Research Article
PDF Mendeley EndNote BibTex Cite

How is Acculturation Linked to Subjective Wellbeing: Evidence from Turkish Immigrants in the United States

Year 2021, Volume 7, Issue 2, 46 - 60, 30.11.2021
https://doi.org/10.30613/curesosc.994503

Abstract

Today, international migration has caused many ethnic groups to live in culturally diverse societies. Turkish immigrants in the United States is one of those ethnic groups whose population is growing. Despite the growing Turkish population, there is currently little research on how acculturation can influence the subjective wellbeing of Turkish immigrants living in the United States. This study sought to examine to what extent heritage and host acculturations were associated with the subjective wellbeing of Turkish immigrants residing in the United States. The study included 306 foreign-born Turkish Americans who are between 19 to 69 years old (mean = 39.39). They completed the Vancouver Index of Acculturation, Satisfaction with Life Scale, and Short-Form of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. The results showed that participants reported higher levels of heritage and host acculturation, satisfaction with life and positive affect, and lower levels of negative affect. No gender differences were reported across these variables. Acculturation was positively related to satisfaction with life and positive affect and negatively related with negative affect. Host acculturation uniquely predicted satisfaction with life, positive affect, and negative affect after controlling for demographic characteristics. These findings highlight the unique importance of host acculturation in enhancing subjective wellbeing for Turkish immigrants and advance future research in this area.

