Bulaşıcı Hastalıklar Bölgesel Kalkınmayı Nasıl Etkiler: Azor Adaları’nda SARS-CoV-2 Salgınının Turizm Sektörüne Etkileri
How an Infectious Disease Could Influence the Development of a Region: The Evidence of the SARS-CoV-2 Outbreak over the Tourism Intentions in Azores Archipelago

Rui CASTANHO [1] , Gualter COUTO [2] , Pedro PİMENTEL [3] , Aurea SOUSA [4] , Célia BARRETO CARVALHO [5] , Maria Da Graça BATİSTA [6]


Amaç: Şiddetli akut solunum yolu sendromu koronavirüsü 2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, SARS-CoV-2)’nin yol açtığı bulaşıcı hastalık sosyal hayatı alışılagelmedik bir şekilde etkilemiştir. Aşılamaya kadar, bu yeni virüsü kontrol altına almak için sosyal mesafe ve kitlesel kısıtlamalar en etkili stratejiler olarak ortaya çıkmaktadır. Bu çerçevede, bu çalışma SARS-CoV-2’nin Azores bölgesi turizm sektörü faaliyetleri üzerindeki etkilerinin ve bölgesel kalkınmaya yansımalarının incelenmesi amacıyla yürütülmüştür. Gereç ve Yöntemler: Bu nedenle bu çalışmada, anket yöntemi uygulanarak karar alıcıların, kamunun ve turistlerin gözünden bu salgının algısı değerlendirildi. Çalışmanın örneklemi 700 katılımcıdan oluşmaktadır. Anketler, çevrimiçi görüşme yapma gerekliliği göz önünde bulundurularak tasarlanmış ve 2020 yılının ilkbahar aylarında uygulanmıştır. Anketlerden elde edilen veriler toplandıktan sonra analitik yöntemler ve araçlar ile değerlendirilmiştir. Bulgular: Araştırma sonuçlarına göre bu bulaşıcı hastalık salgını döneminde bireyler tatil tercihlerini turistik tatil tesisleri (oteller veya daire ya da ev kiralamak)’nden ziyade öncelikli olarak aile veya arkadaşlarının tatil evinde geçirme (%20) doğrultusunda yapmışlardır. Ayrıca, tatil tercihlerinde kırsal kesim turizm konaklama yerlerinin seçiminde de önemli artışlar olduğu gözlenmiştir. Bunun yanında, araştırmaya katılan bireylerin yarısından fazlası konaklama ve restoran seçiminde (%75,8), ve ziyaret edilecek olan destinasyonların seçiminde (%50,5) Portekiz Sağlık Kurulları tarafından tescillenen “Temiz ve Güvenli” pulunun bulunmasının çok önemli olduğunu düşünmekteydi. Sonuç: Bu çalışma, SARS-CoV-2 dolayısıyla ortaya çıkan olumsuzlukların birçok katmanda ağır etkilerinin varlığını, özellikle bu çok periferdeki bölgede turizmin en fazla etkilenen sektör olduğunu ortaya koymuştur.
Aim: After a contagious disease outbreak, as is the case of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), societal dynamics shift on an unconventional level. In the lack of a vaccine, social distancing and massive lockdowns are acquired as the most effective strategies to contain this new virus. In this regard, the present study was carried out to determine the influence of SARS-CoV-2 over the Azores territory activities as tourism and consequent regional development impacts. Material and Methods: Therefore, the study assessed the decision-makers, the public, and tourists' perceptions regarding this disease outbreak by applying testing tools as questionnaires. This study used a sample of 700 participants. The questionnaires were designed, considering the necessity to carry out online interviews, and were implemented in the Spring months of 2020. After the data from the surveys were gathered, analytical methods and tools were used. Results: The research recognized that during an infectious disease outbreak, people prioritized spending their vacations at the holiday residence of family or friends (20%) instead of touristic resorts (hotels or rented apartments or houses). Also, the study verified a considerable increase in selecting rural tourism accommodations. Besides, more than half of the study participants considered that the “Clean and Safe” stamp (attributed by the Portuguese Health Authorities) is crucial when choosing accommodation and restaurants (75.8%) as well as for choosing the destination to visit (50.5%). Conclusion: The study assumes enormous consequences of the SARS-CoV-2 crisis at multi-levels, being the tourism activity the most affected in this ultra-peripheral region.
