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Methods of Diagnosing in Liver Diseases for Dog and Cats

Year 2017, Volume: 10 Issue: 2, 36 - 46, 01.12.2017

Abstract

Diagnosis of liver diseases can be difficult because the symptoms of the organ may be ambiguous or may easily interfere with the symptoms of other liver diseases. In some cases, the animal may have no symptoms, but the liver may already be severely damaged. Liver diseases have multiple causes including infectious, genetic, autoimmune, and some metabolic. This makes diagnosis of the disease difficult and needs to be done to correctly diagnose the underlying cause of the disease. Diagnosis of liver diseases is based on initial formation and physical examination. Findings of liver diseases; weakness, fatigue, swelling of the abdomen, pain and nausea. In addition to clinical findings to diagnose liver diseases, existing tests called liver tests such as blood tests, hepatic enzymes, protein metabolism, lipid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and bilirubin urine analysis are used as additional diagnostic tests and include abdominal radiography, abdominal ultrasonography, nuclear scintigraphy, Such as computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and kallistatin levels are commonly used tests in liver diseases.

In this review, detailed information about abdominal radiography, abdominal ultrasonography, nuclear scintigraphy, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging kallistatin and vitamin D levels will be given in addition to the routine tests used to diagnose liver diseases.

References

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  • K. Wallace, A. D. Burt and M.Wright, Glial fibrillary acidic protein. Adapted from Liver fibrosis. Biochem J. (2008), 411, pp 1.
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  • N. H. Bexfield and P. J. Watson, Diagnosis of canine liver disease. In Practice, (2006) 28, pp. 444-453.
  • S. Comazzi, P. Pieralisi and W Bertazzolo, Haematological and biochemical abnormalities in canine blood. frequency and associations in 1022 samples. J Small Anim Pract., (2004), 45(7), pp. 343–349.
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  • S.A.Center, K. Warner, J. Corbett, J.F. Randolph and H.N. Erb, Proteins invoked by vitamin K absence and clotting times in clinically ill cats. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, (2000), 14(3), pp. 292-297.
  • J. J. Cerón, P.D. Eckersall and S. Martínez‐Subiela, Acute phase proteins in dogs and cats: current knowledge and future perspectives. Veterinary Clinical Pathology, (2005), 34(2), pp. 85-99.
  • M. J. Gerritzen‐Bruning, T.S.G.A.M. Ingh, J. Rothuizen, Diagnostic value of fasting plasma ammonia and bile acid concentrations in the identification of portosystemic shunting in dogs. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, (2006), 20(1), pp. 13-19.
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  • R. E. Temel and J.M. Brown, A new framework for reverse cholesterol transport. non-biliary contributions to reverse cholesterol transport. World J Gastroenterol, (2010), 16, pp. 5946–5952.
  • M. Sadiq and A.Baseer, Carbohydrate metabolism in liver cirrhosis. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association, (1991), 41(12), pp. 298-301.
  • M.S. Anwer, Anatomy and physiology of bile formation. Prog Pharm Clin Pharm, (1992), pp.8-3.
  • M.S. Anwer and D.J.Meyer, Bile acids in the diagnosis, pathology, and therapy of hepatobiliary disease. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract, (1995), 25, pp. 503-517.
  • C. Tiribelli, Determinants in the hepatic uptake of organic anions. Journal of hepatology, (1992), 14(2-3), pp.385-390.
  • S.A. Center and S.A. Joseph, Measurement of serum bile acids concentrations for diagnosis of hepatobiliary disease in cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc, (1995), 207(8), pp.1048-1054.
  • C. E. Balkman and S.A. Center, J.F. Randolph, D. Trainor, K.L. Warner, M.A.Crawford and H.N. Erb, Evaluation of urine sulfated and nonsulfated bile acids as a diagnostic test for liver disease in dogs. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, (2003), 222(10), pp. 1368-1375.
  • D.Trainor, S. A. Center, J. F. Randolph, C. E. Balkman, K. L. Warner, M. A. Crawford and H. N. Erb, Urine sulfated and nonsulfated bile acids as a diagnostic test for liver disease in cats. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, (2003), 17(2), pp.145-153.
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  • P.A. Sura, K.M. Tobias, F. Morandi, G.B. Daniel and R.L. Echandi, Comparison of 99mTcO4− Trans‐Splenic Portal Scintigraphy with Per‐Rectal Portal Scintigraphy for Diagnosis of Portosystemic Shunts in Dogs. Veterinary Surgery, (2007), 36(7), pp.654-660.
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  • E. Zini, T.M. Glaus, F. Minuto, M. Arvigo, B. Hauser and C.E. Reusch, Paraneoplastic Hypoglycemia Due to an Insulin‐Like Growth Factor Type‐II Secreting Hepatocellular Carcinoma in a Dog. Journal of Veterinary İnternal Medicine, (2007), 21(1), pp.193-195.
  • S.D. Zucker, X. Qin, S.D. Rouster, F. Yu, R.M. Green, P. Keshavan and K.E. Sherman, Mechanism of indinavir-induced hyperbilirubinemia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, (2001), 98(22), pp.12671-12676.
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Year 2017, Volume: 10 Issue: 2, 36 - 46, 01.12.2017