References

  • Abu-Rayya, H., & Sam, D. L. (2017). Is integration the best way to acculturate? A reexamination of the bicultural-adaptation relationship in the “ICSEY dataset” using the bilineal method. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 48(3), 287-293. Doi: 10.1177/0022022116685846
  • Akgün, B. (2000). The Turkish diaspora in the United States and its role in promoting Turkish-American relations. The Turkish Yearbook of International Relations, (31), 99-117. https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/tyir/issue/50036/641467
  • Alba, R., Reitz, J.G., and Simon, P. (2012). National conceptions of assimilation, integration, and cohesion. In M. Crul & J. Mollenkopf (Eds.), The changing face of world cities: Young adult children of immigrants in Europe and the United States (pp. 41-61). Russell Sage Foundation.
  • Altschiller, D. (1995). Turkish Americans. In J. Galens, A. Sheets, & R. V. Young (Ed.), Gale encyclopedia of multicultural America (pp. 1364-1368). Gale Research.
  • Amer, M. M., & Hovey, J. D. (2007). Socio-demographic differences in acculturation and mental health for a sample of 2nd generation/early immigrant Arab Americans. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 9(4), 335-347. Doi: 10.1007/s10903-007-9045-y
  • Arends-Tóth, J., & van de Vijver, F. J. R. (2007). Acculturation attitudes: A comparison of measurement methods. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 7, 1462-1488. Doi: 10.1111/j.1559-1816.2007.00222.x
  • Balidemaj, A., & Small, M. (2018). Acculturation, ethnic identity, and psychological wellbeing of Albanian-American immigrants in the United States. International Journal of Culture and Mental Health, 11(4), 712-730. Doi: 10.1080/17542863.2018.1556717
  • Barsade, S. G., & Gibson, D. E. (2007). Why does affect matter in organizations? The Academy of Management Perspectives, 21(1), 36-59. Doi: 10.5465/amp.2007.24286163
  • Berry, J. W. (1997). Immigration, acculturation, and adaptation. Applied Psychology, 46(1), 5-68. Doi: 10.1111/j.1464-0597.1997.tb01087.x
  • Berry, J. W. (2005). Acculturation: Living successfully in two cultures. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 29(6), 697-712. Doi: 10.1016/j.ijintrel.2005.07.013
  • Berry, J. W. (2019). Acculturation: A personal journey across cultures. In C. M. Allwood (ed.), Elements in psychology and culture series. Cambridge University Press. Doi: 10.1017/9781108589666
  • Berry, J. W., & Hou, F. (2016). Immigrant acculturation and wellbeing in Canada. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie Canadienne, 57(4), 254-264. Doi: 10.1037/cap0000064
  • Berry, J. W., & Hou, F. (2017). Acculturation, discrimination, and wellbeing among the second generation of immigrants in Canada. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 61, 29-39. Doi: 10.1016/j.ijintrel.2017.08.003
  • Berry, J. W., & Sabatier, C. (2010). Acculturation, discrimination, and adaptation among second-generation immigrant youth in Montréal and Paris. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 34(3), 191-207. Doi: 10.1016/j.ijintrel.2009.11.007
  • Berry, J. W., Phinney, J. S., Sam, D. L., & Vedder, P. (2006). Immigrant youth: Acculturation, identity, and adaptation. Applied Psychology and International Review, 55(3), 303-332. Doi: 10.1111/j.1464-0597.2006.00256.x
  • Bloemraad, Irene, & de Graauw. Els. (2012). Immigrant integration and policy in the United States: A loosely stitched patchwork. In James Frideres & John Biles (Eds.), International perspectives: integration and inclusion (pp. 205-232). Queen's Studies Series, McGill-Queen's University Press. https://escholarship.org/uc/item/2nc0m8bm
  • Bourhis, R. Y., Moïse, L. C., Perreault, S., & Senécal, S. (1997). Towards an interactive acculturation model: A social psychological approach. International Journal of Psychology, 32(6), 369-386. Doi: 10.1080/002075997400629
  • Carlson, E., & Güler, A. (2018). Cultural involvement and preference in immigrant acculturation. Journal of International Migration and Integration, 19(3), 625-647. Doi: 10.1007/s12134-018-0554-4
  • Cheung, G. W., & Rensvold, R. B. (2002). Evaluating goodness-of-fit indexes for testing measurement invariance. Structural Equation Modeling, 9(2), 233-255. Doi: 10.1207/S15328007SEM0902_5
  • Diener, E. (1984). Subjective wellbeing. Psychological Bulletin, 95(3), 542-575. Doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.95.3.542
  • Diener, E., Oishi, S., & Lucas, R. E. (2002). Subjective wellbeing: The science of happiness and life satisfaction. In C.R. Snyder & S.J. Lopez (Ed.), Handbook of positive psychology. Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.55.1.34
