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PHOKAİA ANTİK KENTİNİN AKDENİZ`DE İZLEDİĞİ TİCARİ STRATEJİLER

Year 2022, Volume: 13 Issue: 1, 40 - 55, 29.07.2022
https://doi.org/10.18354/esam.1134717

Abstract

Günümüzde İzmir’in Eski Foça ilçesinde bulunan Phokaia Antik Kenti denizcilikteki becerisi sayesinde döneminde ün kazanmış ve antik kaynaklarda da bu yönüne sıkça değinilmiştir. Antik kaynaklara bakıldığında Phokaialılar denizci bir halk olarak karşımıza çıkmaktadır. Dönemin hem coğrafi hem de siyasi olaylarından etkilenip denize yönelen bu kent, İspanya’dan Fransa ve İtalya’ya oradan da Anadolu’da başta Troas bölgesi olmak üzere Karadeniz’e kadar uzanan bir ticaret ağ kurmayı başarmıştır. Bunun yanı sıra Mısır’da bulunan Naukratis kentinin de kurucuları arasında olduğu Herodotos’un Historiai adlı eserinde belirtilmektedir. Böylece MÖ 7. Yüzyılın son çeyreğinden MÖ 545`e kadar Akdeniz, Marmara ve Orta Karadeniz’de daha çok deniz taşımacılığı seferleri düzenleyerek bu bölgelerde birçok emporion tarzında ticari üstler kurmuştur. Yapılan bu yoğun ticari ilişkiler ve kurulan kentler sayesinde Phokaia MÖ 6. yüzyılın ilk yarısında Ionia’nın en gelişmiş kentlerinden biri haline gelmiştir.