Abstract

References

  • V. Aspinall and M.O’Reilly, Introduction to Veterinary Anatomy and Physiology. Edinburgh. UK: Butterworth-Heinemann. (2004), pp. 119-120.
  • F. C. Mann, S. D. Brimihall and J. P. Foster, The extrahepatic biliary tract in common domestic and laboratory animals. Anat Rec, (1998), 18, pp. 47–66.
  • D. J. Meyer and J.W. Harvey, Clinical chemistry. in: D.J. Meyer, J.W. Harvey (Eds.) Veterinary laboratory medicine: interpretation and diagnosis. 3rd edition. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, (2004), pp. 145–155.
  • K. Wallace, A. D. Burt and M.Wright, Glial fibrillary acidic protein. Adapted from Liver fibrosis. Biochem J. (2008), 411, pp 1.
  • F.R. Simon, Hormonal regulation of bile secretion. In. Arias I, Alter HJ, Boyer JL. The Liver. Biology and Pathobiology, New York, Wiley Blackwell.(2009), pp. 323–339.
  • S. Center, Diagnostic procedures for evaluation of hepatic disease. In. Grant Guilford W, Center SA, Strombeck DR.Strombeck’s small animal gastroenterology. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa. WB Saunders Co.(1996), pp.136-143.
  • N. H. Bexfield and P. J. Watson, Diagnosis of canine liver disease. In Practice, (2006) 28, pp. 444-453.
  • S. Comazzi, P. Pieralisi and W Bertazzolo, Haematological and biochemical abnormalities in canine blood. frequency and associations in 1022 samples. J Small Anim Pract., (2004), 45(7), pp. 343–349.
  • B. A. Valentine, J. T. Blue and S. M. Shelley, Increased serum alanine aminotransferase activity associated with muscle necrosis in the dog. J Vet Intern Med. (1990), 4, pp.140-143.
  • S. A. Center, M. R. Slater and B. S.Manwarren, Diagnostic efficacy of serum alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyltransferase in dogs with histologically confirmed hepatobiliary disease. 270 cases (1980-1990). J Am Vet Med Assoc., (1992), 201, pp.1258-1264.
  • C. Brovida and J Rothuizen, Liver and pancreatic diseases. In Ettinger SJ, Feldman EC, eds, Textbook of veterinary internal medicine. diseases of the dog and cat. St. Louis. Elsevier Saunders, (2000), pp.1609–1628.
  • D. B. Brunson, J.B. Stevens and C.J. McGrath, Pre-operative liver screen selection. a comparison for glutamic pyruvic transaminase and serum alkaline phosphatase. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc, (1980), 16, pp. 209-214.
  • P. B. Muller, J. Taboada and G. Hosgood, Effects of long-term phenobarbital treatment on the liver in dogs. J Vet Intern Med, ( 2000), 14, pp. 165-171.
  • S. A. Center, B. H. Baldwin and A. De Lahunta, Evaluation of serum bile acid concentrations for the diagnosis of portosystemic venous anomalies in the dog and cat. J Am Vet Med Assoc, (1985), 186, pp.1090.
  • H. Itoh, T. Kakuta, G. Genda, I. Sakonju and K. Takase, Canine serum alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes detected by polyacrylamide gel disk electrophoresis. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, (2002), 64(1), pp. 35-39.
  • S. E. Bunch, Hepatotoxicity associated with pharmacologic agents in dogs and cats. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice (1993), 23(3), pp. 659-670.
  • S. P. Daniel and M.K. Marshall, Evaluation of the liver: laboratory tests. Schiff’s diseases of the liver, 8 th edn. USA; JB Lippincott publications.(1999), pp. 205-239.
  • S. B. Rosalki and N.Mcintyre, Biochemical investigations in the management of liver disease. Oxford textbook of clinical hepatology, 2nd ed. New York; Oxford university press. (1999), pp. 503-521.
  • C. Gabay and I.Kushner, Acute-phase proteins and other systemic responses to inflammation. N Engl J Med, (1999), 340, pp. 448.
  • P. G. Xenoulis and J.M. Steiner, Lipid metabolism and hyperlipidemia in the dog. Vet J, (2010), 183, pp. 12–21.
  • A. M. Lakner, H.L. Bonkovsky and L.W.Schrum, MicroRNAs: Fad or future of liver disease! World J Gastroenterol, (2011), 17, pp. 2536–2542.
  • E. K. Dunayer and S. M. Gwaltney-Brant, Acute hepatic failure and coagulopathy associated with xylitol ingestion in eight dogs. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, (2006), 229(7), pp. 1113-1117.
  • A. Kummeling, E .Teske, J. Rothuizen and F. J. Sluijs. Coagulation profiles in dogs with congenital portosystemic shunts before and after surgical attenuation. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, (2006), 20(6), pp. 1319-1326.
  • J.D. Niles, J.M. Williams and P. J. Cripps, Hemostatic profiles in 39 dogs with congenital portosystemic shunts. Veterinary Surgery, (2001), 30(1), pp. 97-104.
  • S.A.Center, K. Warner, J. Corbett, J.F. Randolph and H.N. Erb, Proteins invoked by vitamin K absence and clotting times in clinically ill cats. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, (2000), 14(3), pp. 292-297.
  • J. J. Cerón, P.D. Eckersall and S. Martínez‐Subiela, Acute phase proteins in dogs and cats: current knowledge and future perspectives. Veterinary Clinical Pathology, (2005), 34(2), pp. 85-99.
  • M. J. Gerritzen‐Bruning, T.S.G.A.M. Ingh, J. Rothuizen, Diagnostic value of fasting plasma ammonia and bile acid concentrations in the identification of portosystemic shunting in dogs. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, (2006), 20(1), pp. 13-19.
