Research Article
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Year 2021, Volume 10, Issue 1, 61 - 68, 01.01.2021
https://doi.org/10.18393/ejss.814006

Abstract

References

  • Adriano, D.C., 1986. Trace elements in the terrestrial environment. Springer-Verlag, New York. 533p.
  • Ahmed, S., Khalid, K., Jabeen, F., Ahmad, M.N., Zia, A., Haider, A., Mujahid, M., Zia, D., Khan, N.P., 2019. The effects of fluoride stress on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.). Fluoride 52: 354-361.
  • Annadurai, S.T., Rengasamy, J.K., Sundaram, R., Munusamy, A.P., 2014. Incidence and effects of fluoride in Indian natural ecosystem : A review. Advances in Applied Science Research 5(2): 173–185.
  • Baird, R.B., Eaton, A.D., Rice, E.W., 2017. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, Twenty third edition. American Public Health Association, Washington DC.
  • Beena, V.I., 2005. Land evaluation and crop suitability rating of the acid sulphate soils of Kuttanad for sustainable land use planning. PhD Thesis. Kerala Agricultural University, Thiruvananthapuram.
  • Beena, V.I., Thampatti, K.C.M., 2013. Characterization of acidity in acid sulphate soils of Kerala. Journal of Life Sciences 7(8): 907–912.
  • Borah, J., Saikia, D., 2011. Estimation of the concentration of fluoride in the ground water of Tinsukia town master plan area of the Tinsukia district, Assam, India. Archives of Applied Science Research 3(3): 202–206.
  • Bustingorri, C., Lavado, R.S., 2014. Soybean as affected by high concentrations of arsenic and fluoride in irrigation water in controlled conditions. Agricultural Water Management 144: 134-139.
  • Chakrabarti, S., Patra, P.K., Mondal, B., 2013. Uptake of fluoride by two paddy (Oryza sativa L.) varieties treated with fluoride-contaminated water. Paddy and Water Environment 11: 619–623.
  • Chapman, H.D., 1965. Cation‐exchange capacity, In: Methods of Soil Analysis: Part 2 Chemical and Microbiological Properties, Black, C.A., (Ed.). Wiley Online Library, pp. 891–901.
  • Choubisa, S.L., 2018a. Fluoride distribution in drinking groundwater in Rajasthan, India. Current Science 114(9): 1851-1857.
  • Choubisa, S.L., 2018b. A brief and critical review on hydrofluorosis in diverse species of domestic animals in India. Environmental Geochemistry and Health 40(1): 99-114.
  • Dharmaratne, R.W., 2019. Exploring the role of excess fluoride in chronic kidney disease. Human and Experimental Toxicology 38(3): 269-279.
  • Easton, Z.M., Bock, E., 2016. Soil and soil water relationships. Virginia Cooperative Extension, Virginia State University Publication BSE-194P. 9p. Available at [Access date: 15.04.2020]: https://ext.vt.edu/content/dam/ext_vt_edu/topics/agriculture/water/documents/Soil-and-Soil-Water-Relationships.pdf
  • Ebimol, N.L., Suresh, P.R., Binitha, N.K., Santhi, G.R., 2017. Management of iron and aluminium toxicity in acid sulphate soils of Kuttanad. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences 6 (11): 1496–1503.
  • Fuge, R., 2019. Fluorine in the environment, a review of its sources and geochemistry. Applied Geochemistry 100: 393–406.
  • Gardner, W.H., 1986. Water content, In: Methods of Soil Analysis: Part 1 Physical and Mineralogical Methods, Klute, A., (Ed.). Wiley Online Library, pp. 493–544.
  • Geetha, R., Chandramohankumar, N., Mathews, L., 2007. Distribution of total reactive fluoride in sediments of Kuttanad waters. Indian Journal of Environmental Protection 27 (11): 1001-1005.
  • Greenwood, N.N., Earnshaw, A., 1997. Chemistry of the elements. Second edition. Elsevier. 1384p.
