Year 2021, Volume 4 , Issue 1, Pages 22 - 35 2021-05-02

Phytochemical screening, Free radical scavenging, and In-vitro Anti-bacterial activity study of Chloroform, Acetone and Methanol extracts of selected medicinal plants of Nepal

Rishiram BARAL [1] , Amrit KARKI [2] , Saurav KARKI [3] , Bhuvan NEUPANE [4] , Pratigya KOIRALA [5] , Seema BARAL [6] , Sushil PANTA [7]


Bacteria are unique prokaryotic agents which carry genetic information in double stranded DNA matrix and even reside in the normal flora of human. Such bacteria sometime become the cause of human infection and disease by evading bodies protective mechanisms. Antibacterial agents are the group of materials that fight against such pathogenic bacteria, killing or reducing their metabolic activity. Meanwhile, naturally occurring plant phytochemicals are being used as antimicrobial and antibacterial agents by various group of indigenous and ethnic populations. This study was carried out to extra plot the safety, efficacy and therapeutic potency of the selected medicinal plants which are used traditionally as a source of anti-microbial, anti-bacterial and free radical scavenger. Quantitative phytochemical screening revealed that methanolic extract of Crassocephalum cripidiodes showed maximum Total Phenolic Content (TPC) of 322.16±0.01 μg GAE/mg of extract and acetone extract of Ficus. semicordata showed maximum Total Flavonoid Content (TFC) of 500.35±0.048 μg QE/mg of extract. Among the selected plant extracts, the most potent antioxidant activity was revealed by methanolic extract of Crassocephalum crepidiodes with IC50 of 6.95µg which is close to that of standard ascorbic acid having IC50 4.21µg. Bacterial susceptibility assay was carried out against Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Among the selected plants, greater zone of inhibition was shown by acetone extract of Ficus semicordata against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Finally, the study revealed that Ficus semicordata, Cirsium argyracanthum and Ficus hispida have anti-bacterial property against the selected bacterial strain which provide evidence-based scientific proof towards the traditional use of these plant sample in curing bacterial diseases.
Ethnomedicinal plants, phenols, flavonoids, Free radical scavenging activity, Antibacterial activity
  • 1.Abukakar, et al.,(2008) Phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity of Tamarindus indica pulp extract.Asian Journal of Biochemistry, 3. 134-138.
  • 2.Ainsworth and Gillespie,(2007) Estimation of total phenolic content and other oxidation substrates in plant tissues using Folin–Ciocalteu reagent.Nature protocols, 2. 875-877.
  • 3.Akiyama and Ohba,(2015) Studies of Impatiens (Balsaminaceae) of Nepal 2. Impatiens jurpia, I. urticifolia, and Allied Species.Natl. Mus. Nat. Sci., Ser. B 41. 161-178.
  • 4.Ali and Chaudhary,(2011) Ficus hispida Linn.: A review of its pharmacognostic and ethnomedicinal properties.Pharmacognosy reviews 5. 96.
  • 5.Chanda, et al.,(2010) Antioxidative and antibacterial effects of seeds and fruit rind of nutraceutical plants belonging to the Fabaceae family.Journal of Food1. 308-315.
  • 6.Chandran and Abrahamse,(2020) Identifying plant-based natural medicine against oxidative stress and neurodegenerative disorders.Journal of Oxidative Medicine and Longetivity.
  • 7.Compean and Ynalvez,(2014) Antimicrobial activity of plant secondary metabolites: A review. Research Journal of Medicinal Plants8. 204-213.
  • 8.Dever and Dermody,(1991) Mechanisms of bacterial resistance to antibiotics.Archives of internal medicine151. 886-895.
  • 9.Dintcheva, et al.,(2017) Concentration-dependent anti-/pro-oxidant activity of natural phenolic compounds in bio-polyesters. Journal of Polymer Degradation and stability, 142. 21-28.
  • 10.Doron and Gorbach,(2008) Bacterial infections: overview.International Encyclopedia of Public Health, 273.
  • 11.Fraga,(2007) Plant polyphenols: how to translate their in vitro antioxidant actions to in vivo conditions.IUBMB life59. 308-315.
  • 12.Kant, et al.,(2018) A review on Peach (Prunus persica): an asset of medicinal phytochemicals.International Journal of Research Applied Science Engineering and Technology6. 2186-2200. 13.Kaur, et al.,(2016) An overview on the phytomedicinal approaches of Ficus semicordata.World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences5. 606-616.
  • 14.Kumaran,(2006) Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of an aqueous extract of Coleus aromaticus.Journal of Food chemistry97. 109-114.
  • 15.Kunwar and Bussmann,(2006) Ficus (Fig) species in Nepal: a review of diversity and indigenous uses. Lyonia, 11. 85-97.