  • D. J. Meyer, D.R. Strombeck, E.A. Stone, R.D. Zenoble and D.D. Buss, Ammonia tolerance test in clinically normal dogs and in dogs with portosystemic shunts. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, (1978), 173(4), pp. 377.
  • G.K. Michalopoulos and M.C. DeFrances, Liver regeneration. Science, (1997), 276(5309), pp. 60-66.
  • C. Ferrari and M.Mondelli, Immune mechanisms of viral clearance. In. Arias I, Alter HJ, Boyer JL. The Liver. Biology and pathobiology, New York, Wiley Blackwell, (2009), pp 835–857.
  • D. R. Strombeck, D.J. Meyer and R. A. Freedland, Hyperammonemia due to a urea cycle enzyme deficiency in two dogs. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, (1975), 166(11), pp. 1109.
  • R. E. Temel and J.M. Brown, A new framework for reverse cholesterol transport. non-biliary contributions to reverse cholesterol transport. World J Gastroenterol, (2010), 16, pp. 5946–5952.
  • M. Sadiq and A.Baseer, Carbohydrate metabolism in liver cirrhosis. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association, (1991), 41(12), pp. 298-301.
  • M.S. Anwer, Anatomy and physiology of bile formation. Prog Pharm Clin Pharm, (1992), pp.8-3.
  • M.S. Anwer and D.J.Meyer, Bile acids in the diagnosis, pathology, and therapy of hepatobiliary disease. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract, (1995), 25, pp. 503-517.
  • C. Tiribelli, Determinants in the hepatic uptake of organic anions. Journal of hepatology, (1992), 14(2-3), pp.385-390.
  • S.A. Center and S.A. Joseph, Measurement of serum bile acids concentrations for diagnosis of hepatobiliary disease in cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc, (1995), 207(8), pp.1048-1054.
  • C. E. Balkman and S.A. Center, J.F. Randolph, D. Trainor, K.L. Warner, M.A.Crawford and H.N. Erb, Evaluation of urine sulfated and nonsulfated bile acids as a diagnostic test for liver disease in dogs. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, (2003), 222(10), pp. 1368-1375.
  • D.Trainor, S. A. Center, J. F. Randolph, C. E. Balkman, K. L. Warner, M. A. Crawford and H. N. Erb, Urine sulfated and nonsulfated bile acids as a diagnostic test for liver disease in cats. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, (2003), 17(2), pp.145-153.
  • T. Melgarejo, D. A. Williams, N. C. O’connell and K. D. Setchell, Serum unconjugated bile acids as a test for intestinal bacterial overgrowth in dogs. Digestive Diseases and Sciences, (2000), 45(2), pp.407-414.
  • A.J. German, M. J. Day and C.G. Ruaux, Comparison of direct and indirect tests for small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and antibiotic-responsive diarrhea in dogs. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, (2003) 17(1), pp. 33–43.
  • R.A. Irausquin, T.D. Scavelli, L. Corti, J.D. Stefanacci, J. DeMarco, S. Flood and B. W. Rohrbach, Comparative evaluation of the liver in dogs with a splenic mass by using ultrasonography and contrast-enhanced computed tomography. Canadian Veterinary Journal, (2008), 49(1), pp.46–52.
  • Hall J, German AJ. “Laboratory evaluation of hepatic disease,” in BSAVA Manual of Canine and Feline Clinical Pathology, E. Villiers and L, BSAVA, Gloucester, UK, 2nd edition. Blackwood, Eds. (2005), pp. 184–206.
  • E.Q. Chen, Y. Shi and H Tang, New insight of vitamin D in chronic liver diseases. Hepatobiliary & Pancreatic Diseases International, (2014), 13(6), pp.580-585.
  • Center SA, Magne ML. Historical, physical examination, and clinicopathologic features of portosystemic va scular anomalies in the dog and cat. Semin Vet Med Surg (Small Anim), (1990), 5, pp.83–93.
  • C.A. Clifford, E.S. Pretorius, C. Weisse, K.U. Sorenmo, K.J. Drobatz, E.S. Siegelman and J.A. Solomon, Magnetic resonance imaging of focal splenic and hepatic lesions in the dog. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, (2004), 18(3), pp.330-338.
  • P.A. Sura, K.M. Tobias, F. Morandi, G.B. Daniel and R.L. Echandi, Comparison of 99mTcO4− Trans‐Splenic Portal Scintigraphy with Per‐Rectal Portal Scintigraphy for Diagnosis of Portosystemic Shunts in Dogs. Veterinary Surgery, (2007), 36(7), pp.654-660.
  • B.L. Gregory, G.D. Shelton and D.S. Bali, Glycogen storage disease type IIIa in curly-coated retrievers. Journal of Veterinary İnternal Medicine, (2007), 21(1), pp.40-46.
  • D.R. Strombeck, S.Krum and D.J. Meyer, Hypoglycemia and hypoinsulinemia associated with hepatoma in a dog. J Am Vet Med Assoc, (1976), 169, pp.811.
  • E. Zini, T.M. Glaus, F. Minuto, M. Arvigo, B. Hauser and C.E. Reusch, Paraneoplastic Hypoglycemia Due to an Insulin‐Like Growth Factor Type‐II Secreting Hepatocellular Carcinoma in a Dog. Journal of Veterinary İnternal Medicine, (2007), 21(1), pp.193-195.
  • S.D. Zucker, X. Qin, S.D. Rouster, F. Yu, R.M. Green, P. Keshavan and K.E. Sherman, Mechanism of indinavir-induced hyperbilirubinemia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, (2001), 98(22), pp.12671-12676.
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There are 75 citations in total.

