Research Article
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Harvesting time substantially affects the squalene content in olive oils of Gemlik and Kilis Yaglik varietes

Year 2021, Volume 4, Issue 2, 121 - 127, 30.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.38093/cupmap.1031125

Abstract

Olive (Olea europaea L.) is a significant crop especially in Mediterranean countries. In Turkey olives and olive oil have a major agricultural importance Olives and olive oil have been used not only nutrient and as a flavor enhancer in Mediterranean dishes, but also a medicine because of having essential roles for human health. the pharmaceutical value and uses are related to biochemical content and compounds. Mainly four chemical sources: mono-unsatured fatty acids, polyphenols, carotenoids and squalene are functional bioactives in olive oil particularly for pharmaceutical affects. The present study was designed to examine changes of squalene contents of olive oil gained Kilis Yağlık and Gemlik olive cultivars’ fruits harvested in tree different time along the two years. Squalene content in olive oils varied according to harvest time, cultivar and cultivation year. Accordingly, the variety affected the squalen content, in Gemlik cultivar squalene was more than Kilis Yaglık cultivar. In terms of its cultivated year, in the high yield year, an increase in squalen content was observed. In olive oil, squalen content decreased first then increased by the fruit maturation.Therefore, harvest time effected biochemical content of oil by the fruit ripening stages.