  • Mora Aliseda J. El coronavirus obliga a una respuesta sin fronteras. Special Issue of: Reflexiones sobre el coronavirus y sus impactos in Revista Científica Monfragüe Resiliente–Scientific Journal. 2020;(Special Issue):6-8.
  • Gössling S, Scott D, Hall CM. Pandemics, tourism and global change: a rapid assessment of COVID-19. J Sustain Tour. 2020;29(1):1-20.
  • Tatem AJ, Rogers DJ, Hay SI. Global transport networks and infectious disease spread. Adv Parasitol. 2006;62:293-343.
  • Wilson ME. Global travel and emerging infections. In: Choffnes ER, Mack A, Relman DA, editors. Infectious diseases movement in a borderless world, workshop summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2010. p.90-104.
  • Browne A, Ahmad SS, Beck CR, Nguyen-Van-Tam JS. The roles of transportation and transportation hubs in the propagation of influenza and coronaviruses: a systematic review. J Travel Med. 2016;23(1):tav002
  • Burkle Jr FM. Globalization and disasters: issues of public health, state capacity and political action. Journal of International Affairs. 2006;59(2):241-65.
  • Gössling S. Global environmental consequences of tourism. Glob Environ Change. 2002;12(4):283-302.
  • Hall CM. Tourism urbanization and global environmental change. In: Gössling S, Hall CM, editors. Tourism and global environmental change: Ecological, economic, social and political interrelationships. London: Routledge; 2006. p.142-56.
  • Page S, Yeoman I. How VisitScotland prepared for a flu pandemic. Journal of Business Continuity & Emergency Planning. 2007;1(2):167-82.
  • Fauci AS, Morens DM. The perpetual challenge of infectious diseases. N Engl J Med. 2012;366(5):454-61.
  • Scott D, Gössling S. What could the next 40 years hold for global tourism? Tourism Recreation Research. 2015;40(3):269-85.
  • Qureshi AI. Economic and political impact of ebola virus disease. Ebola Virus Disease. 2016;177-91.
  • Rosselló J, Santana-Gallego M, Awan W. Infectious disease risk and international tourism demand. Health Policy Plan. 2017;32(4):538-48.
  • Abukhalifeh A, Faller EM, Ahmad A, Tadros S. Current issue in tourism: Diseases transformation as a potential risks for travellers. Glob Stoch Anal, 2018;5(7):341-50.
  • Qiu W, Chu C, Mao A, Wu J. The impacts on health, society, and economy of SARS and H7N9 outbreaks in China: A case comparison study. J Environ Public Health. 2018;2018:2710185.
  • Bloom DE, Cadarette D. Infectious disease threats in the twenty-first century: Strengthening the global response. Front Immunol. 2019;10:549.
  • Espinoza D. La Propuesta de Trabajo de Costa Rica para Atender en la Crisis Pandémica por el SARS-COV-2 y la Participación de las Universidades Estatales. Special Issue of: Reflexiones sobre el coronavirus y sus impactos in Revista Científica Monfragüe Resiliente–Scientific Journal. 2020;(Special Issue):66-80.
  • Castanho RA. A pandemic crisis shocking us all: The COVID-19. Special Issue of: Reflexiones sobre el coronavirus y sus impactos in Revista Científica Monfragüe Resiliente–Scientific Journal. 2020;(Special Issue):233-8.
  • Abu Bakar N, Rosbi S. Effect of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) to tourism industry. International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Science. 2020;7(4):189-93.