  • 16.Labu, et al.,(2013) Glimpse of Usage of Antimicrobial Agents and its Unwanted Effects. International Journal4. 768-774.
  • 17.1Li, et al.,(2007) Nutritional composition of five cultivars of Chinese jujube.Journal of Food chemistry103. 454-460.
  • 18.Mariita, et al.,(2011) Methanol extract of three medicinal plants from Samburu in Northern Kenya show significant antimycobacterial, antibacterial and antifungal properties.Research Journal of Medicinal Plant5. 54-64.
  • 19.Meenu, et al.,(2015) Impatiens balsamina: An overview.Journal of Chemical Pharmaceutical Research7. 16-21.
  • 20.Nazaruk,(2008) Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content in Cirsium five species from north–east region of Poland. 79. 194-196.
  • 21.Nazaruk,(2008) Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content in Cirsium five species from north–east region of Poland.J Fitoterapia79. 194-196.
  • 22.Nickavar, et al.,(2007) In vitro free radical scavenging activity of five Salvia species.Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Science, 20. 291-294.
  • 23.2Omotayo, et al.,(2015) Antibacterial activity of Crassocephalum crepidioides (fireweed) and Chromolaena odorata (siam weed) hot aqueous leaf extract.International Journal of pharmaceutical and Biological Science, 5. 114-122.
  • 24.Pasquale and Tan,(2005) Nonantimicrobial effects of antibacterial agents.Journal of Clinical infectious diseases40. 127-135.
  • 25.Rajput, et al.,(2018) Perspectives on medicinal properties of natural phenolic monoterpenoids and their hybrids.Journal of Molecular diversity22. 225-245.
  • 26.Safari and Ahmady-Asbchin,(2019) Evaluation of antioxidant and antibacterial activities of methanolic extract of medlar (Mespilus germanica L.) leaves.Journal of Biotechnology and Biotechnological Equipment33. 372-378.
  • 27.halayel, et al.,(2017) Anti-bacterial activity of peppermint (Mentha piperita) extracts against some emerging multi-drug resistant human bacterial pathogens. Journal of Herbal Medicine7. 27-30.
  • 28.Taylor,(2013) Alternative natural sources for a new generation of antibacterial agents.International journal of antimicrobial agents42. 195-201.
  • 29.Tepal,(2016) Phytochemical screening, total flavonoid and phenolic content assays of various solvent extracts of tepal of Musa paradisiaca.Malaysian Journal of Analytical Sciences20. 1181-1190.
  • 30.Tolossa, et al.,(2013) Ethno-medicinal study of plants used for treatment of human and livestock ailments by traditional healers in South Omo, Southern Ethiopia.Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine9. 1-15.
  • 31.Vaishnav and Demain,(2011) Unexpected applications of secondary metabolites.Journal of Biotechnology Advances29. 223-229.
  • 32.Velioglu, et al.,(1998) Antioxidant activity and total phenolics in selected fruits, vegetables, and grain products.Journal of agricultural and food chemistry46. 4113-4117. 33.Ventola,(2015) The antibiotic resistance crisis: part 1: causes and threats.Journal of Pharmacy and therapeutics40. 277.
  • 34.Vijayakumar, et al.,(2013) Biosynthesis, characterisation and anti-bacterial effect of plant-mediated silver nanoparticles using Artemisia nilagirica.Journal of Industrial Crops and Products41. 235-240.
  • 35.Villaño, et al.,(2007) Radical scavenging ability of polyphenolic compounds towards DPPH free radical.Journal of Talanta71. 230-235.
  • 36.Zia Ul Haq Khan, et al.,(2011) Phytochemical study on the constituents from Cirsium arvense.Mediterranean Journal of Chemistry1. 64-69.
Primary Language en
Subjects Pharmacy
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Orcid: 0000-0003-3701-1873
Author: Rishiram BARAL (Primary Author)
Institution: Kyungpook National University
Country: Nepal


Orcid: 0000-0002-0331-4350
Author: Amrit KARKI
Institution: Pokhara University
Country: Nepal


Orcid: 0000-0002-0422-7697
Author: Saurav KARKI
Institution: Pokhara University
Country: Nepal


Orcid: 0000-0002-6469-1117
Author: Bhuvan NEUPANE
Institution: Pokhara University
Country: Nepal


Orcid: 0000-0002-5653-287X
Author: Pratigya KOIRALA
Institution: Pokhara University
Country: Nepal


Orcid: 0000-0002-0615-8680
Author: Seema BARAL
Institution: Pokhara University
Country: Nepal


Orcid: 0000-0002-8401-4471
Author: Sushil PANTA
Institution: Pokhara University
Country: Nepal


Dates

Publication Date : May 2, 2021

APA Baral, R , Karkı, A , Karkı, S , Neupane, B , Koırala, P , Baral, S , Panta, S . (2021). Phytochemical screening, Free radical scavenging, and In-vitro Anti-bacterial activity study of Chloroform, Acetone and Methanol extracts of selected medicinal plants of Nepal . Current Perspectives on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (CUPMAP) , 4 (1) , 22-35 . DOI: 10.38093/cupmap.896273