References

  • Justinus, Historiae Phillippicae, Palala Pres, 2005.
  • Platon, Phaedo, ed. David Gallop, Clarendon Press, Oxford 1975.
  • Pseudo-Skymnos, Periegesis, Codex Parisinus Graecus Supplementi 443 (Codex D).
  • Herodotos, The Histories with an English.
  • Titus Livius, Roma Tarihi, Çev. Sabahat Şenbark, Arkeoloji ve Sanat Yayınları, İstanbul 1992.
  • Plinius, The Natural History, Pliny the Elder, ( Çev: John Bostock), M.D., F.R.S. H.T. Riley, Esq., B.A. London. Taylor and Francis, Red Lion Court, Fleet Street, 1855.
  • Strabon, Geographika, (Çev: Adnan Pekman) i-İstanbul, 2012.
  • Thukydides, History of the Peloponnesian War and the Athenians, (Çev. Jeremy Mynott), Cambridge, 2013.
  • MODERN KAYNAKLAR Akurgal 1993: Akurgal E., Eski Çağda Ege ve İzmir, İzmir.
  • Austin 1970: Austin A.A., Greece and Egypt in the Archaic Age Cambridge 1970.
  • Bats 1991: Bats, M., ‘Marseille, les colonies massaliètes et les relais indigènes dans le trafic le long du littoral méditerranéen gaulois (VIe–Ier s. av. J.-C.)’. In Bats et al. 1992, 263–78. Bellido 1940: Bellido G., La colonización phókaia en España desde los orígenes hasta la batalla de Alalíe, Siglo VII-535, 1940.
  • Boardman 1986: Boardman J., Archaic Chian Pottery at Naucratis’. In Boardman, J. And Vaphopoulou-Richardson, E. (eds.), Chios (Oxford), 251–8.
  • Braun 1982: Braun T.F.R.G., The Greeks in Egypt, CAH 3.3, 32-56. Chamorro 1987: Chamorro, J.G: ‘Survey of Archaeological Research on Tartessos’. AJA 91, 1987, 197–232.
  • Chevillon 2015: Chevillon J. A., Les oboles “gréco-provençales” à l’Hippalectryon: un motif unique en numismatique, Provence Numismatique, G.N.P., n. 122, 23-24.
  • Chevillon.- RipollĖs 2014: Chevillon J.-A., RipollĖs P.P, Emporion archaïque : genèse d’un revers-type, Revista Lucentum XXXIII, Université D’Alicante (Espagne), 2014, 281-285.
  • Clavel-Lévêque 1977: Chausserie-Laprée, J., Marseille grecque. La dynamique d’un impérialisme marchand Marseilles. 1977.
  • Domínguez 1991: Domínguez A.J.,‘Samios y foceos en los inicios de la colonización griega de Iberia’. In Estudios de Historia Medieval en homenaje a Luis Suárez Fernández (Valladolid), 131–47.
  • Furtwängler 1978: Furtwängler, A.E., Monnaies grecques en Gaule. Le trésor d’Auriol et le monnayage de Massalia, 525/520–460 av. J.-C., Fribourg, 1978.
  • Garcia 1987: Garcia, D., ‘Observations sur la production et le commerce des céréales en Languedoc méditerranéen durant l’Age du Fer: les formes de stockage des grains’ RAN 20, 1987, 43–98.
  • Gerkan 1924: Gerkan, A. von: Griechische Städteanlagen Berlin/Leipzig 1924.
  • Gorman 2001: Gorman, V.B., Miletosos: The Ornament of Ionia History of the City to 400 B.C., Michigan, 2001.
  • Graham 1986: Graham A.J., The Historical Interpretion of al Mina,Dialohues d’histoire ancienne 12: 1986, 51-65.
  • Greaves 2003: Graves A.M., Miletos, çev. Hüseyin Çınar Öztürk, Homer Kitapevi, Ġstanbul 2003.
  • Gwynn 1918: Gwynn A., “The Character of Greek Colonisation”, JHS, 38, 1918.
  • Hansen-Nielsen 2004: Hansen M.H.-Nielsen T.H., An Inventory of Archaic and Classical Poleis. An Investigation Conducted by The Copenhagen Polis Centre for the Danish National Research Foundation, Oxford 2004.
  • İren 2002: İren K., Die Werkstatt des Londoner Dinos: Eine phokaische Werkstatt?, İstanbuler Mitteilungen, Band 52, İstanbul 2002.
  • Lepore 1970: Lepore, E., ‘Strutture della colonizzazione focea in Occidente’. PP 25, 19–54. Lévêque, P. 1992: ‘Les populations indigènes de la Gaule et les Grecs’. In Bats et al. 1970, 383–88.
  • Malkin 1987: Malkin, I., Religion and Colonization in Ancient Greece (Leiden) 1987.
  • Martin 1988: Martín de la Cruz, J., ‘Mykenische Keramik von Montoro am Guadalquivir’. Madrider Mitteilungen 29, 77–92.
  • Morel 1988: Morel, J. P., ‘Les Phocéens dans la mer Tyrrhénienne’. In Hackens, T. (ed.), Navies and Commerce of the Greeks, the Carthaginians and the Etruscans in the Tyrrhenian Sea (Proceedings of the European Symposium, Ravello, 1987) (PACT 20) (Strasbourg/ Ravello), 1988, 429–61.
  • Morel 1990: Morel, J. P., ‘Archéologie et textes. L’exemple de la colonisation grecque en Occident’. In Lordkipanidzé, O. and Lévêque, P. (eds.), Le Pont-Euxin vu par les Grecs: sources écrites et archéologie (Symposium de Vani 1987) (Annales littéraires de l’Université de Besançon 427) (Besançon/Paris), 1990, 13–25.
  • Morel 2006: Morel J. P., Phocaean Colonisations, Greek Colonisation an Account of Greek Colonies and Other Settlements Oversease, Volume I, Ed. G. R. Tsetskhlagzde 2006, 358-428.
  • Pena 2000: Pena M.J., ‘Les cultes d’Emporion’. In Hermary and Tréziny 2000a, 59–68.
  • Plana 1994: Plana Mallart, R., La ‘chora’ d’Emporion: paysage et structures agraires dans le nordest catalan à la période pré-romaine, Paris/Besançon. 1994, 137–89.
  • Price 1924: Price E. R., Pottery of Naucratis, JHS 44, 180-222.
  • Robinson 1906: Robinson, D. M. 1906, “Ancient Sinope: First Part”, AJP, 27 / 2, p. 125-153.
  • Roebuck 1959: Roebuck, C., Ionian Trade and Colonization, New York, 1959.
  • Rouillard 1982: Rouillard, P., ‘Les colonies grecques du Sud-Est de la Péninsule Ibérique. Etat de la question’. PP 37, 417–31.
  • Rose-Körpe 2007: Rose B.- Körpe R., “Granicus River Valley Survey Project, 2004–2005”, Studia Troica, 2007.
  • Ruiz 1992: Ruiz de Arbulo, J., ‘Emporion. Ciudad y territorio (s. VI–I a. C.). Algunas reflexiones preliminares’. Revista d’Arqueologia de Ponent 2, 1992, 59–74.
  • Shefton 1994: Shefton, B.B., ‘Massalia and Colonization in the North-Western Mediterranean’. In Tsetskhladze, G.R. and De Angelis, F. (eds), The Archaeology of Greek Colonisation. Essays Dedicated to Sir John Boardman (Oxford), 194, 61–86.
  • Sourisseau 1990: Sourisseau, J.-C., Les amphores du Jardin d’Hiver à Arles (Bouches-du-Rhône). Étude dynamique de ces conteneurs commerciaux, Diss., Université de Provence, Aix-en-Provence, 1990.
  • Tsetskhladze 1998: Tsetskhladze G.R., ‘Greek Colonisation of the Black Sea Area: Stages, Models, and Native Population’. In Tsetskhladze, G.R. (ed.), The Greek Colonisation of the Black Sea Area: Historical Interpretation of Archaeology (Historia Einzelschriften 121) (Stuttgart), 9–68. . Walter-Karydi 1970: Walter-Karydi E., Aolische Kunst, Antike Kunst Siebtes Beiheft, 3-18.
Year 2022, Volume: 13 Issue: 1, 40 - 55, 29.07.2022
https://doi.org/10.18354/esam.1134717