References

  • Alowaiesh, B., Singh, Z., Fang, Z., Kailis, S. G. 2018. Harvest time impacts the fatty acid compositions, phenolic compounds and sensory attributes of Frantoio and Manzanilla olive oil. Scientia Horticulturae, 234, 74-80. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2018.02.017
  • Ambra, R., Natella, F., Lucchetti, S., Forte V. and Pastore, G., 2017. 𝛼-Tocopherol, 𝛽-carotene, lutein, squalene and secoiridoids in seven monocultivar Italian extra-virgin olive oils. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 68, 538–545. https://doi.org/10.1080/09637486.2016.1265099
  • Anastasopoulos, E., Kalogeropoulos N., Kaliora, A.C., Kountouri A., and Andrikopoulos, N.K., (2011). The influence of ripening and crop year on quality indices, polyphenols, terpenic acids, squalene, fatty acid profile, and sterols in virgin olive oil (Koroneiki cv.) produced by organic versus non-organic cultivationmethod. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 46, 170–178. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2010.02485.x
  • Baccouri O., Guerfel M., Baccouri B., Cerretani L., Bendini A., Lercker G.,Zarrouk M., Miled D. D. B. (2008). Chemical composition and oxidative stability of Tunisian monovarietal virgin olive oils with regard to fruit ripening. Food Chemistry, 109, 743–754. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.01.034
  • Baccouri, O., Cerretani L., Bendini A., Caboni M.F., Zarrouk M., Pirrone L., and Miled, D.D.B., (2007). Preliminary chemical characterization of Tunisian monovarietal virgin olive oils and comparison with Sicilian ones. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 109, 1208–1217. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.200700132
  • Beltrán, G., Bucheli, M.E., Aguilera, M.P., Belaj, A., and Jimenez, A., (2016). Squalene in virgin olive oil: screening of variability in olive cultivars. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 118, 1250–1253. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.201500295
  • Ben Mansour, A., Flamini, G., Ben Selma, Z., Le Dréau, Y., Artaud, J., Abdelhedi, R., and Bouaziz M. (2015). Olive oil quality is strongly affected by cultivar, maturity index and fruit part: Chemometrical analysis of volatiles, fatty acids, squalene and quality parameters fromwhole fruit, pulp and seed oils of two Tunisian olive cultivars. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 117, 976–987. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.201400159
  • Bodoira, R., Torres, M., Pierantozzi, P., Taticchi, A., Servili, M., and Maestri, D., (2015). Oil biogenesis and antioxidant compounds from"Arauco" olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivar during fruit development and ripening. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 117, 377–388. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.201400234
  • Cayuela, J. A., and García, J. F. (2018). Nondestructive measurement of squalene in olive oil by near infrared spectroscopy. LWT, 88, 103-108. https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.lwt. 2017.09.047
  • Cetinkaya, H., (2017). Correlation of predictor variables to squalene content in olive fruits using multivariate statistical analysis. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, 51, 323-S326. https://doi.org/10.5530/ijper.51.3s.39
  • Fernández-Cuesta, Á., León, L., Velasco Varo, L., and De la Rosa, R., (2013). Changes in squalene and sterols associated with olive maturation. Food Research International, 54 (2), 1885-1889. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2013.07.049
  • Fernández-Cuesta, A., León, L., Velasco, L., and De la Rosa, R., (2013). Changes in squalene and sterols associated with olive maturation. Food Research International, 54, 1885–1889. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2013.07.049
  • Laroussi-Mezghani, S., Le Dréau, Y., Molinet, J., Hammami, M., Grati-Kamoun N., and Artaud, J., (2016). Biodiversity of Tunisian virgin olive oils: varietal origin classification according to their minor compounds. European Food Research and Technology, 242(7), 1087-1099. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-015-2613-9
  • Lazzez, A., Vichi, S., Kammoun, N.G., Arous, M.N., Khlif, M., Romero, A., and Cossentini, M., (2011). A four year study to determine the optimal harvesting period for Tunisian Chemlali olives. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 113, 796–807. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.201000474
  • Manzi, P., Panfili, G., Esti, M., and Pizzoferrato, L., (1998). Natural antioxidants in the unsaponifiable fraction of virgin olive oils from different cultivars. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 77, 115–120. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0010(199805)77:1<115::AID-JSFA13>3.0.CO;2-N
  • Martakos, I., Kostakis, M., Dasenaki, M., Pentogennis, M., and Thomaidis, N., (2020). Simultaneous determination of pigments, tocopherols, and squalene in Greek olive oils: a study of the influence of cultivation and oil-production parameters. Foods, 9(1), 31. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9010031
  • Martínez‐Beamonte, R., Sanclemente, T., Surra, J. C., and Osada, J. (2020). Could squalene be an added value to use olive by‐products?. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 100(3), 915-925. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.10116
  • Mastralexi, A., and Tsimidou, M.Z., (2021). On the Squalene Content of CV Chondrolia Chalkidikis and Chalkidiki (Greece) Virgin Olive Oil. Molecules, 26(19), 6007. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26196007
  • Newmark, H.L., (1999). Squalene, olive oil, and cancer risk: A review and hypothesis. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, 6, 1101–1103. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1999.tb08735.x
  • Oueslati, I., Anniva, C., Daoud, D., Tsimidou, M. Z., and Zarrouk, M., (2009). Virgin olive oil (VOO) production in Tunisia: the commercial potential of the major olive varieties from the arid Tataouine zone. Food Chemistry, 112, 733–741. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.06.041
  • Rigane, G., Boukhris, M., Bouaaziz, M., Sayadi, S., and Salem, R. B., (2013). Analytical evaluation of two monovarietal virgin olive oils cultivated in the south of Tunisia: Jemri-Bouchouka and Chemlali-Tataouin cultivars. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 93, 1242–1248 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.5864
  • Rodriguez-Rodriguez, R., and Simonsen, U. (2012). Natural Triterpenoids from Olive Oil: Potential Activities Against Cancer. In Natural Compounds as Inducers of Cell Death, 1, 447–461. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-4575-9_18
  • Sakouhi, F., Herchi, W., Sbei, K., Absalon, C., and Boukhchina, S., (2011). Characterisation and accumulation of squalene and n-alkanes in developing Tunisian Olea europaea L. fruits. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 46(11), 2281-2286. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2011.02747.x
  • Sánchez-Rodríguez, L., Kranjac, M., Marijanović, Z., Jerković, I., Corell, M., Moriana, A., Carbonell-Barrachina, A. A., Sendra, E., and Hernández, F., (2019). Quality attributes and fatty acid, volatile and sensory profiles of “Arbequina” hydrosostainable olive oil. Molecules, 24(11), 2148. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24112148
  • Thirumalai, T., Therasa, S. V., Elumalai, E. K., and David, E., (2011). Hypoglycemic effect of Brassica juncea (seeds) on streptozotocin induced diabetic male albino rat. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 1(4), 323-325. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60052-X
  • Trinder, P., (1969). Determination of blood glucose using an oxidase-peroxidase system with a non-carcinogenic chromogen. Journal of Clinical Pathology, 22(2), 158-161. https://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jcp.22.2.158
  • Uluata, S., Altuntaş, Ü., and Özçelik, B., (2016). Biochemical characterization of Arbequina extra virgin olive oil produced in Turkey. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, 93(5), 617-626. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-016-2811-z
  • Warleta, F., Campos, M., Allouche, Y., Sánchez-Quesada, C., Ruiz-Mora, J., Beltrán, G., and Gaforio, J.J. (2010). Squalene protects against oxidative DNA damage in MCF10A human mammary epithelial cells but not in MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 48(4), 1092-1100. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2010.01.031