  • McKibbin W, Roshen F. The economic impact of COVID-19. In: Baldwin R, di Mauro BW, editors. Economics in the time of COVID-19. London, UK: CEPR Press; 2020. p.45-52.
  • oecd.org [Internet]. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. The impact of the coronavirus (COVID-19) crisis on development finance. [Cited: 2020, Jul 21]. Available from: https://read.oecd-ilibrary.org/view/?ref=134_134569-xn1go1i113&title=The-impact-of-the-coronavirus-(COVID-19)-crisis-on-development-finance
  • Ranasinghe R, Damunupola A, Wijesundara S, Karunarathna C, Nawarathna D, Gamage S, et al. Tourism after corona: Impacts of COVID-19 pandemic and way forward for tourism, hotel and mice industry in Sri Lanka. Hotel and Mice Industry in Sri Lanka. SSRN. 2020. doi: 10.2139/ssrn.3587170.
  • Sigala M. Tourism and COVID-19: impacts and implications for advancing and resetting industry and research. Journal of Business Research. 2020;117:312-21.
  • unctad.org [Internet]. United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. COVID-19 and tourism: Assessing the economic consequences. [Cited: 2020, Aug 31]. Available from: https://unctad.org/system/ files/official-document/ditcinf2020d3_en.pdf.
  • Castanho RA, Lousada S, Camacho R, Naranjo Gómez JM, Loures L, Cabezas J. Ordenamento territorial e a sua relação com o turismo regional. O caso de estudo da Região Autónoma da Madeira (RAM). Cidades. Comunidades e Territórios. 2018;36:42-55.
  • Santos R, Castanho RA, Lousada S. Return migration and tourism sustainability in Portugal: Extracting opportunities for sustainable common planning in Southern Europe. Sustainability. 2019:11(22):6468.
  • Naranjo Gómez JM, Lousada S, Velarde JG, Castanho RA, Loures L. Land-use changes in the canary archipelago using the CORINE data: A retrospective analysis. Land. 2020;9(7):232.
  • Reliefweb.int [Internet]. ReliefWeb. Reference map of Azores Islands. [Cited: 2020, Nov 30]. Available from: https://reliefweb.int/map/azores-islands-portugal/reference-map-azores-islands
  • COS.A. Carta de Ocupação do Solo da Região Autónoma dos Açores. Direção Regional do Ambiente e Inforgeo. Horta, Faial, Açores, Portugal. Relatorio_COS.A_2018.pdf (azores.gov.pt). (In Portuguese), 2018.
  • Castanho RA, Naranjo Gómez JM, Vulevic A, Behradfar A, Couto G. Assessing transportation patterns in the Azores Archipelago. Infrastructures. 2021;6(1):10.
  • Vieira J, Couto G, Pimentel P, Menezes A, Moniz A, Sousa F. The satisfaction of the Nordic Tourist with the Azores as a destination. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism. 2013;13(sup1):58-72.
  • Couto G, Pimentel P, Ponte J. Tourism development potential in an insular territory: the case of Ribeira Grande in the Azores. J Tourism Res Hospitality. 2017;6(2). doi: 10.4172/2324-8807.1000166
  • Castanho RA, Couto G, Pimentel P. Principles of sustainable tourism and cultural management in rural and ultra-peripheral territories: Extracting guidelines for application in the Azores Archipelago. Cult Manag Sci Educ. 2020;4(1):9-24.
  • Couto G, Castanho RA, Pimentel P, Carvalho C, Sousa Á, Santos C. The impacts of COVID-19 crisis over the tourism expectations of the Azores archipelago residents. Sustainability. 2020;12(18):7612.
  • Castanho RA, Couto G, Pimentel P, Carvalho CB, Sousa Á. Territorial management and governance, regional public policies and their relationship with tourism. A case study of the Azores autonomous region. Sustainability. 2020;12(15):6059.
