; 1(3): 8-14.
Vancouver Tosun E. , Keiyinci S. Evaluation of Water-in-Diesel Emulsion Fuel in Compression Ignition Engines: Effects, Advantages, and Drawbacks. Cukurova University Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences. 2022; 1(3): 8-14.
IEEE E. Tosun and S. Keiyinci , "Evaluation of Water-in-Diesel Emulsion Fuel in Compression Ignition Engines: Effects, Advantages, and Drawbacks", Cukurova University Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 8-14, Sep. 2022