Details

Primary Language English
Journal Section Collection
Authors

Süleyman Kozat

Ehsan Sepehrizadeh This is me

Publication Date December 1, 2017
Published in Issue Year 2017 Volume: 10 Issue: 2

Cite

APA Kozat, S., & Sepehrizadeh, E. (2017). Methods of Diagnosing in Liver Diseases for Dog and Cats. Türk Bilimsel Derlemeler Dergisi, 10(2), 36-46.
AMA Kozat S, Sepehrizadeh E. Methods of Diagnosing in Liver Diseases for Dog and Cats. Turk.Bilimsel Derleme Derg. December 2017;10(2):36-46.
Chicago Kozat, Süleyman, and Ehsan Sepehrizadeh. “Methods of Diagnosing in Liver Diseases for Dog and Cats”. Türk Bilimsel Derlemeler Dergisi 10, no. 2 (December 2017): 36-46.
EndNote Kozat S, Sepehrizadeh E (December 1, 2017) Methods of Diagnosing in Liver Diseases for Dog and Cats. Türk Bilimsel Derlemeler Dergisi 10 2 36–46.
IEEE S. Kozat and E. Sepehrizadeh, “Methods of Diagnosing in Liver Diseases for Dog and Cats”, Turk.Bilimsel Derleme Derg., vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 36–46, 2017.
ISNAD Kozat, Süleyman - Sepehrizadeh, Ehsan. “Methods of Diagnosing in Liver Diseases for Dog and Cats”. Türk Bilimsel Derlemeler Dergisi 10/2 (December 2017), 36-46.
JAMA Kozat S, Sepehrizadeh E. Methods of Diagnosing in Liver Diseases for Dog and Cats. Turk.Bilimsel Derleme Derg. 2017;10:36–46.
MLA Kozat, Süleyman and Ehsan Sepehrizadeh. “Methods of Diagnosing in Liver Diseases for Dog and Cats”. Türk Bilimsel Derlemeler Dergisi, vol. 10, no. 2, 2017, pp. 36-46.
Vancouver Kozat S, Sepehrizadeh E. Methods of Diagnosing in Liver Diseases for Dog and Cats. Turk.Bilimsel Derleme Derg. 2017;10(2):36-4.