  • Diener, E., Pressman, S. D., Hunter, J., & Delgadillo‐Chase, D. (2017). If, why, and when subjective well‐being influences health and future needed research. Applied Psychology: Health and Well‐Being, 9(2), 133-167. Doi: 10.1111/aphw.12090
  • Diener, Ed, Robert A. Emmons, Randy J. L., & Sharon Griffin. (1985). The Satisfaction with Life Scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49(1),71-75. Doi: 10.1207/s15327752jpa4901_13
  • Dimitrova, R., Bender, M., Chasiotis, A., & van, d. V. (2013). Ethnic identity and acculturation of Turkish-Bulgarian adolescents. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 37(1), 1-10. Doi: 10.1016/j.ijintrel.2012.04.005
  • Erdfelder, E., Faul, F., & Buchner, A. (1996). GPOWER: A general power analysis program. Behaviour Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 28(1), 1-11. Doi: 10.3758/BF03203630
  • Ferguson, G. M., & Bornstein, M. H. (2012). Remote acculturation: The “Americanization” of Jamaican islanders. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 36(3), 167-177. Doi: 10.1177/0165025412437066
  • Gezentsvey Lamy, M. A., Ward, C., & Liu, J. H. (2013). Motivation for ethno-cultural continuity. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 44(7), 1047-1066. Doi: 10.1177/0022022113478657
  • Gordon, M. M. (1964). Assimilation in American life: The role of race, religion, and national origins. Oxford University Press.
  • Güler, A. (2016). The effects of ethnic identity in acculturation and psychological wellbeing among Turkish immigrants in the United States (Doctoral Dissertation, Hacettepe University).
  • Güler, A. (2019). Acculturation process of Turkish immigrants in the United States. Pamukkale University Journal of Social Sciences Institute, (37), 1-13. Doi: 10.30794/pausbed.543991
  • Gunasekara, A., Grant, S., & Rajendran, D. (2019). Years since migration and wellbeing among Indian and Sri Lankan skilled migrants in Australia: Mediating effects of acculturation. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 70, 42-52. Doi: 10.1016/j.ijintrel.2019.02.006
  • Halman, T. (1980). Turks. In S. Thernstrom, (ed.), Harvard encyclopedia of American ethnic groups (pp. xxv, 1076). Belknap Press.
  • Hashemi, N., Marzban, M., Sebar, B., & Harris, N. (2019). Acculturation and psychological wellbeing among Middle Eastern migrants in Australia: The mediating role of social support and perceived discrimination. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 72, 45-60. Doi: 10.1016/j.ijintrel.2019.07.002
  • Hernandez, D. J., Denton, N. A., & Macartney, S. E. (2007). Family circumstances of children in immigrant families: Looking to the future of America. In J. E. Lansford, K. Deater-Deckard, & M. H. Bornstein (Ed.), Immigrant families in contemporary society (pp. 9-29). Guilford Press.
  • Jetten, J., Branscombe, N. R., Haslam, S. A., Haslam, C., Cruwys, T., Jones, J. M., . . . Murphy, S. (2015). Having a lot of a good thing: Multiple important group memberships as a source of self-esteem. PloS One, 10(6), 1-29. Doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0124609
  • Kaya, I. (2004). Turkish American immigration history and identity formations. The Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 24(2), 295-308. Doi: 10.1080/1360200042000296672
  • Khawaja, N. G., Yang, S., & Cockshaw, W. (2016). Taiwanese migrants in Australia: An investigation of their acculturation and wellbeing. Journal of Pacific Rim Psychology, 10, 1-10. Doi: 10.1017/prp.2016.1
  • Kwak, K. (2018). Age and gender variations in healthy immigrant effect: A population study of immigrant wellbeing in Canada. Journal of International Migration and Integration, 19, 413-437. Doi: 10.1007/s12134-018-0546-4
  • Lucas, R. E., & Diener, E. (2015). Personality and subjective wellbeing: Current issues and controversies. In M. Mikulincer, P. R. Shaver, M. L. Cooper, & R. J. Larsen (Eds.), APA handbook of personality and social psychology. Vol. 4. (pp. 577–599). APA.
  • Migration Policy Institute. (2019). U.S. Immigrant population and share over time, 1850-Present. Retrieved from https://www.migrationpolicy.org/programs/data-hub/charts/immigrant-population-over-time.
  • Nguyen, A. D., & Benet-Martínez, V. (2013). Biculturalism and adjustment: A meta-analysis. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 44(1), 122-159. Doi: 10.1177/0022022111435097
  • Nikolaev, B., Boudreaux, C. J., & Wood, M. (2019). Entrepreneurship and subjective wellbeing: The mediating role of psychological functioning. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 44(3), 557-586. Doi: 10.1177/1042258719830314