  • Gudadhe, N., Dhonde, M.B., Hirwe, N.A., 2015. Effect of integrated nutrient management on soil properties under cotton-chickpea cropping sequence in vertisols of Deccan plateau of India. Indian Journal of Agricultural Research 49 (3): 207–214.
  • Guo, J., Hu, X., Gao, L., Xie, K., Ling, N., Shen, Q., Hu, S., Guo, S., 2017. The rice production practices of high yield and high nitrogen use efficiency in Jiangsu, China. Scientific Reports 7: 2101.
  • Ibia, T.O., 2005. Forms and contents of iron and aluminum in inland flood plains of South-Eastern Nigeria. Agronomie Africaine 17: 211–218.
  • Islam, K.R., Weil, R.R., 1998. A rapid microwave digestion method for colorimetric measurement of soil organic carbon. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 29(15-16): 2269–2284.
  • Jayarathne, T., Stockwell, C.E., Yokelson, R.J., Nakao, S., Stone, E.A., 2014. Emissions of fine particle fluoride from biomass burning. Environmental Science and Technology 48 (21): 12636-12644.
  • Jha, S.K., Mishra, V.K., Sharma, D.K., Damodaran, T., 2011. Fluoride in the environment and its metabolism in humans. In: Reviews in Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, Whitacre, D.M., (Ed.). Vol 211, Springer, pp. 121-142.
  • Kabir, H., Gupta, A.K., Tripathy, S., 2019. Fluoride and human health: Systematic appraisal of sources, exposures, metabolism and toxicity. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology 50 (11): 1116-1193.
  • Khaledian, Y., Brevik, E.C., Pereira, P., Cerdà, A., Fattah, M.A., Tazikeh, H., 2017. Modeling soil cation exchange capacity in multiple countries. Catena 158: 194–200.
  • Kinnunen, H., Holopainen, T., Raisanen, L.M., Karenlampi, L., 2003. Fluoride in birch leaves, ground vegetation, litter and humus in the surrounding of a fertilizer plant and apatite mine in Siilinjarvi, eastern Finland. Boreal Environment Research 8: 185-192.
  • Koritnig, S., 1951. Ein beitrag zur geochemie des fluor: (Mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Sedimente). Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 1(2): 89-116.
  • Kumar, A., Mishra, V.N., Srivastav, L.K., Banwasi, R., 2014. Evaluations of soil fertility status of available major nutrients (N, P & K) and micro nutrients (Fe, Mn, Cu & Zn) in Vertisol of Kabeerdham District of Chhattisgarh, India. International Journal of Interdisciplinary and Multidisciplinary Studies 1 (10): 72–79.
  • Kumar, S., Devadas Dr., V., 2016. Integrated planning for sustainable development of Kuttanad wetland region, Kerala state. Procedia Technology 24: 1660–1667.
  • Lehnert, M., 2014. Factors affecting soil temperature as limits of spatial interpretation and simulation of soil temperature. AUPO Geographica 45: 5–21.
  • Lekwa, G., Whiteside, E.P., 1986. Coastal Plain Soils of Southeastern Nigeria: II. Forms of Extractable Iron, Aluminum, and Phosphorus. Soil Science Society of America Journal 50(1): 160-166.
  • Li, Y., Zhang, H., Zhang, Z., Shao, L., He, P., 2015. Treatment and resource recovery from inorganic fluoride-containing waste produced by the pesticide industry. Journal of Environmental Sciences 31: 21-29.
  • Loganathan, P., Hedley, M.J., Wallace, G.C., Roberts, A.H.C., 2001. Fluoride accumulation in pasture forages and soils following long-term applications of phosphorus fertilisers. Environmental Pollution 115(2): 275–282.
  • Lu, H., Li, J., Liu, X., Yu, Z., Lin, R., 2019. Removal of fluoride and arsenic by a hybrid constructed wetland system. Chemistry and Biodiversity 16(7): e1900078.
  • Mathew, E.K., Panda, R.K., Nair, M., 2001. Influence of subsurface drainage on crop production and soil quality in a low-lying acid sulphate soil. Agricultural Water Management 47(3): 191–209.