  • Castanho RA, Couto G, Pimentel P, Carvalho C, Sousa Á, Velarde JG. Assessing the impacts of public policies over tourism in Azores Islands. A research based on tourists and residents perceptions. WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development. 2020;16:744-53.
  • Labrianidis L, Ferrão J, Hertzina K, Kalantaridis C, Piasecki B, Smallbone D. The Future of Europe’s Rural Periphery; Final Report; 5th Framework Programme of the European Community, 2003.
  • Sharpley R, Vass A. Tourism, farming and diversification: An attitudinal study. Tourism Management. 2006;27(5):1040-52.
  • Chen KH, Yang HY. Appraising the economic impact of the “opening up to mainland Chinese tourist arrivals” policy on Taiwan with a tourism-CGE model. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research. 2010;15(2):155-75.
  • Santos R. O regresso dos emigrantes portugueses e o desenvolvimento do turismo em Portugal (Doctoral dissertation, Tese de Doutoramento, Departamento de Economia, Gestão, Engenharia Industrial e Turismo, Universidade de Aveiro), 2003.
  • Fernández-Jeri A. El Comportamiento del Consumidor Convencional de Alimentos Durante el COVID-19, en el Perú. Special Issue of: Reflexiones sobre el coronavirus y sus impactos in Revista Científica Monfragüe Resiliente–Scientific Journal, 2020;(Special Issue):86-92.
  • wttc.org [Internet]. World Travel and Tourism Council. Economic Impact Reports. [Cited: 2020, Jul 21]. Available from: https://wttc.org/Research/ Economic-Impact
  • Oppermann M. Tourism destination loyalty. Journal of Travel Research. 2000;39(1):78-84.
  • Yavas U, Babakus E. Dimensions of hotel choice criteria: congruence between business and leisure travelers. International Journal of Hospitality Management. 2005;24(3):359-67.
  • Bigné JE, Mattila AS, Andreu L. The impact of experiential consumption cognitions and emotions on behavioral intentions. Journal of Services Marketing. 2008;22(4):303-15.
  • Chin CH, Law FY, Lo MC, Ramayah T. The impact of accessibility quality and accommodation quality on tourists' satisfaction and revisit intention to rural tourism destination in Sarawak: the moderating role of local communities' attitude. Global Business and Management Research. 2018;10(2):115-27.
  • Aruan DTH, Felicia F. Factors influencing travelers’ behavioral intentions to use P2P accommodation based on trading activity: Airbnb vs Couchsurfing. International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research. 2019;13(4):487-504.
  • Faulkner B, Vikulov S. Katherine, washed out one day, back on track the next: a post-mortem of a tourism disaster. Tourism Management. 2001;22(4):331-44.
  • Wen J, Kozak M, Yang S, Liu F. COVID-19: potential effects on Chinese citizens’ lifestyle and travel. Tourism Review. 2020;76(1):74-87.
  • Melly D, Hanrahan J. Tourism biosecurity risk management and planning: an international comparative analysis and implications for Ireland. Tourism Review. 2020;76(1):88-102.
  • Dai YD, Zhuang WL, Lu SC, Huan TC. Work engagement or job burnout? Psychological ownership amongst the employees of international tourist hotels. Tourism Review. 2020;[Epub ahead of print]. doi: 10.1108/tr-03-2020-0087.
  • Boğan E, Dedeoğlu BB, Dedeoğlu SB. The effect of residents’ perception of hotel social responsibility on overall attitude toward tourism. Tourism Review. 2020;[Epub ahead of print]. 10.1108/TR-08-2019-0353.
  • Fakfare P, Wattanacharoensil W. Impacts of community market development on the residents’ well-being and satisfaction. Tourism Review. 2020;[Epub ahead of print]. doi: 10.1108/tr-02-2020-0071.
Primary Language en
Subjects Medicine
Journal Section Research Article
Authors