  • Obasi, E. M., & Leong, F. T. L. (2009). Psychological distress, acculturation, and mental health-seeking attitudes among people of African descent in the United States: A preliminary investigation. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 56(2), 227-238. Doi: 10.1037/a0014865
  • Pew Research Center. (2019). Facts on U.S. Immigrants, 2017. Retrieved from https://www.pewresearch.org/hispanic/2019/06/03/facts-on-u-s-immigrants/.
  • Population Division of the United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs. (2019). International Migrant Stock 2019. Retrieved from https://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/migration/data/estimates2/estimates19.asp.
  • Rania, N., Rebora, S., Migliorini, L., & Navas, M. S. (2019). Acculturation process and life domains: Different perceptions of native and immigrant adults in Italy. The Open Psychology Journal, 12, 55-65. Doi: 10.2174/1874350101912010055
  • Rudner, A. T., & Orpana, H. (2012). The health status and health behaviors of immigrant and non-immigrant seniors. The CERIS Working Papers, 88(90), 55-77.
  • Ryder, A. G., Alden, L. E., & Paulhus, D. L. (2000). Is acculturation unidimensional or bidimensional? A head-to-head comparison in the prediction of personality, self-identity, and adjustment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79(1), 49-65. Doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.79.1.49
  • Sam, D. L., Vedder, P., Ward, C., & Horenczyk, G. (2006). Psychological and sociocultural adaptation of immigrant youth. In J.W. Berry, J.S. Phinney, D.L. Sam, & P. Vedder (Eds.), Migrant youth in cultural transition: Acculturation, identity, and adaptation across national contexts (pp. 117–142). Lawrence Erlbaum.
  • Schwartz, S. J., Unger, J. B., Zamboanga, B. L., & Szapocznik, J. (2010). Rethinking the concept of acculturation: Implications for theory and research. American Psychologist, 65, 237-251. Doi: 10.1037/a0019330
  • Shin, Cha-Nam & Helen W. Lach. (2014). Acculturation and health of Korean American adults. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 25(3), 273-280. Doi: 10.1177/1043659614523454
  • Sommerlad, E. A., & Berry, J. W. (1970). The role of ethnic identification in distinguishing between attitudes towards assimilation and integration of a minority racial group. Human Relations, 23(1), 23-29. Doi: 10.1177/001872677002300103
  • Szapocznik, J., Kurtines, W. M., & Fernandez, T. (1980). Bicultural involvement and adjustment in Hispano-American youths. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 4(3-4), 353-365. Doi: 10.1016/0147-1767(80)90010-3
  • Thompson, E. R. (2007). Development and validation of an internationally reliable short-form of the positive and negative affect schedule (PANAS). Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 38(2), 227-242. Doi: 10.1177/0022022106297301
  • Tip, L. K., González, R., Brown, R., De Tezanos-Pinto, P., Saavedra, P., Sagredo, V., ... Celeste, L. (2015). Effects of ingroup norms on domain-specific acculturation preferences: Experimental evidence from two cultural contexts. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 47, 113-130. Doi: 10.1016/j.ijintrel.2015.03.027
  • United States Census Bureau. (2018). Selected population profile in the United States. Retrieved from https://data.census.gov/cedsci/table?tid=ACSSPP1Y2018.S0201&hidePreview=true&moe=true
  • Ünver, Ö., & Nicaise, I. (2019). Interactive acculturation of Turkish-Belgian parents and children in Flanders: A case study of Beringen. Migration Letters, 16(3), 417-428. Doi: 10.33182/ml.v16i3.601
  • Van de Vijver, F., Berry, J. W., & Celenk, O. (2016). Assessment of acculturation. In D. L. Sam & J. W. Berry (Eds.). Cambridge handbook of acculturation psychology (pp. 93-114). Cambridge University Press.
  • Van Oudenhoven, J. P., & Benet-Martínez, V. (2015). In search of a cultural home: From acculturation to frame-switching and intercultural competencies. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 46, 47-54. Doi: 10.1016/j.ijintrel.2015.03.022
  • Watson, D., L. A. Clark & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(6), 1063-1070. Doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.54.6.1063
  • West S. G., Finch J. F., & Curran P. J. (1995). Structural equation models with non-normal variables: Problems and remedies. In: Hoyle R. H. (Ed.). Structural equation modeling: Concepts, issues, and applications. (pp. 56-75). Sage.
  • Yildirim, M., & Belen, H. (2018). Fear of happiness predicts subjective and psychological wellbeing above the Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) and Behavioral Activation System (BAS) model of personality. Journal of Positive Psychology and Wellbeing, 2(1), 92-111. https://journalppw.com/index.php/JPPW/article/view/48

