The antidiabetic effect of Hunteria umbellata extracts (aqueous and methanol) on hematological, lipid profile and biochemical parameters in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in female wistar rats was studied. The phytochemical screening of the seed extracts was determined using standard chemical methods. Twenty five (25) wistar rats weighing between 117g and 170g were shared into five (5) groups of five animals per group for the physiological studies. All treatment groups were administered 500 mg/kg per body weight of H. umbellata extracts. Group 1: normal control, group 2: negative or diabetic control, group 3: metformin + streptozotocin (STZ), group 4: aqueous extract of H. umbellata + STZ and group 5: methanol extract of H. umbellata + STZ. Diabetes was induced with 55mg/kg body weight streptozotocin (STZ). Quantitative phytochemical screening of aqueous and methanol seed extracts of H. umbellata reviewed the presence of secondary metabolites such as, saponins, phytate, oxalate, anthraquinones, Cyanogenic glycoside; where phenols and alkaloids recorded highest concentrations in both extracts. The hypoglycaemic studies of methanol extract revealed significant (p<0.005) reduction on the fasting blood glucose levels of experimental animals for group 5 compared to moderate reduction in group 3. Group 4 recorded increase in the blood glucose levels of wistar rats. The haematological parameters were not significant (p>0.05) for all treatment groups. Group 5 recorded significance (p<0.05) amount of high density lipoproteins (HDL), total cholesterol (CHOL), triglyceride (TRIG) and low density lipoproteins (LDL) while CHOL was significant (p<0.05) for group 3. The biochemical parameters were within safe limit. The methanol extract of H. umbellata possesses the potentials for the managements of blood glucose levels compared to conventional drug (metformin).
Antidiabetic, Phytochemical screening, Streptozotocin, wistar rats, Hunteria umbellata, Meforming