  • Mehra, O.P., Jackson, M.L., 1960. Iron oxide removal from soils and clays by a dithionite-citrate system buffered with sodium bicarbonate. Clays and Clay Minerals 7: 317–327.
  • Miller, W.P., Miller, D.M., 1987. A micro‐pipette method for soil mechanical analysis. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 18(1): 1-15.
  • Mondal, N.K., 2017. Effect of fluoride on photosynthesis, growth and accumulation of four widely cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties in India. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 144: 36–44.
  • Mondal, N.K., Pal, K.C., Dey, M., Ghosh, S., Das, C., Datta, J.K., 2015. Seasonal variation of soil enzymes in areas of fluoride stress in Birbhum District, West Bengal, India. Journal of Taibah University for Science 9(2): 133-142.
  • Naik, R.G., Dodamani, A.S., Vishwakarma, P., Jadhav, H.C., Khairnar, M.R., Deshmukh, M.A., Wadgave, U., 2017. Level of fluoride in soil, grain and water in Jalgaon district, Maharashtra, India. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research 11: ZC05–ZC07.
  • Nunes, M.R., Denardin, J.E., Pauletto, E.A., Faganello, A., Pinto, L.F.S., 2015. Mitigation of clayey soil compaction managed under no-tillage. Soil and Tillage Research 148: 119–126.
  • Owolabi, O., Adeleye, A., Oladejo, B.T., Ojeniyi, S.O., 2003. Effect of wood ash on soil fertility and crop yield in Southwest Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Soil Science 13: 55–60.
  • Ozsvath, D.L., 2009. Fluoride and environmental health: a review. Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/Technology 8 (1): 59-79.
  • Panchal, L., Sheikh, Z., 2017. Dental fluorosis in domesticated animals in and around Umarda village of Udaipur, Rajasthan, India. Haya: The Saudi Journal of Life Sciences 2(7): 248-254.
  • Pettinati, M., Perrin, J., Pauwels, H., Ahmed, S., 2013. Simulating fluoride evolution in groundwater using a reactive multicomponent transient transport model: Application to a crystalline aquifer of Southern India. Applied Geochemistry 29: 102-116.
  • Pyngrope, D., Mithare, P., Ghosh, G., 2019. Influence of different planting system and levels of nitrogen on growth, yield, quality and economics of rice (Oryza sativa L.) - A review. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences 8(1): 2161–2172.
  • Qiao, W., Xie, Z., Zhang, Y., Lu, X., Xie, S., Huang, J., Yu, L., 2018. Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) influence the structure and function of soil bacterial community: Greenhouse experiment. Science of the Total Environment 642: 1118-1126.
  • Raj, D., Shaji, E., 2017. Fluoride contamination in groundwater resources of Alleppey, southern India. Geoscience Frontiers 8(1): 117–124.
  • R Core Team., 2019. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for statistical computing. Vienna, Austria.
  • Ropelewska, E., Dziejowski, J., Zapotoczny, P., 2016. Changes in the microbial activity and thermal properties of soil treated with sodium fluoride. Applied Soil Ecology 98: 159-65.
  • Saidi, D., 2012. Importance and role of cation exchange capacity on the physicals properties of the Cheliff saline soils (Algeria). Procedia Engineering 33: 435–449.
  • Sarkar, R.K., Chakraborty, K., Chattopadhyay, K., Ray, S., Panda, D., Ismail, A., 2019. Responses of rice to individual and combined stresses of flooding and salinity. In: Advances in Rice Research for Abiotic Stress Tolerance, Hasanuzzaman, M., Fujita, M., Nahar, K., Biswas, J., (Eds.). Woodhead publishing, pp. 281–297.
  • Shaw, J.W., West, L.T., 2017. Sesquioxides In: Encyclopedia of Soil Science. Lal, R. (Ed.). Third edition. CRC Press, Boca Raton.
  • Singh, G., Kumari, B., Sinam, G., Kumar, N., Mallick, S., 2018. Fluoride distribution and contamination in the water, soil and plants continuum and its remedial technologies, an Indian perspective– a review. Environmental Pollution 239: 95–108.