Kültürleşmenin Kişisel İyi Oluşla İlişkisi: Amerika Birleşik Devletleri’nde Yaşayan Türklerden Bulgular

Year 2021, Volume 7, Issue 2, 46 - 60, 30.11.2021
https://doi.org/10.30613/curesosc.994503

Abstract

Günümüzde uluslararası göç, birçok etnik grubun kültürel olarak farklı toplumlarda yaşamasına neden olmuştur. Amerika Birleşik Devletleri'ndeki yaşayan Türk göçmenler sayısı giderek artan bu etnik gruplardan birisidir. Artan Türk nüfusuna rağmen, kültürleşmenin Amerika Birleşik Devletleri'nde yaşayan Türk göçmenlerin kişisel iyi oluşlarını nasıl etkileyebileceğine dair pek az araştırma yapılmıştır. Bu çalışma, Amerika Birleşik Devletleri'nde ikamet eden Türk göçmenlerin kişisel iyi oluşları, miras kültürleri ile ev sahibi kültürün ne ölçüde ilişkili olduğunu incelemeyi amaçlamaktadır. Çalışmaya yaşları 19 ile 69 arasında değişen (ort. = 39.39) Amerikan vatandaşı 306 Türk dahil edilmiştir. Katılımcılar, Vancouver Kültürleşme İndeksi, Yaşam Doyumu Ölçeği, Pozitif ve Negatif Duygulanım Ölçeği Kısa Formu ve demografik özellikleri kapsayan anket formlarını tamamlamıştır. Araştırmanın sonuçlarına göre, katılımcıların daha yüksek düzeyde miras kültür ve ev sahibi kültüre katılım sağladıkları ve kültürleştikleri, yaşamlarından memnun ve olumlu duygulanım puanlarının yüksek olduğu ve daha düşük düzeyde de olumsuz duygulanım puanlarına sahip oldukları anlaşılmaktadır. Analiz sonuçlarına göre değişkenler arasında herhangi bir cinsiyet farkı bulunmamıştır. Bu çalışmada kültürleşme; yaşam doyumu ve olumlu duygulanımla olumlu olarak ilişkili iken olumsuz duygulanımla da olumsuz ilişkili olduğu bulunmuştur. Ev sahibi kültürü ile kültürleşme, demografik özellikleri kontrol ettikten sonra yaşamdan memnuniyet, olumlu ve olumsuz duygulanımı özgün bir şekilde açıklamaktadır. Bu bulgular, Türk göçmenler için kişisel iyi oluşu artırmada ve gelecekteki araştırmaları ilerletmede ev sahibi kültürü ile kültürleşmenin özgün önemini vurgulamaktadır.