Year 2021, Volume 4, Issue 2, 121 - 127, 30.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.38093/cupmap.1031125

Abstract

References

  • Alowaiesh, B., Singh, Z., Fang, Z., Kailis, S. G. 2018. Harvest time impacts the fatty acid compositions, phenolic compounds and sensory attributes of Frantoio and Manzanilla olive oil. Scientia Horticulturae, 234, 74-80. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2018.02.017
  • Ambra, R., Natella, F., Lucchetti, S., Forte V. and Pastore, G., 2017. 𝛼-Tocopherol, 𝛽-carotene, lutein, squalene and secoiridoids in seven monocultivar Italian extra-virgin olive oils. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 68, 538–545. https://doi.org/10.1080/09637486.2016.1265099
  • Anastasopoulos, E., Kalogeropoulos N., Kaliora, A.C., Kountouri A., and Andrikopoulos, N.K., (2011). The influence of ripening and crop year on quality indices, polyphenols, terpenic acids, squalene, fatty acid profile, and sterols in virgin olive oil (Koroneiki cv.) produced by organic versus non-organic cultivationmethod. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 46, 170–178. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2010.02485.x
  • Baccouri O., Guerfel M., Baccouri B., Cerretani L., Bendini A., Lercker G.,Zarrouk M., Miled D. D. B. (2008). Chemical composition and oxidative stability of Tunisian monovarietal virgin olive oils with regard to fruit ripening. Food Chemistry, 109, 743–754. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.01.034
  • Baccouri, O., Cerretani L., Bendini A., Caboni M.F., Zarrouk M., Pirrone L., and Miled, D.D.B., (2007). Preliminary chemical characterization of Tunisian monovarietal virgin olive oils and comparison with Sicilian ones. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 109, 1208–1217. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.200700132
  • Beltrán, G., Bucheli, M.E., Aguilera, M.P., Belaj, A., and Jimenez, A., (2016). Squalene in virgin olive oil: screening of variability in olive cultivars. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 118, 1250–1253. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.201500295
  • Ben Mansour, A., Flamini, G., Ben Selma, Z., Le Dréau, Y., Artaud, J., Abdelhedi, R., and Bouaziz M. (2015). Olive oil quality is strongly affected by cultivar, maturity index and fruit part: Chemometrical analysis of volatiles, fatty acids, squalene and quality parameters fromwhole fruit, pulp and seed oils of two Tunisian olive cultivars. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 117, 976–987. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.201400159
  • Bodoira, R., Torres, M., Pierantozzi, P., Taticchi, A., Servili, M., and Maestri, D., (2015). Oil biogenesis and antioxidant compounds from"Arauco" olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivar during fruit development and ripening. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 117, 377–388. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.201400234
  • Cayuela, J. A., and García, J. F. (2018). Nondestructive measurement of squalene in olive oil by near infrared spectroscopy. LWT, 88, 103-108. https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.lwt. 2017.09.047
  • Cetinkaya, H., (2017). Correlation of predictor variables to squalene content in olive fruits using multivariate statistical analysis. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, 51, 323-S326. https://doi.org/10.5530/ijper.51.3s.39
  • Fernández-Cuesta, Á., León, L., Velasco Varo, L., and De la Rosa, R., (2013). Changes in squalene and sterols associated with olive maturation. Food Research International, 54 (2), 1885-1889. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2013.07.049
  • Fernández-Cuesta, A., León, L., Velasco, L., and De la Rosa, R., (2013). Changes in squalene and sterols associated with olive maturation. Food Research International, 54, 1885–1889. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2013.07.049
  • Laroussi-Mezghani, S., Le Dréau, Y., Molinet, J., Hammami, M., Grati-Kamoun N., and Artaud, J., (2016). Biodiversity of Tunisian virgin olive oils: varietal origin classification according to their minor compounds. European Food Research and Technology, 242(7), 1087-1099. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-015-2613-9
  • Lazzez, A., Vichi, S., Kammoun, N.G., Arous, M.N., Khlif, M., Romero, A., and Cossentini, M., (2011). A four year study to determine the optimal harvesting period for Tunisian Chemlali olives. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 113, 796–807. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.201000474