  • Skjelkvåle, B.L., 1994. Factors influencing fluoride concentrations in Norwegian lakes. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 77: 151-167.
  • Smolik, B., Telesiński, A., Szymczak, J., Zakrzewska, H., 2011. Assessing of humus usefulness in limiting of soluble fluoride content in soil. Ochrona Środowiska i Zasobów Naturalnych 49: 202-208.
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Fluoride contamination in wetlands of Kuttanad, India: Predisposing edaphic factors

Year 2021, Volume 10, Issue 1, 61 - 68, 01.01.2021
https://doi.org/10.18393/ejss.814006

Abstract

Fluoride contamination has now become an emerging concern in agroecosystems. A diagnostic survey was conducted across the fluoride (F-) contaminated wetlands of Kuttanad, India with an aim to examine the influence of edaphic factors on F- concentration in soils. The soils (Inceptisols) predominantly sandy had a substantial percentage of clay and the soil characteristics such as bulk density (BD), moisture, temperature, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), cation exchange capacity (CEC) and organic carbon (OC) varied with soils. Similarly, the soil nutrients (NPK) and the oxides of Fe and Al as well as total sesquioxide differed with soils. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the first two components (PC1 and PC2) significantly explained the variability existed in the data while the third component (PC3) did not explain any variation compared to the first two components. PC1, PC2 and PC3 accounted for 52.2%, 12.7% and 11.3% of the variation in the profiles respectively. Out of soil samples, 53% had a similar distribution of soil characteristics and F- concentration and are grouped together in PC1 while, the remaining 47% of the samples had a similar distribution of characteristics and are grouped together in PC2. Among the soil characteristics examined, silt content, pH, EC, CEC, OC, N and P had a significant (P<0.001) positive association along PC1 indicating that these factors are contributing to the augmentation of F- concentration in the wetlands of Kuttanad.

References

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  • Ahmed, S., Khalid, K., Jabeen, F., Ahmad, M.N., Zia, A., Haider, A., Mujahid, M., Zia, D., Khan, N.P., 2019. The effects of fluoride stress on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.). Fluoride 52: 354-361.
  • Annadurai, S.T., Rengasamy, J.K., Sundaram, R., Munusamy, A.P., 2014. Incidence and effects of fluoride in Indian natural ecosystem : A review. Advances in Applied Science Research 5(2): 173–185.
  • Baird, R.B., Eaton, A.D., Rice, E.W., 2017. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, Twenty third edition. American Public Health Association, Washington DC.
  • Beena, V.I., 2005. Land evaluation and crop suitability rating of the acid sulphate soils of Kuttanad for sustainable land use planning. PhD Thesis. Kerala Agricultural University, Thiruvananthapuram.
  • Beena, V.I., Thampatti, K.C.M., 2013. Characterization of acidity in acid sulphate soils of Kerala. Journal of Life Sciences 7(8): 907–912.
  • Borah, J., Saikia, D., 2011. Estimation of the concentration of fluoride in the ground water of Tinsukia town master plan area of the Tinsukia district, Assam, India. Archives of Applied Science Research 3(3): 202–206.
  • Bustingorri, C., Lavado, R.S., 2014. Soybean as affected by high concentrations of arsenic and fluoride in irrigation water in controlled conditions. Agricultural Water Management 144: 134-139.
  • Chakrabarti, S., Patra, P.K., Mondal, B., 2013. Uptake of fluoride by two paddy (Oryza sativa L.) varieties treated with fluoride-contaminated water. Paddy and Water Environment 11: 619–623.
  • Chapman, H.D., 1965. Cation‐exchange capacity, In: Methods of Soil Analysis: Part 2 Chemical and Microbiological Properties, Black, C.A., (Ed.). Wiley Online Library, pp. 891–901.
  • Choubisa, S.L., 2018a. Fluoride distribution in drinking groundwater in Rajasthan, India. Current Science 114(9): 1851-1857.