Orcid: 0000-0003-1882-4801
Author: Rui CASTANHO (Primary Author)
Institution: WSB University
Country: Poland


Orcid: 0000-0001-5560-5101
Author: Gualter COUTO
Institution: University of Azores
Country: Portugal


Orcid: 0000-0003-1056-0338
Author: Pedro PİMENTEL
Institution: University of Azores
Country: Portugal


Orcid: 0000-0003-3151-5237
Author: Aurea SOUSA
Institution: University of Azores
Country: Portugal


Orcid: 0000-0003-4453-8139
Author: Célia BARRETO CARVALHO
Institution: University of Azores
Country: Portugal


Orcid: 0000-0002-0832-0397
Author: Maria Da Graça BATİSTA
Institution: University of Azores
Country: Portugal


Supporting Institution FCT – Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia
Project Number UIDB/00685/2020
Thanks This paper is financed by Portuguese national funds through FCT—Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, I.P., project number UIDB/00685/2020 and also by the project GREAT—Genuine Rural Experiences in the Azores Tourism with the code: ACORES-01-0145-FEDER-000089.
Dates

Publication Date : March 30, 2021

Bibtex @research article { dtfd869791, journal = {Duzce Medical Journal}, issn = {}, eissn = {1307-671X}, address = {}, publisher = {Duzce University}, year = {2021}, volume = {23}, pages = {106 - 112}, doi = {10.18678/dtfd.869791}, title = {How an Infectious Disease Could Influence the Development of a Region: The Evidence of the SARS-CoV-2 Outbreak over the Tourism Intentions in Azores Archipelago}, key = {cite}, author = {Castanho, Rui and Couto, Gualter and Pimentel, Pedro and Sousa, Aurea and Barreto Carvalho, Célia and Batista, Maria Da Graça} }
APA Castanho, R , Couto, G , Pimentel, P , Sousa, A , Barreto Carvalho, C , Batista, M . (2021). How an Infectious Disease Could Influence the Development of a Region: The Evidence of the SARS-CoV-2 Outbreak over the Tourism Intentions in Azores Archipelago . Duzce Medical Journal , 23 (Special Issue) , 106-112 . DOI: 10.18678/dtfd.869791
MLA Castanho, R , Couto, G , Pimentel, P , Sousa, A , Barreto Carvalho, C , Batista, M . "How an Infectious Disease Could Influence the Development of a Region: The Evidence of the SARS-CoV-2 Outbreak over the Tourism Intentions in Azores Archipelago" . Duzce Medical Journal 23 (2021 ): 106-112 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/dtfd/issue/60535/869791>
Chicago Castanho, R , Couto, G , Pimentel, P , Sousa, A , Barreto Carvalho, C , Batista, M . "How an Infectious Disease Could Influence the Development of a Region: The Evidence of the SARS-CoV-2 Outbreak over the Tourism Intentions in Azores Archipelago". Duzce Medical Journal 23 (2021 ): 106-112
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - How an Infectious Disease Could Influence the Development of a Region: The Evidence of the SARS-CoV-2 Outbreak over the Tourism Intentions in Azores Archipelago AU - Rui Castanho , Gualter Couto , Pedro Pimentel , Aurea Sousa , Célia Barreto Carvalho , Maria Da Graça Batista Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - doi: 10.18678/dtfd.869791 DO - 10.18678/dtfd.869791 T2 - Duzce Medical Journal JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 106 EP - 112 VL - 23 IS - Special Issue SN - -1307-671X M3 - doi: 10.18678/dtfd.869791 UR - https://doi.org/10.18678/dtfd.869791 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 Düzce Tıp Fakültesi Dergisi How an Infectious Disease Could Influence the Development of a Region: The Evidence of the SARS-CoV-2 Outbreak over the Tourism Intentions in Azores Archipelago %A Rui Castanho , Gualter Couto , Pedro Pimentel , Aurea Sousa , Célia Barreto Carvalho , Maria Da Graça Batista %T How an Infectious Disease Could Influence the Development of a Region: The Evidence of the SARS-CoV-2 Outbreak over the Tourism Intentions in Azores Archipelago %D 2021 %J Duzce Medical Journal %P -1307-671X %V 23 %N Special Issue %R doi: 10.18678/dtfd.869791 %U 10.18678/dtfd.869791
ISNAD Castanho, Rui , Couto, Gualter , Pimentel, Pedro , Sousa, Aurea , Barreto Carvalho, Célia , Batista, Maria Da Graça . "How an Infectious Disease Could Influence the Development of a Region: The Evidence of the SARS-CoV-2 Outbreak over the Tourism Intentions in Azores Archipelago". Duzce Medical Journal 23 / Special Issue (March 2021): 106-112 . https://doi.org/10.18678/dtfd.869791
AMA Castanho R , Couto G , Pimentel P , Sousa A , Barreto Carvalho C , Batista M . How an Infectious Disease Could Influence the Development of a Region: The Evidence of the SARS-CoV-2 Outbreak over the Tourism Intentions in Azores Archipelago. Duzce Medical Journal. 2021; 23(Special Issue): 106-112.
Vancouver Castanho R , Couto G , Pimentel P , Sousa A , Barreto Carvalho C , Batista M . How an Infectious Disease Could Influence the Development of a Region: The Evidence of the SARS-CoV-2 Outbreak over the Tourism Intentions in Azores Archipelago. Duzce Medical Journal. 2021; 23(Special Issue): 106-112.
IEEE R. Castanho , G. Couto , P. Pimentel , A. Sousa , C. Barreto Carvalho and M. Batista , "How an Infectious Disease Could Influence the Development of a Region: The Evidence of the SARS-CoV-2 Outbreak over the Tourism Intentions in Azores Archipelago", Duzce Medical Journal, vol. 23, no. Special Issue, pp. 106-112, Mar. 2021, doi:10.18678/dtfd.869791