Research Article
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Year 2021, Volume 10, Issue 1, 38 - 50, 01.01.2021
https://doi.org/10.18393/ejss.807762

Abstract

References

  • Abbasi, S.A., Ramasamy, E. V., 1999. Biotechnological Methods of Pollution Control. Orient Longman Ltd. UK. 168 pp.
  • Aranda, E., Barois, I., Arellano, P., Irisson, S., Salazar, T., Rodriguez, J., Patron, J.C., 1999. Vermicomposting in the tropics. In: Earthworm Management in Tropical Agroecosystems. Lavelle, P., Brussard, L., Hendrix, P., (Eds.), CABI, UK, pp. 253–287.
  • Bansal, S., Kapoor, K.K. 2000. Vermicomposting of crop residues and cattle dung with Eisenia foetida. Bioresource Technology 73(2): 95–98.
  • Barrera, I., Andrés, P., Alcañiz, J. M., 2001. Sewage sludge application on soil: Effects on two earthworms species. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 129: 319–332.
  • Carter, G.S., Kenney, E.A., Guthrie, T.F., Timmenga, H., 1983. Heavy metals in earthworms in non-containated and contaminated agricultural soil from near Vancouver, Canada. In: Satchell, J.E. (Ed.). Earthworm Ecology. Chapman and Hall. London, UK. pp.267-274.
  • Dia, J., Becquer, T., Rouiller, J.H., Reversat, G., Bernhard-Reversat, F., Nahmani, J., Lavelle, P., 2004. Heavy metal accumulation by two earthworm species and its relationship to total and DTPA-extractable metals in soils. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 36(1): 91–98.
  • Edwards, C.A., 1996. Biology and Ecology of Earthworms. 3rd edition Chapman & Hall, New York. Usa. 426p.
  • Edwards, C.A., 1988. Breakdown of animal, vegetable and industrial organic wastes by earthworms. In: Earthworms in Waste and Environmental Management, Edwards, C.A., Neuhauser, E.F., (Eds), SPB Academic Publishing, The Hague, The Netherlands. pp. 21–31.
  • Edwards, C.A., Bater, J.E., 1992. The use of earthworms in environmental management. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 24(12): 1683-1689.
  • Elvira, C., Sampedro, L., Dominguez, J., Mato, S., 1997. Vermicomposting of wastewater sludge from paper-pulp industry with nitrogen rich materials. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 29(3-4): 759-762.
  • Garg, V.K., Kaushik, P., 2005. Vermistabilization of textile mill sludge spiked with poultry droppings by an epigeic earthworm Eisenia foetida. Bioresource Technology 96(9): 1189–1193.
  • Goats, G.C., Edwards, C.A., 1988. The Prediction of Field Toxicity of Chemicals to Earthworms by Laboratory Methods, In: Earthworms in Waste and Environmental Management, Edwards, C.A., Neuhauser, E.F., (Eds), SPB Academic Publishing, The Hague, The Netherlands. pp. 283-294.
  • Graff, O., 1982. Vergleich der Regenswurmaten Eisenia feotida und Eudrilus eugeniae hinsichlich ihrer Eignung zur Proteinwinnung aus Abfallstoffen. Pedobiologia 23 : 277-282.
  • Gupta, S.K., Tewari, A., Srivastava, R., Murthy, R.C., Chandra, S., 2005. Potential of Eisenia foetida for sustainable and efficient vermicomposting of fly ash. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 163: 293–302.
  • Gupta, R., Garg, V.K., 2008. Stabilization of primary sewage sludge during vermicomposting. Journal of Hazardous Materials 153(3): 1023–1030.
  • Hartenstein, R., 1983. Assimilation by the earthworm Eisenia fetida. In: Earthworm Ecology: from Darwin to Vermiculture. Satchell, J.E. (Ed), Chapman and Hall, London, pp. 297-308.
  • Hartensein, R., Hartenstein, F., 1981. Physicochemical changes effected in activated sludge by the earthworm Eisenia foetida. Journal of Environmental Quality 10(3): 377–382.
  • Harstenstein, R., Mitchell, M.J., 1978. Utilization of earthworms and microorganisms in stabilization, decontamination and detoxification of residual sludges from treatment of wastewater. Final Report, US Department of Commence, National Technical Information Services, PB 286018, Springfield, Virginia. 34pp.
  • Hopkin, S.P., 1989. Ecophysiology of Metals in Terrestrial Invertebrates. Springer Netherlands, 366p. Hsu, M.J., Selvaraj, K., Agoramoorthy, G., 2006. Taiwan’s industrial heavy metal pollution threatens terrestrial biota. Environmental Pollution 143(2): 327–334.
  • Ireland, M.P., 1983. Heavy metal uptake and tissue distribution in earthworms. In : Earthworm Ecology: From Darwin to Vermiculture. Satchell, J.E. (Ed), Chapman and Hall, London, UK. pp. 247-265.
  • Ismail, S.A., 1997, Vermicology: The Biology of Earthworms, Orient Longmans, Hyderabad, 92 pp. Jain, K., Singh, J., 2004. Modulation of fly ash induced genotoxicity in vicia faba by vermicomposting. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 59(1): 89-94.
  • Jain, K., Singh, J., Gupta, S.K., 2003. Development of a modified vermireactor for efficient vermicomposting: a laboratory study. Bioresource Technology 90(3): 335-337.