References

  • Abu-Rayya, H., & Sam, D. L. (2017). Is integration the best way to acculturate? A reexamination of the bicultural-adaptation relationship in the “ICSEY dataset” using the bilineal method. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 48(3), 287-293. Doi: 10.1177/0022022116685846
  • Akgün, B. (2000). The Turkish diaspora in the United States and its role in promoting Turkish-American relations. The Turkish Yearbook of International Relations, (31), 99-117. https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/tyir/issue/50036/641467
  • Alba, R., Reitz, J.G., and Simon, P. (2012). National conceptions of assimilation, integration, and cohesion. In M. Crul & J. Mollenkopf (Eds.), The changing face of world cities: Young adult children of immigrants in Europe and the United States (pp. 41-61). Russell Sage Foundation.
  • Altschiller, D. (1995). Turkish Americans. In J. Galens, A. Sheets, & R. V. Young (Ed.), Gale encyclopedia of multicultural America (pp. 1364-1368). Gale Research.
  • Amer, M. M., & Hovey, J. D. (2007). Socio-demographic differences in acculturation and mental health for a sample of 2nd generation/early immigrant Arab Americans. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 9(4), 335-347. Doi: 10.1007/s10903-007-9045-y
  • Arends-Tóth, J., & van de Vijver, F. J. R. (2007). Acculturation attitudes: A comparison of measurement methods. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 7, 1462-1488. Doi: 10.1111/j.1559-1816.2007.00222.x
  • Balidemaj, A., & Small, M. (2018). Acculturation, ethnic identity, and psychological wellbeing of Albanian-American immigrants in the United States. International Journal of Culture and Mental Health, 11(4), 712-730. Doi: 10.1080/17542863.2018.1556717
  • Barsade, S. G., & Gibson, D. E. (2007). Why does affect matter in organizations? The Academy of Management Perspectives, 21(1), 36-59. Doi: 10.5465/amp.2007.24286163
  • Berry, J. W. (1997). Immigration, acculturation, and adaptation. Applied Psychology, 46(1), 5-68. Doi: 10.1111/j.1464-0597.1997.tb01087.x
  • Berry, J. W. (2005). Acculturation: Living successfully in two cultures. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 29(6), 697-712. Doi: 10.1016/j.ijintrel.2005.07.013
  • Berry, J. W. (2019). Acculturation: A personal journey across cultures. In C. M. Allwood (ed.), Elements in psychology and culture series. Cambridge University Press. Doi: 10.1017/9781108589666
  • Berry, J. W., & Hou, F. (2016). Immigrant acculturation and wellbeing in Canada. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie Canadienne, 57(4), 254-264. Doi: 10.1037/cap0000064
  • Berry, J. W., & Hou, F. (2017). Acculturation, discrimination, and wellbeing among the second generation of immigrants in Canada. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 61, 29-39. Doi: 10.1016/j.ijintrel.2017.08.003
  • Berry, J. W., & Sabatier, C. (2010). Acculturation, discrimination, and adaptation among second-generation immigrant youth in Montréal and Paris. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 34(3), 191-207. Doi: 10.1016/j.ijintrel.2009.11.007
  • Berry, J. W., Phinney, J. S., Sam, D. L., & Vedder, P. (2006). Immigrant youth: Acculturation, identity, and adaptation. Applied Psychology and International Review, 55(3), 303-332. Doi: 10.1111/j.1464-0597.2006.00256.x
  • Bloemraad, Irene, & de Graauw. Els. (2012). Immigrant integration and policy in the United States: A loosely stitched patchwork. In James Frideres & John Biles (Eds.), International perspectives: integration and inclusion (pp. 205-232). Queen's Studies Series, McGill-Queen's University Press. https://escholarship.org/uc/item/2nc0m8bm
  • Bourhis, R. Y., Moïse, L. C., Perreault, S., & Senécal, S. (1997). Towards an interactive acculturation model: A social psychological approach. International Journal of Psychology, 32(6), 369-386. Doi: 10.1080/002075997400629
  • Carlson, E., & Güler, A. (2018). Cultural involvement and preference in immigrant acculturation. Journal of International Migration and Integration, 19(3), 625-647. Doi: 10.1007/s12134-018-0554-4
  • Cheung, G. W., & Rensvold, R. B. (2002). Evaluating goodness-of-fit indexes for testing measurement invariance. Structural Equation Modeling, 9(2), 233-255. Doi: 10.1207/S15328007SEM0902_5
  • Diener, E. (1984). Subjective wellbeing. Psychological Bulletin, 95(3), 542-575. Doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.95.3.542
  • Diener, E., Oishi, S., & Lucas, R. E. (2002). Subjective wellbeing: The science of happiness and life satisfaction. In C.R. Snyder & S.J. Lopez (Ed.), Handbook of positive psychology. Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.55.1.34
  • Diener, E., Pressman, S. D., Hunter, J., & Delgadillo‐Chase, D. (2017). If, why, and when subjective well‐being influences health and future needed research. Applied Psychology: Health and Well‐Being, 9(2), 133-167. Doi: 10.1111/aphw.12090
