After the political and military crisis between Russia and Ukraine in 2014, the EU’s energy security was again in question. In fact, this was not the first time for the EU to question the reliability of the Russian energy supply. Similar disputes sparked controversies over gas prices in 2006 and 2009 in the context of efforts to maintain secure and reliable energy markets. Russia has often used its energy resources as an instrument of threat and blackmail in foreign policy relations with the EU, especially after the 2000s. Regarding alternative energy routes, Turkey has raised an important option since the end of the Cold War. Its location as a geographic bridge connecting east and west, as well as the strategic ownership of gas pipelines such as TANAP increase Turkey’s potential to contribute to the European energy security in case if it becomes a real energy hub rather than a transit country.
Energy security, Nabucco, TANAP, Turkish Stream, Russia