Abstract

References

  • Justinus, Historiae Phillippicae, Palala Pres, 2005.
  • Platon, Phaedo, ed. David Gallop, Clarendon Press, Oxford 1975.
  • Pseudo-Skymnos, Periegesis, Codex Parisinus Graecus Supplementi 443 (Codex D).
  • Herodotos, The Histories with an English.
  • Titus Livius, Roma Tarihi, Çev. Sabahat Şenbark, Arkeoloji ve Sanat Yayınları, İstanbul 1992.
  • Plinius, The Natural History, Pliny the Elder, ( Çev: John Bostock), M.D., F.R.S. H.T. Riley, Esq., B.A. London. Taylor and Francis, Red Lion Court, Fleet Street, 1855.
  • Strabon, Geographika, (Çev: Adnan Pekman) i-İstanbul, 2012.
  • Thukydides, History of the Peloponnesian War and the Athenians, (Çev. Jeremy Mynott), Cambridge, 2013.
  • MODERN KAYNAKLAR Akurgal 1993: Akurgal E., Eski Çağda Ege ve İzmir, İzmir.
  • Austin 1970: Austin A.A., Greece and Egypt in the Archaic Age Cambridge 1970.
  • Bats 1991: Bats, M., ‘Marseille, les colonies massaliètes et les relais indigènes dans le trafic le long du littoral méditerranéen gaulois (VIe–Ier s. av. J.-C.)’. In Bats et al. 1992, 263–78. Bellido 1940: Bellido G., La colonización phókaia en España desde los orígenes hasta la batalla de Alalíe, Siglo VII-535, 1940.
  • Boardman 1986: Boardman J., Archaic Chian Pottery at Naucratis’. In Boardman, J. And Vaphopoulou-Richardson, E. (eds.), Chios (Oxford), 251–8.
  • Braun 1982: Braun T.F.R.G., The Greeks in Egypt, CAH 3.3, 32-56. Chamorro 1987: Chamorro, J.G: ‘Survey of Archaeological Research on Tartessos’. AJA 91, 1987, 197–232.
  • Chevillon 2015: Chevillon J. A., Les oboles “gréco-provençales” à l’Hippalectryon: un motif unique en numismatique, Provence Numismatique, G.N.P., n. 122, 23-24.
  • Chevillon.- RipollĖs 2014: Chevillon J.-A., RipollĖs P.P, Emporion archaïque : genèse d’un revers-type, Revista Lucentum XXXIII, Université D’Alicante (Espagne), 2014, 281-285.
  • Clavel-Lévêque 1977: Chausserie-Laprée, J., Marseille grecque. La dynamique d’un impérialisme marchand Marseilles. 1977.
  • Domínguez 1991: Domínguez A.J.,‘Samios y foceos en los inicios de la colonización griega de Iberia’. In Estudios de Historia Medieval en homenaje a Luis Suárez Fernández (Valladolid), 131–47.
  • Furtwängler 1978: Furtwängler, A.E., Monnaies grecques en Gaule. Le trésor d’Auriol et le monnayage de Massalia, 525/520–460 av. J.-C., Fribourg, 1978.
  • Garcia 1987: Garcia, D., ‘Observations sur la production et le commerce des céréales en Languedoc méditerranéen durant l’Age du Fer: les formes de stockage des grains’ RAN 20, 1987, 43–98.
  • Gerkan 1924: Gerkan, A. von: Griechische Städteanlagen Berlin/Leipzig 1924.
  • Gorman 2001: Gorman, V.B., Miletosos: The Ornament of Ionia History of the City to 400 B.C., Michigan, 2001.
  • Graham 1986: Graham A.J., The Historical Interpretion of al Mina,Dialohues d’histoire ancienne 12: 1986, 51-65.
  • Greaves 2003: Graves A.M., Miletos, çev. Hüseyin Çınar Öztürk, Homer Kitapevi, Ġstanbul 2003.
  • Gwynn 1918: Gwynn A., “The Character of Greek Colonisation”, JHS, 38, 1918.
  • Hansen-Nielsen 2004: Hansen M.H.-Nielsen T.H., An Inventory of Archaic and Classical Poleis. An Investigation Conducted by The Copenhagen Polis Centre for the Danish National Research Foundation, Oxford 2004.
  • İren 2002: İren K., Die Werkstatt des Londoner Dinos: Eine phokaische Werkstatt?, İstanbuler Mitteilungen, Band 52, İstanbul 2002.