  • Diener, Ed, Robert A. Emmons, Randy J. L., & Sharon Griffin. (1985). The Satisfaction with Life Scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49(1),71-75. Doi: 10.1207/s15327752jpa4901_13
  • Dimitrova, R., Bender, M., Chasiotis, A., & van, d. V. (2013). Ethnic identity and acculturation of Turkish-Bulgarian adolescents. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 37(1), 1-10. Doi: 10.1016/j.ijintrel.2012.04.005
  • Erdfelder, E., Faul, F., & Buchner, A. (1996). GPOWER: A general power analysis program. Behaviour Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 28(1), 1-11. Doi: 10.3758/BF03203630
  • Ferguson, G. M., & Bornstein, M. H. (2012). Remote acculturation: The “Americanization” of Jamaican islanders. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 36(3), 167-177. Doi: 10.1177/0165025412437066
  • Gezentsvey Lamy, M. A., Ward, C., & Liu, J. H. (2013). Motivation for ethno-cultural continuity. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 44(7), 1047-1066. Doi: 10.1177/0022022113478657
  • Gordon, M. M. (1964). Assimilation in American life: The role of race, religion, and national origins. Oxford University Press.
  • Güler, A. (2016). The effects of ethnic identity in acculturation and psychological wellbeing among Turkish immigrants in the United States (Doctoral Dissertation, Hacettepe University).
  • Güler, A. (2019). Acculturation process of Turkish immigrants in the United States. Pamukkale University Journal of Social Sciences Institute, (37), 1-13. Doi: 10.30794/pausbed.543991
  • Gunasekara, A., Grant, S., & Rajendran, D. (2019). Years since migration and wellbeing among Indian and Sri Lankan skilled migrants in Australia: Mediating effects of acculturation. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 70, 42-52. Doi: 10.1016/j.ijintrel.2019.02.006
  • Halman, T. (1980). Turks. In S. Thernstrom, (ed.), Harvard encyclopedia of American ethnic groups (pp. xxv, 1076). Belknap Press.
  • Hashemi, N., Marzban, M., Sebar, B., & Harris, N. (2019). Acculturation and psychological wellbeing among Middle Eastern migrants in Australia: The mediating role of social support and perceived discrimination. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 72, 45-60. Doi: 10.1016/j.ijintrel.2019.07.002
  • Hernandez, D. J., Denton, N. A., & Macartney, S. E. (2007). Family circumstances of children in immigrant families: Looking to the future of America. In J. E. Lansford, K. Deater-Deckard, & M. H. Bornstein (Ed.), Immigrant families in contemporary society (pp. 9-29). Guilford Press.
  • Jetten, J., Branscombe, N. R., Haslam, S. A., Haslam, C., Cruwys, T., Jones, J. M., . . . Murphy, S. (2015). Having a lot of a good thing: Multiple important group memberships as a source of self-esteem. PloS One, 10(6), 1-29. Doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0124609
  • Kaya, I. (2004). Turkish American immigration history and identity formations. The Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 24(2), 295-308. Doi: 10.1080/1360200042000296672
  • Khawaja, N. G., Yang, S., & Cockshaw, W. (2016). Taiwanese migrants in Australia: An investigation of their acculturation and wellbeing. Journal of Pacific Rim Psychology, 10, 1-10. Doi: 10.1017/prp.2016.1
  • Kwak, K. (2018). Age and gender variations in healthy immigrant effect: A population study of immigrant wellbeing in Canada. Journal of International Migration and Integration, 19, 413-437. Doi: 10.1007/s12134-018-0546-4
  • Lucas, R. E., & Diener, E. (2015). Personality and subjective wellbeing: Current issues and controversies. In M. Mikulincer, P. R. Shaver, M. L. Cooper, & R. J. Larsen (Eds.), APA handbook of personality and social psychology. Vol. 4. (pp. 577–599). APA.
  • Migration Policy Institute. (2019). U.S. Immigrant population and share over time, 1850-Present. Retrieved from https://www.migrationpolicy.org/programs/data-hub/charts/immigrant-population-over-time.
  • Nguyen, A. D., & Benet-Martínez, V. (2013). Biculturalism and adjustment: A meta-analysis. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 44(1), 122-159. Doi: 10.1177/0022022111435097
  • Nikolaev, B., Boudreaux, C. J., & Wood, M. (2019). Entrepreneurship and subjective wellbeing: The mediating role of psychological functioning. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 44(3), 557-586. Doi: 10.1177/1042258719830314
  • Obasi, E. M., & Leong, F. T. L. (2009). Psychological distress, acculturation, and mental health-seeking attitudes among people of African descent in the United States: A preliminary investigation. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 56(2), 227-238. Doi: 10.1037/a0014865
  • Pew Research Center. (2019). Facts on U.S. Immigrants, 2017. Retrieved from https://www.pewresearch.org/hispanic/2019/06/03/facts-on-u-s-immigrants/.