  • Kagi, J.H.R., Kojima, Y., 1987. Chemistry and biochemistry of metallothionein. In: Metallothionein II. Kagi, J.H.R., Kojima, Y. (Eds). Birkhauser, Verlag. Basel, Switzerland. pp 25–61.
  • Kaplan, D., Hartenstein, R., Neuhauser, E.F., Malecki, M.R., 1980. Physicochemical requirements in the environment of the earthworm Eisenia foetida. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 12(4): 165-171.
  • Katayama, A., Ker, K.C., Hirai, M., Shoda, M., Kubota, H., 1987. Stabilization process of sewage sludge compost in soil. Soil Science Plant Nutrition 33(1): 123-135.
  • Kaushik, P., Garg, V.K., 2003. Vermicomposting of mixed solid textile mill sludge and cow dung with epigeic earthworm Eisenia foetida. Bioresource Technology 90(3): 311–316.
  • Kızılkaya, R., 2004. Cu and Zn accumulation in earthworm L. terrestris L. in sewage sludge amended soil and fractions of Cu and Zn in casts and surrounding soil. Ecological Engineering 22(2): 141–151.
  • Kızılkaya, R., 2005. The role of different organic wastes on zinc bioaccumulation by earthworm Lumbricus terrestris L. (Oligochaeta) in successive Zn added soil. Ecological Engineering 25(4): 322-331.
  • Kızılkaya, R., 2008. Dehydrogenase activity in Lumbricus terrestris casts and surrounding soil affected by addition of different organic wastes and Zn. Bioresource Technology 99(5): 946–953.
  • Kızılkaya, R., Bayraklı, B., 2005. Effects of N-enriched sewage sludge on soil enzyme activities. Applied Soil Ecology 30(3): 192-202.
  • Kızılkaya, R., Hepşen, Ş., 2004. Effect of biosolid amendment on enzyme activities in earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris) casts. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 167(2): 202-208.
  • Kızılkaya, R., Hepşen, Ş., 2007. Microbiological properties in earthworm cast and surrounding soil amended with various organic wastes. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 38(19-20): 2861–2876.
  • Lukkari, T., Teno, S., Vaisanen, A., Haimi, J., 2006. Effect of earthworms on decomposition and metal availability in contaminated soil: Microcosm studies of populations with different exposure histories. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 38(2): 359–370.
  • Masciandaro, G., Ceccanti, D., Garcia, C., 2002. “In situ” vermicomposting of biological sludges and impacts on soil quality. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 32(7): 1015–1024.
  • Morgan, J.E., Morgan, A.J., 1992. Heavy metal concentrations in the tissues, ingesta and faeces of ecophysiologically different earthworm species. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 24(12): 1691–1697.
  • McBride, M.B., 1995. Toxic metal accumulation from agricultural use of sewage sludge: are usepa regulations protective?. Journal of Environmental Quality 24(1): 5-18.
  • Mench, M., Martin, E., Solda, P., 1994. After effects of metals derived from a highly metal-polluted sludge on maize (Zea mays L.). Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 7: 277-291.
  • Ndegwa, P.M., Thompson, S.A., 2001. Integrating composting and vermicomposting the treatment and bioconversion of biosolids. Bioresource Technology 76(2): 107–112.
  • Neuhauser, E.F., Loehr, R.C., Milligan, D.L., Malecki, M.R., 1985. Toxicity of metals to the earthworm Eisenia fetida, Biology and Fertility of Soils 1: 149-152.
  • Neuhauser, E.F., Loehr, R.C., Malecki, M.R., 1988. The potential of earthworms for managing sewage sludge. In: Earthworms in waste and environmental management, Edwards, C.A., Neuhauser, E.F., (Eds), SPB Academic Publishing, The Hague, The Netherlands. pp. 9–20.
  • Pearson, M.S., Maenpaa, K., Pierzynski, G.M., Lydy, M.J., 2000. Effects of soil amendments on the bioavailability of lead, zinc and cadmium to earthworms. Journal of Environmental Quality 29(5): 1611–1617.
  • Scaps, P., Grelle, C., Decamps, M., 1997. Cadmium and lead accumulation in the earthworm Eisenia fetida (Savigny) and its impact on cholinesterase and metabolic pathway enzyme activity. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part C: Pharmacology, Toxicology and Endocrinology 116(3): 233-238.
  • Suthar, S., 2008. Development of a novel epigeic-anecic-based polyculture vermireactor for efficient treatment of municipal sewage water sludge. International Journal of Environment and Waste Management 2 : 84–101.
  • Suthar, S., Singh, S., 2008. Bioconcentrations of metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb) in earthworms (Eisenia fetida), inoculated in municipal sewage sludge: do earthworms pose a possible risk of terrestrial food chain contamination? Environmental Toxicology 24(1) : 25-32.
  • Szczeck, M.M., 1999. Suppressiveness of vermicompost against fusarium wilt of tomato. Journal of Phytopathology 147(3): 155–161.
  • Whittle, A.J., Dyson, A.J., 2002. The fate of heavy metals in green waste composting, Environmentalist 22: 13–21.