  • Choubisa, S.L., 2018b. A brief and critical review on hydrofluorosis in diverse species of domestic animals in India. Environmental Geochemistry and Health 40(1): 99-114.
  • Dharmaratne, R.W., 2019. Exploring the role of excess fluoride in chronic kidney disease. Human and Experimental Toxicology 38(3): 269-279.
  • Easton, Z.M., Bock, E., 2016. Soil and soil water relationships. Virginia Cooperative Extension, Virginia State University Publication BSE-194P. 9p. Available at [Access date: 15.04.2020]: https://ext.vt.edu/content/dam/ext_vt_edu/topics/agriculture/water/documents/Soil-and-Soil-Water-Relationships.pdf
  • Ebimol, N.L., Suresh, P.R., Binitha, N.K., Santhi, G.R., 2017. Management of iron and aluminium toxicity in acid sulphate soils of Kuttanad. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences 6 (11): 1496–1503.
  • Fuge, R., 2019. Fluorine in the environment, a review of its sources and geochemistry. Applied Geochemistry 100: 393–406.
  • Gardner, W.H., 1986. Water content, In: Methods of Soil Analysis: Part 1 Physical and Mineralogical Methods, Klute, A., (Ed.). Wiley Online Library, pp. 493–544.
  • Geetha, R., Chandramohankumar, N., Mathews, L., 2007. Distribution of total reactive fluoride in sediments of Kuttanad waters. Indian Journal of Environmental Protection 27 (11): 1001-1005.
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  • Guo, J., Hu, X., Gao, L., Xie, K., Ling, N., Shen, Q., Hu, S., Guo, S., 2017. The rice production practices of high yield and high nitrogen use efficiency in Jiangsu, China. Scientific Reports 7: 2101.
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  • Kabir, H., Gupta, A.K., Tripathy, S., 2019. Fluoride and human health: Systematic appraisal of sources, exposures, metabolism and toxicity. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology 50 (11): 1116-1193.
  • Khaledian, Y., Brevik, E.C., Pereira, P., Cerdà, A., Fattah, M.A., Tazikeh, H., 2017. Modeling soil cation exchange capacity in multiple countries. Catena 158: 194–200.
  • Kinnunen, H., Holopainen, T., Raisanen, L.M., Karenlampi, L., 2003. Fluoride in birch leaves, ground vegetation, litter and humus in the surrounding of a fertilizer plant and apatite mine in Siilinjarvi, eastern Finland. Boreal Environment Research 8: 185-192.
  • Koritnig, S., 1951. Ein beitrag zur geochemie des fluor: (Mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Sedimente). Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 1(2): 89-116.
  • Kumar, A., Mishra, V.N., Srivastav, L.K., Banwasi, R., 2014. Evaluations of soil fertility status of available major nutrients (N, P & K) and micro nutrients (Fe, Mn, Cu & Zn) in Vertisol of Kabeerdham District of Chhattisgarh, India. International Journal of Interdisciplinary and Multidisciplinary Studies 1 (10): 72–79.
  • Kumar, S., Devadas Dr., V., 2016. Integrated planning for sustainable development of Kuttanad wetland region, Kerala state. Procedia Technology 24: 1660–1667.
  • Lehnert, M., 2014. Factors affecting soil temperature as limits of spatial interpretation and simulation of soil temperature. AUPO Geographica 45: 5–21.
  • Lekwa, G., Whiteside, E.P., 1986. Coastal Plain Soils of Southeastern Nigeria: II. Forms of Extractable Iron, Aluminum, and Phosphorus. Soil Science Society of America Journal 50(1): 160-166.
  • Li, Y., Zhang, H., Zhang, Z., Shao, L., He, P., 2015. Treatment and resource recovery from inorganic fluoride-containing waste produced by the pesticide industry. Journal of Environmental Sciences 31: 21-29.
  • Loganathan, P., Hedley, M.J., Wallace, G.C., Roberts, A.H.C., 2001. Fluoride accumulation in pasture forages and soils following long-term applications of phosphorus fertilisers. Environmental Pollution 115(2): 275–282.