  • Population Division of the United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs. (2019). International Migrant Stock 2019. Retrieved from https://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/migration/data/estimates2/estimates19.asp.
  • Rania, N., Rebora, S., Migliorini, L., & Navas, M. S. (2019). Acculturation process and life domains: Different perceptions of native and immigrant adults in Italy. The Open Psychology Journal, 12, 55-65. Doi: 10.2174/1874350101912010055
  • Rudner, A. T., & Orpana, H. (2012). The health status and health behaviors of immigrant and non-immigrant seniors. The CERIS Working Papers, 88(90), 55-77.
  • Ryder, A. G., Alden, L. E., & Paulhus, D. L. (2000). Is acculturation unidimensional or bidimensional? A head-to-head comparison in the prediction of personality, self-identity, and adjustment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79(1), 49-65. Doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.79.1.49
  • Sam, D. L., Vedder, P., Ward, C., & Horenczyk, G. (2006). Psychological and sociocultural adaptation of immigrant youth. In J.W. Berry, J.S. Phinney, D.L. Sam, & P. Vedder (Eds.), Migrant youth in cultural transition: Acculturation, identity, and adaptation across national contexts (pp. 117–142). Lawrence Erlbaum.
  • Schwartz, S. J., Unger, J. B., Zamboanga, B. L., & Szapocznik, J. (2010). Rethinking the concept of acculturation: Implications for theory and research. American Psychologist, 65, 237-251. Doi: 10.1037/a0019330
  • Shin, Cha-Nam & Helen W. Lach. (2014). Acculturation and health of Korean American adults. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 25(3), 273-280. Doi: 10.1177/1043659614523454
  • Sommerlad, E. A., & Berry, J. W. (1970). The role of ethnic identification in distinguishing between attitudes towards assimilation and integration of a minority racial group. Human Relations, 23(1), 23-29. Doi: 10.1177/001872677002300103
  • Szapocznik, J., Kurtines, W. M., & Fernandez, T. (1980). Bicultural involvement and adjustment in Hispano-American youths. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 4(3-4), 353-365. Doi: 10.1016/0147-1767(80)90010-3
  • Thompson, E. R. (2007). Development and validation of an internationally reliable short-form of the positive and negative affect schedule (PANAS). Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 38(2), 227-242. Doi: 10.1177/0022022106297301
  • Tip, L. K., González, R., Brown, R., De Tezanos-Pinto, P., Saavedra, P., Sagredo, V., ... Celeste, L. (2015). Effects of ingroup norms on domain-specific acculturation preferences: Experimental evidence from two cultural contexts. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 47, 113-130. Doi: 10.1016/j.ijintrel.2015.03.027
  • United States Census Bureau. (2018). Selected population profile in the United States. Retrieved from https://data.census.gov/cedsci/table?tid=ACSSPP1Y2018.S0201&hidePreview=true&moe=true
  • Ünver, Ö., & Nicaise, I. (2019). Interactive acculturation of Turkish-Belgian parents and children in Flanders: A case study of Beringen. Migration Letters, 16(3), 417-428. Doi: 10.33182/ml.v16i3.601
  • Van de Vijver, F., Berry, J. W., & Celenk, O. (2016). Assessment of acculturation. In D. L. Sam & J. W. Berry (Eds.). Cambridge handbook of acculturation psychology (pp. 93-114). Cambridge University Press.
  • Van Oudenhoven, J. P., & Benet-Martínez, V. (2015). In search of a cultural home: From acculturation to frame-switching and intercultural competencies. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 46, 47-54. Doi: 10.1016/j.ijintrel.2015.03.022
  • Watson, D., L. A. Clark & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(6), 1063-1070. Doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.54.6.1063
  • West S. G., Finch J. F., & Curran P. J. (1995). Structural equation models with non-normal variables: Problems and remedies. In: Hoyle R. H. (Ed.). Structural equation modeling: Concepts, issues, and applications. (pp. 56-75). Sage.
  • Yildirim, M., & Belen, H. (2018). Fear of happiness predicts subjective and psychological wellbeing above the Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) and Behavioral Activation System (BAS) model of personality. Journal of Positive Psychology and Wellbeing, 2(1), 92-111. https://journalppw.com/index.php/JPPW/article/view/48

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Social
Journal Section Research Article
Authors

Abdurrahim GÜLER (Primary Author)
AĞRI İBRAHİM ÇEÇEN ÜNİVERSİTESİ, FEN-EDEBİYAT FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0002-0317-8221
Türkiye


Murat YILDIRIM
AGRI IBRAHIM CECEN UNIVERSITY, FACULTY OF ARTS AND SCIENCES
0000-0003-1089-1380
Türkiye

Publication Date November 30, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 7, Issue 2

Cite

APA Güler, A. & Yıldırım, M. (2021). How is Acculturation Linked to Subjective Wellbeing: Evidence from Turkish Immigrants in the United States . Current Research in Social Sciences , 7 (2) , 46-60 . DOI: 10.30613/curesosc.994503