Vermicomposting of anaerobically digested sewage sludge with hazelnut husk and cow manure by earthworm Eisenia foetida

Year 2021, Volume 10, Issue 1, 38 - 50, 01.01.2021
https://doi.org/10.18393/ejss.807762

Abstract

Vermicomposting of organic waste has an important part to play in an integrated waste management strategy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of an epigeic earthworm Eisenia foetida to transform anaerobically digested sewage sludge (SS) amended with hazelnut husk (HH) and cow manure (CM) in different proportions under laboratory condition (in darkness at 25°C0,5 0C). Two approaches investigated in the study were: (1) to find the best medium for growth and reproduction of E. foetida in different feed mixtures, (2) to analyze the heavy metal concentrations in different feed mixtures of SS-HH-CM before and after vermicomposting, and (3) to explore heavy metals accumulation of earthworms in sewage sludge with different feed mixtures. Number and biomass of earthworms and heavy metal contents in feed mixtures and earthworms were periodically monitored. The results indicated that maximum earthworm biomass was attained in feed mixture of 20% SS + 40% CM + 40% HH while the earthworm number was highest in feed mixture of 30% SS + 35% CM + 35% HH during the vermicomposting period. Heavy metals concentration (Zn, Cu, Cd, Pb, Ni and Cr) in all feed mixtures decreased associated with the increasing vermicomposting time. The heavy metals’ content in the feed mixtures was lower than that of initial mixtures. Metal analysis of earthworms revealed considerable bioaccumulation of heavy metals in their bodies’ tissue. Heavy metal analysis of earthworm body showed that increasing proportion of SS in the feed mixtures promoted the heavy metal content of earthworm body.