  • Lu, H., Li, J., Liu, X., Yu, Z., Lin, R., 2019. Removal of fluoride and arsenic by a hybrid constructed wetland system. Chemistry and Biodiversity 16(7): e1900078.
  • Mathew, E.K., Panda, R.K., Nair, M., 2001. Influence of subsurface drainage on crop production and soil quality in a low-lying acid sulphate soil. Agricultural Water Management 47(3): 191–209.
  • Mehra, O.P., Jackson, M.L., 1960. Iron oxide removal from soils and clays by a dithionite-citrate system buffered with sodium bicarbonate. Clays and Clay Minerals 7: 317–327.
  • Miller, W.P., Miller, D.M., 1987. A micro‐pipette method for soil mechanical analysis. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 18(1): 1-15.
  • Mondal, N.K., 2017. Effect of fluoride on photosynthesis, growth and accumulation of four widely cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties in India. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 144: 36–44.
  • Mondal, N.K., Pal, K.C., Dey, M., Ghosh, S., Das, C., Datta, J.K., 2015. Seasonal variation of soil enzymes in areas of fluoride stress in Birbhum District, West Bengal, India. Journal of Taibah University for Science 9(2): 133-142.
  • Naik, R.G., Dodamani, A.S., Vishwakarma, P., Jadhav, H.C., Khairnar, M.R., Deshmukh, M.A., Wadgave, U., 2017. Level of fluoride in soil, grain and water in Jalgaon district, Maharashtra, India. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research 11: ZC05–ZC07.
  • Nunes, M.R., Denardin, J.E., Pauletto, E.A., Faganello, A., Pinto, L.F.S., 2015. Mitigation of clayey soil compaction managed under no-tillage. Soil and Tillage Research 148: 119–126.
  • Owolabi, O., Adeleye, A., Oladejo, B.T., Ojeniyi, S.O., 2003. Effect of wood ash on soil fertility and crop yield in Southwest Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Soil Science 13: 55–60.
  • Ozsvath, D.L., 2009. Fluoride and environmental health: a review. Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/Technology 8 (1): 59-79.
  • Panchal, L., Sheikh, Z., 2017. Dental fluorosis in domesticated animals in and around Umarda village of Udaipur, Rajasthan, India. Haya: The Saudi Journal of Life Sciences 2(7): 248-254.
  • Pettinati, M., Perrin, J., Pauwels, H., Ahmed, S., 2013. Simulating fluoride evolution in groundwater using a reactive multicomponent transient transport model: Application to a crystalline aquifer of Southern India. Applied Geochemistry 29: 102-116.
  • Pyngrope, D., Mithare, P., Ghosh, G., 2019. Influence of different planting system and levels of nitrogen on growth, yield, quality and economics of rice (Oryza sativa L.) - A review. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences 8(1): 2161–2172.
  • Qiao, W., Xie, Z., Zhang, Y., Lu, X., Xie, S., Huang, J., Yu, L., 2018. Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) influence the structure and function of soil bacterial community: Greenhouse experiment. Science of the Total Environment 642: 1118-1126.
  • Raj, D., Shaji, E., 2017. Fluoride contamination in groundwater resources of Alleppey, southern India. Geoscience Frontiers 8(1): 117–124.
  • R Core Team., 2019. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for statistical computing. Vienna, Austria.
  • Ropelewska, E., Dziejowski, J., Zapotoczny, P., 2016. Changes in the microbial activity and thermal properties of soil treated with sodium fluoride. Applied Soil Ecology 98: 159-65.
  • Saidi, D., 2012. Importance and role of cation exchange capacity on the physicals properties of the Cheliff saline soils (Algeria). Procedia Engineering 33: 435–449.
  • Sarkar, R.K., Chakraborty, K., Chattopadhyay, K., Ray, S., Panda, D., Ismail, A., 2019. Responses of rice to individual and combined stresses of flooding and salinity. In: Advances in Rice Research for Abiotic Stress Tolerance, Hasanuzzaman, M., Fujita, M., Nahar, K., Biswas, J., (Eds.). Woodhead publishing, pp. 281–297.