  • Manzi, P., Panfili, G., Esti, M., and Pizzoferrato, L., (1998). Natural antioxidants in the unsaponifiable fraction of virgin olive oils from different cultivars. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 77, 115–120. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0010(199805)77:1<115::AID-JSFA13>3.0.CO;2-N
  • Martakos, I., Kostakis, M., Dasenaki, M., Pentogennis, M., and Thomaidis, N., (2020). Simultaneous determination of pigments, tocopherols, and squalene in Greek olive oils: a study of the influence of cultivation and oil-production parameters. Foods, 9(1), 31. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9010031
  • Martínez‐Beamonte, R., Sanclemente, T., Surra, J. C., and Osada, J. (2020). Could squalene be an added value to use olive by‐products?. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 100(3), 915-925. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.10116
  • Mastralexi, A., and Tsimidou, M.Z., (2021). On the Squalene Content of CV Chondrolia Chalkidikis and Chalkidiki (Greece) Virgin Olive Oil. Molecules, 26(19), 6007. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26196007
  • Newmark, H.L., (1999). Squalene, olive oil, and cancer risk: A review and hypothesis. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, 6, 1101–1103. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1999.tb08735.x
  • Oueslati, I., Anniva, C., Daoud, D., Tsimidou, M. Z., and Zarrouk, M., (2009). Virgin olive oil (VOO) production in Tunisia: the commercial potential of the major olive varieties from the arid Tataouine zone. Food Chemistry, 112, 733–741. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.06.041
  • Rigane, G., Boukhris, M., Bouaaziz, M., Sayadi, S., and Salem, R. B., (2013). Analytical evaluation of two monovarietal virgin olive oils cultivated in the south of Tunisia: Jemri-Bouchouka and Chemlali-Tataouin cultivars. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 93, 1242–1248 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.5864
  • Rodriguez-Rodriguez, R., and Simonsen, U. (2012). Natural Triterpenoids from Olive Oil: Potential Activities Against Cancer. In Natural Compounds as Inducers of Cell Death, 1, 447–461. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-4575-9_18
  • Sakouhi, F., Herchi, W., Sbei, K., Absalon, C., and Boukhchina, S., (2011). Characterisation and accumulation of squalene and n-alkanes in developing Tunisian Olea europaea L. fruits. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 46(11), 2281-2286. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2011.02747.x
  • Sánchez-Rodríguez, L., Kranjac, M., Marijanović, Z., Jerković, I., Corell, M., Moriana, A., Carbonell-Barrachina, A. A., Sendra, E., and Hernández, F., (2019). Quality attributes and fatty acid, volatile and sensory profiles of “Arbequina” hydrosostainable olive oil. Molecules, 24(11), 2148. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24112148
  • Thirumalai, T., Therasa, S. V., Elumalai, E. K., and David, E., (2011). Hypoglycemic effect of Brassica juncea (seeds) on streptozotocin induced diabetic male albino rat. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 1(4), 323-325. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60052-X
  • Trinder, P., (1969). Determination of blood glucose using an oxidase-peroxidase system with a non-carcinogenic chromogen. Journal of Clinical Pathology, 22(2), 158-161. https://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jcp.22.2.158
  • Uluata, S., Altuntaş, Ü., and Özçelik, B., (2016). Biochemical characterization of Arbequina extra virgin olive oil produced in Turkey. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, 93(5), 617-626. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-016-2811-z
  • Warleta, F., Campos, M., Allouche, Y., Sánchez-Quesada, C., Ruiz-Mora, J., Beltrán, G., and Gaforio, J.J. (2010). Squalene protects against oxidative DNA damage in MCF10A human mammary epithelial cells but not in MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 48(4), 1092-1100. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2010.01.031

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Horticulture
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Hakan ÇETİNKAYA (Primary Author)
KİLİS 7 ARALIK ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-0074-2077
Türkiye


İbrahim Samet GÖKÇEN This is me
KİLİS 7 ARALIK ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-1857-7911
Türkiye

Publication Date December 30, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 4, Issue 2

Cite

APA Çetinkaya, H. & Gökçen, İ. S. (2021). Harvesting time substantially affects the squalene content in olive oils of Gemlik and Kilis Yaglik varietes . Current Perspectives on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (CUPMAP) , 4 (2) , 121-127 . DOI: 10.38093/cupmap.1031125

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