References

  • Abbasi, S.A., Ramasamy, E. V., 1999. Biotechnological Methods of Pollution Control. Orient Longman Ltd. UK. 168 pp.
  • Aranda, E., Barois, I., Arellano, P., Irisson, S., Salazar, T., Rodriguez, J., Patron, J.C., 1999. Vermicomposting in the tropics. In: Earthworm Management in Tropical Agroecosystems. Lavelle, P., Brussard, L., Hendrix, P., (Eds.), CABI, UK, pp. 253–287.
  • Bansal, S., Kapoor, K.K. 2000. Vermicomposting of crop residues and cattle dung with Eisenia foetida. Bioresource Technology 73(2): 95–98.
  • Barrera, I., Andrés, P., Alcañiz, J. M., 2001. Sewage sludge application on soil: Effects on two earthworms species. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 129: 319–332.
  • Carter, G.S., Kenney, E.A., Guthrie, T.F., Timmenga, H., 1983. Heavy metals in earthworms in non-containated and contaminated agricultural soil from near Vancouver, Canada. In: Satchell, J.E. (Ed.). Earthworm Ecology. Chapman and Hall. London, UK. pp.267-274.
  • Dia, J., Becquer, T., Rouiller, J.H., Reversat, G., Bernhard-Reversat, F., Nahmani, J., Lavelle, P., 2004. Heavy metal accumulation by two earthworm species and its relationship to total and DTPA-extractable metals in soils. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 36(1): 91–98.
  • Edwards, C.A., 1996. Biology and Ecology of Earthworms. 3rd edition Chapman & Hall, New York. Usa. 426p.
  • Edwards, C.A., 1988. Breakdown of animal, vegetable and industrial organic wastes by earthworms. In: Earthworms in Waste and Environmental Management, Edwards, C.A., Neuhauser, E.F., (Eds), SPB Academic Publishing, The Hague, The Netherlands. pp. 21–31.
  • Edwards, C.A., Bater, J.E., 1992. The use of earthworms in environmental management. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 24(12): 1683-1689.
  • Elvira, C., Sampedro, L., Dominguez, J., Mato, S., 1997. Vermicomposting of wastewater sludge from paper-pulp industry with nitrogen rich materials. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 29(3-4): 759-762.
  • Garg, V.K., Kaushik, P., 2005. Vermistabilization of textile mill sludge spiked with poultry droppings by an epigeic earthworm Eisenia foetida. Bioresource Technology 96(9): 1189–1193.
  • Goats, G.C., Edwards, C.A., 1988. The Prediction of Field Toxicity of Chemicals to Earthworms by Laboratory Methods, In: Earthworms in Waste and Environmental Management, Edwards, C.A., Neuhauser, E.F., (Eds), SPB Academic Publishing, The Hague, The Netherlands. pp. 283-294.
  • Graff, O., 1982. Vergleich der Regenswurmaten Eisenia feotida und Eudrilus eugeniae hinsichlich ihrer Eignung zur Proteinwinnung aus Abfallstoffen. Pedobiologia 23 : 277-282.
  • Gupta, S.K., Tewari, A., Srivastava, R., Murthy, R.C., Chandra, S., 2005. Potential of Eisenia foetida for sustainable and efficient vermicomposting of fly ash. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 163: 293–302.
  • Gupta, R., Garg, V.K., 2008. Stabilization of primary sewage sludge during vermicomposting. Journal of Hazardous Materials 153(3): 1023–1030.
  • Hartenstein, R., 1983. Assimilation by the earthworm Eisenia fetida. In: Earthworm Ecology: from Darwin to Vermiculture. Satchell, J.E. (Ed), Chapman and Hall, London, pp. 297-308.