  • Shaw, J.W., West, L.T., 2017. Sesquioxides In: Encyclopedia of Soil Science. Lal, R. (Ed.). Third edition. CRC Press, Boca Raton.
  • Singh, G., Kumari, B., Sinam, G., Kumar, N., Mallick, S., 2018. Fluoride distribution and contamination in the water, soil and plants continuum and its remedial technologies, an Indian perspective– a review. Environmental Pollution 239: 95–108.
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Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Science
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Vasanthakumari ROSHNİ This is me
Research and Development Centre, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore-641 046, Tamil Nadu. India
0000-0002-4249-9095
India


Variampally Sankar HARİKUMAR This is me (Primary Author)
Department of Post Graduate Studies and Research in Botany, Sanatana Dharma College (University of Kerala), Alappuzha-688 003, Kerala, India
0000-0001-8090-1340
India

Publication Date January 1, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 10, Issue 1

Cite

Bibtex @research article { ejss814006, journal = {Eurasian Journal of Soil Science}, eissn = {2147-4249}, address = {}, publisher = {Avrasya Toprak Bilimleri Dernekleri Federasyonu}, year = {2021}, volume = {10}, number = {1}, pages = {61 - 68}, doi = {10.18393/ejss.814006}, title = {Fluoride contamination in wetlands of Kuttanad, India: Predisposing edaphic factors}, key = {cite}, author = {Roshni, Vasanthakumari and Harikumar, Variampally Sankar} }
APA Roshni, V. & Harikumar, V. S. (2021). Fluoride contamination in wetlands of Kuttanad, India: Predisposing edaphic factors . Eurasian Journal of Soil Science , 10 (1) , 61-68 . DOI: 10.18393/ejss.814006
MLA Roshni, V. , Harikumar, V. S. "Fluoride contamination in wetlands of Kuttanad, India: Predisposing edaphic factors" . Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 10 (2021 ): 61-68 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/ejss/issue/56856/814006>
Chicago Roshni, V. , Harikumar, V. S. "Fluoride contamination in wetlands of Kuttanad, India: Predisposing edaphic factors". Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 10 (2021 ): 61-68
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Fluoride contamination in wetlands of Kuttanad, India: Predisposing edaphic factors AU - VasanthakumariRoshni, Variampally SankarHarikumar Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - doi: 10.18393/ejss.814006 DO - 10.18393/ejss.814006 T2 - Eurasian Journal of Soil Science JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 61 EP - 68 VL - 10 IS - 1 SN - -2147-4249 M3 - doi: 10.18393/ejss.814006 UR - https://doi.org/10.18393/ejss.814006 Y2 - 2020 ER -
EndNote %0 Eurasian Journal of Soil Science Fluoride contamination in wetlands of Kuttanad, India: Predisposing edaphic factors %A Vasanthakumari Roshni , Variampally Sankar Harikumar %T Fluoride contamination in wetlands of Kuttanad, India: Predisposing edaphic factors %D 2021 %J Eurasian Journal of Soil Science %P -2147-4249 %V 10 %N 1 %R doi: 10.18393/ejss.814006 %U 10.18393/ejss.814006
ISNAD Roshni, Vasanthakumari , Harikumar, Variampally Sankar . "Fluoride contamination in wetlands of Kuttanad, India: Predisposing edaphic factors". Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 10 / 1 (January 2021): 61-68 . https://doi.org/10.18393/ejss.814006
AMA Roshni V. , Harikumar V. S. Fluoride contamination in wetlands of Kuttanad, India: Predisposing edaphic factors. EJSS. 2021; 10(1): 61-68.
Vancouver Roshni V. , Harikumar V. S. Fluoride contamination in wetlands of Kuttanad, India: Predisposing edaphic factors. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science. 2021; 10(1): 61-68.
IEEE V. Roshni and V. S. Harikumar , "Fluoride contamination in wetlands of Kuttanad, India: Predisposing edaphic factors", Eurasian Journal of Soil Science, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 61-68, Jan. 2021, doi:10.18393/ejss.814006