  • Hartensein, R., Hartenstein, F., 1981. Physicochemical changes effected in activated sludge by the earthworm Eisenia foetida. Journal of Environmental Quality 10(3): 377–382.
  • Harstenstein, R., Mitchell, M.J., 1978. Utilization of earthworms and microorganisms in stabilization, decontamination and detoxification of residual sludges from treatment of wastewater. Final Report, US Department of Commence, National Technical Information Services, PB 286018, Springfield, Virginia. 34pp.
  • Hopkin, S.P., 1989. Ecophysiology of Metals in Terrestrial Invertebrates. Springer Netherlands, 366p. Hsu, M.J., Selvaraj, K., Agoramoorthy, G., 2006. Taiwan’s industrial heavy metal pollution threatens terrestrial biota. Environmental Pollution 143(2): 327–334.
  • Ireland, M.P., 1983. Heavy metal uptake and tissue distribution in earthworms. In : Earthworm Ecology: From Darwin to Vermiculture. Satchell, J.E. (Ed), Chapman and Hall, London, UK. pp. 247-265.
  • Ismail, S.A., 1997, Vermicology: The Biology of Earthworms, Orient Longmans, Hyderabad, 92 pp. Jain, K., Singh, J., 2004. Modulation of fly ash induced genotoxicity in vicia faba by vermicomposting. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 59(1): 89-94.
  • Jain, K., Singh, J., Gupta, S.K., 2003. Development of a modified vermireactor for efficient vermicomposting: a laboratory study. Bioresource Technology 90(3): 335-337.
  • Kagi, J.H.R., Kojima, Y., 1987. Chemistry and biochemistry of metallothionein. In: Metallothionein II. Kagi, J.H.R., Kojima, Y. (Eds). Birkhauser, Verlag. Basel, Switzerland. pp 25–61.
  • Kaplan, D., Hartenstein, R., Neuhauser, E.F., Malecki, M.R., 1980. Physicochemical requirements in the environment of the earthworm Eisenia foetida. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 12(4): 165-171.
  • Katayama, A., Ker, K.C., Hirai, M., Shoda, M., Kubota, H., 1987. Stabilization process of sewage sludge compost in soil. Soil Science Plant Nutrition 33(1): 123-135.
  • Kaushik, P., Garg, V.K., 2003. Vermicomposting of mixed solid textile mill sludge and cow dung with epigeic earthworm Eisenia foetida. Bioresource Technology 90(3): 311–316.
  • Kızılkaya, R., 2004. Cu and Zn accumulation in earthworm L. terrestris L. in sewage sludge amended soil and fractions of Cu and Zn in casts and surrounding soil. Ecological Engineering 22(2): 141–151.
  • Kızılkaya, R., 2005. The role of different organic wastes on zinc bioaccumulation by earthworm Lumbricus terrestris L. (Oligochaeta) in successive Zn added soil. Ecological Engineering 25(4): 322-331.
  • Kızılkaya, R., 2008. Dehydrogenase activity in Lumbricus terrestris casts and surrounding soil affected by addition of different organic wastes and Zn. Bioresource Technology 99(5): 946–953.
  • Kızılkaya, R., Bayraklı, B., 2005. Effects of N-enriched sewage sludge on soil enzyme activities. Applied Soil Ecology 30(3): 192-202.
  • Kızılkaya, R., Hepşen, Ş., 2004. Effect of biosolid amendment on enzyme activities in earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris) casts. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 167(2): 202-208.
  • Kızılkaya, R., Hepşen, Ş., 2007. Microbiological properties in earthworm cast and surrounding soil amended with various organic wastes. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 38(19-20): 2861–2876.
  • Lukkari, T., Teno, S., Vaisanen, A., Haimi, J., 2006. Effect of earthworms on decomposition and metal availability in contaminated soil: Microcosm studies of populations with different exposure histories. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 38(2): 359–370.
  • Masciandaro, G., Ceccanti, D., Garcia, C., 2002. “In situ” vermicomposting of biological sludges and impacts on soil quality. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 32(7): 1015–1024.
  • Morgan, J.E., Morgan, A.J., 1992. Heavy metal concentrations in the tissues, ingesta and faeces of ecophysiologically different earthworm species. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 24(12): 1691–1697.
  • McBride, M.B., 1995. Toxic metal accumulation from agricultural use of sewage sludge: are usepa regulations protective?. Journal of Environmental Quality 24(1): 5-18.
  • Mench, M., Martin, E., Solda, P., 1994. After effects of metals derived from a highly metal-polluted sludge on maize (Zea mays L.). Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 7: 277-291.
  • Ndegwa, P.M., Thompson, S.A., 2001. Integrating composting and vermicomposting the treatment and bioconversion of biosolids. Bioresource Technology 76(2): 107–112.
  • Neuhauser, E.F., Loehr, R.C., Milligan, D.L., Malecki, M.R., 1985. Toxicity of metals to the earthworm Eisenia fetida, Biology and Fertility of Soils 1: 149-152.
  • Neuhauser, E.F., Loehr, R.C., Malecki, M.R., 1988. The potential of earthworms for managing sewage sludge. In: Earthworms in waste and environmental management, Edwards, C.A., Neuhauser, E.F., (Eds), SPB Academic Publishing, The Hague, The Netherlands. pp. 9–20.
  • Pearson, M.S., Maenpaa, K., Pierzynski, G.M., Lydy, M.J., 2000. Effects of soil amendments on the bioavailability of lead, zinc and cadmium to earthworms. Journal of Environmental Quality 29(5): 1611–1617.
  • Scaps, P., Grelle, C., Decamps, M., 1997. Cadmium and lead accumulation in the earthworm Eisenia fetida (Savigny) and its impact on cholinesterase and metabolic pathway enzyme activity. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part C: Pharmacology, Toxicology and Endocrinology 116(3): 233-238.
  • Suthar, S., 2008. Development of a novel epigeic-anecic-based polyculture vermireactor for efficient treatment of municipal sewage water sludge. International Journal of Environment and Waste Management 2 : 84–101.
  • Suthar, S., Singh, S., 2008. Bioconcentrations of metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb) in earthworms (Eisenia fetida), inoculated in municipal sewage sludge: do earthworms pose a possible risk of terrestrial food chain contamination? Environmental Toxicology 24(1) : 25-32.
  • Szczeck, M.M., 1999. Suppressiveness of vermicompost against fusarium wilt of tomato. Journal of Phytopathology 147(3): 155–161.
  • Whittle, A.J., Dyson, A.J., 2002. The fate of heavy metals in green waste composting, Environmentalist 22: 13–21.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Science
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Rıdvan KIZILKAYA This is me (Primary Author)
Ondokuz Mayıs University, Faculty ofAgriculture, Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Samsun, Turkey
0000-0001-7475-9851
Türkiye


Zhainagul YERTAYEVA This is me
Kazakh National Agrarian University, Almaty, Kazakhstan
0000-0001-8848-6794
Kazakhstan


Sagynbay KALDYBAYEV This is me
Kazakh National Agrarian University, Almaty, Kazakhstan
0000-0003-2821-3684
Kazakhstan


Bolat MURZABAYEV This is me
M.Auezov South Kazakhstan State University, Shymkent, Kazakhstan
0000-0001-9776-0898
Kazakhstan


Aigul ZHAPPAROVA This is me
Kazakh National Agrarian University, Almaty, Kazakhstan
0000-0002-0103-5059
Kazakhstan


Zhanybek NURSEİTOV This is me
Kazakh National Agrarian University, Almaty, Kazakhstan
0000-0003-3505-6082
Kazakhstan

Publication Date January 1, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 10, Issue 1

Cite

Bibtex @research article { ejss807762, journal = {Eurasian Journal of Soil Science}, eissn = {2147-4249}, address = {}, publisher = {Avrasya Toprak Bilimleri Dernekleri Federasyonu}, year = {2021}, volume = {10}, number = {1}, pages = {38 - 50}, doi = {10.18393/ejss.807762}, title = {Vermicomposting of anaerobically digested sewage sludge with hazelnut husk and cow manure by earthworm Eisenia foetida}, key = {cite}, author = {Kızılkaya, Rıdvan and Yertayeva, Zhainagul and Kaldybayev, Sagynbay and Murzabayev, Bolat and Zhapparova, Aigul and Nurseitov, Zhanybek} }
APA Kızılkaya, R. , Yertayeva, Z. , Kaldybayev, S. , Murzabayev, B. , Zhapparova, A. & Nurseitov, Z. (2021). Vermicomposting of anaerobically digested sewage sludge with hazelnut husk and cow manure by earthworm Eisenia foetida . Eurasian Journal of Soil Science , 10 (1) , 38-50 . DOI: 10.18393/ejss.807762
MLA Kızılkaya, R. , Yertayeva, Z. , Kaldybayev, S. , Murzabayev, B. , Zhapparova, A. , Nurseitov, Z. "Vermicomposting of anaerobically digested sewage sludge with hazelnut husk and cow manure by earthworm Eisenia foetida" . Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 10 (2021 ): 38-50 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/ejss/issue/56856/807762>
Chicago Kızılkaya, R. , Yertayeva, Z. , Kaldybayev, S. , Murzabayev, B. , Zhapparova, A. , Nurseitov, Z. "Vermicomposting of anaerobically digested sewage sludge with hazelnut husk and cow manure by earthworm Eisenia foetida". Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 10 (2021 ): 38-50
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Vermicomposting of anaerobically digested sewage sludge with hazelnut husk and cow manure by earthworm Eisenia foetida AU - RıdvanKızılkaya, ZhainagulYertayeva, SagynbayKaldybayev, BolatMurzabayev, AigulZhapparova, ZhanybekNurseitov Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - doi: 10.18393/ejss.807762 DO - 10.18393/ejss.807762 T2 - Eurasian Journal of Soil Science JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 38 EP - 50 VL - 10 IS - 1 SN - -2147-4249 M3 - doi: 10.18393/ejss.807762 UR - https://doi.org/10.18393/ejss.807762 Y2 - 2020 ER -
EndNote %0 Eurasian Journal of Soil Science Vermicomposting of anaerobically digested sewage sludge with hazelnut husk and cow manure by earthworm Eisenia foetida %A Rıdvan Kızılkaya , Zhainagul Yertayeva , Sagynbay Kaldybayev , Bolat Murzabayev , Aigul Zhapparova , Zhanybek Nurseitov %T Vermicomposting of anaerobically digested sewage sludge with hazelnut husk and cow manure by earthworm Eisenia foetida %D 2021 %J Eurasian Journal of Soil Science %P -2147-4249 %V 10 %N 1 %R doi: 10.18393/ejss.807762 %U 10.18393/ejss.807762
ISNAD Kızılkaya, Rıdvan , Yertayeva, Zhainagul , Kaldybayev, Sagynbay , Murzabayev, Bolat , Zhapparova, Aigul , Nurseitov, Zhanybek . "Vermicomposting of anaerobically digested sewage sludge with hazelnut husk and cow manure by earthworm Eisenia foetida". Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 10 / 1 (January 2021): 38-50 . https://doi.org/10.18393/ejss.807762
AMA Kızılkaya R. , Yertayeva Z. , Kaldybayev S. , Murzabayev B. , Zhapparova A. , Nurseitov Z. Vermicomposting of anaerobically digested sewage sludge with hazelnut husk and cow manure by earthworm Eisenia foetida. EJSS. 2021; 10(1): 38-50.
Vancouver Kızılkaya R. , Yertayeva Z. , Kaldybayev S. , Murzabayev B. , Zhapparova A. , Nurseitov Z. Vermicomposting of anaerobically digested sewage sludge with hazelnut husk and cow manure by earthworm Eisenia foetida. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science. 2021; 10(1): 38-50.
IEEE R. Kızılkaya , Z. Yertayeva , S. Kaldybayev , B. Murzabayev , A. Zhapparova and Z. Nurseitov , "Vermicomposting of anaerobically digested sewage sludge with hazelnut husk and cow manure by earthworm Eisenia foetida", Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 38-50, Jan. 2021, doi:10.18393/ejss.807762