  • Lepore 1970: Lepore, E., ‘Strutture della colonizzazione focea in Occidente’. PP 25, 19–54. Lévêque, P. 1992: ‘Les populations indigènes de la Gaule et les Grecs’. In Bats et al. 1970, 383–88.
  • Malkin 1987: Malkin, I., Religion and Colonization in Ancient Greece (Leiden) 1987.
  • Martin 1988: Martín de la Cruz, J., ‘Mykenische Keramik von Montoro am Guadalquivir’. Madrider Mitteilungen 29, 77–92.
  • Morel 1988: Morel, J. P., ‘Les Phocéens dans la mer Tyrrhénienne’. In Hackens, T. (ed.), Navies and Commerce of the Greeks, the Carthaginians and the Etruscans in the Tyrrhenian Sea (Proceedings of the European Symposium, Ravello, 1987) (PACT 20) (Strasbourg/ Ravello), 1988, 429–61.
  • Morel 1990: Morel, J. P., ‘Archéologie et textes. L’exemple de la colonisation grecque en Occident’. In Lordkipanidzé, O. and Lévêque, P. (eds.), Le Pont-Euxin vu par les Grecs: sources écrites et archéologie (Symposium de Vani 1987) (Annales littéraires de l’Université de Besançon 427) (Besançon/Paris), 1990, 13–25.
  • Morel 2006: Morel J. P., Phocaean Colonisations, Greek Colonisation an Account of Greek Colonies and Other Settlements Oversease, Volume I, Ed. G. R. Tsetskhlagzde 2006, 358-428.
  • Pena 2000: Pena M.J., ‘Les cultes d’Emporion’. In Hermary and Tréziny 2000a, 59–68.
  • Plana 1994: Plana Mallart, R., La ‘chora’ d’Emporion: paysage et structures agraires dans le nordest catalan à la période pré-romaine, Paris/Besançon. 1994, 137–89.
  • Price 1924: Price E. R., Pottery of Naucratis, JHS 44, 180-222.
  • Robinson 1906: Robinson, D. M. 1906, “Ancient Sinope: First Part”, AJP, 27 / 2, p. 125-153.
  • Roebuck 1959: Roebuck, C., Ionian Trade and Colonization, New York, 1959.
  • Rouillard 1982: Rouillard, P., ‘Les colonies grecques du Sud-Est de la Péninsule Ibérique. Etat de la question’. PP 37, 417–31.
  • Rose-Körpe 2007: Rose B.- Körpe R., “Granicus River Valley Survey Project, 2004–2005”, Studia Troica, 2007.
  • Ruiz 1992: Ruiz de Arbulo, J., ‘Emporion. Ciudad y territorio (s. VI–I a. C.). Algunas reflexiones preliminares’. Revista d’Arqueologia de Ponent 2, 1992, 59–74.
  • Shefton 1994: Shefton, B.B., ‘Massalia and Colonization in the North-Western Mediterranean’. In Tsetskhladze, G.R. and De Angelis, F. (eds), The Archaeology of Greek Colonisation. Essays Dedicated to Sir John Boardman (Oxford), 194, 61–86.
  • Sourisseau 1990: Sourisseau, J.-C., Les amphores du Jardin d’Hiver à Arles (Bouches-du-Rhône). Étude dynamique de ces conteneurs commerciaux, Diss., Université de Provence, Aix-en-Provence, 1990.
  • Tsetskhladze 1998: Tsetskhladze G.R., ‘Greek Colonisation of the Black Sea Area: Stages, Models, and Native Population’. In Tsetskhladze, G.R. (ed.), The Greek Colonisation of the Black Sea Area: Historical Interpretation of Archaeology (Historia Einzelschriften 121) (Stuttgart), 9–68. . Walter-Karydi 1970: Walter-Karydi E., Aolische Kunst, Antike Kunst Siebtes Beiheft, 3-18.

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Aytekin ERDOĞAN 0000-0001-5304-2798

Publication Date July 29, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022 Volume: 13 Issue: 1

Cite

APA ERDOĞAN, A. (2022). PHOKAİA ANTİK KENTİNİN AKDENİZ`DE İZLEDİĞİ TİCARİ STRATEJİLER. Ege Stratejik Araştırmalar Dergisi, 13(1), 40-55. https://doi.org/10.18354/esam.1134717
AMA ERDOĞAN A. PHOKAİA ANTİK KENTİNİN AKDENİZ`DE İZLEDİĞİ TİCARİ STRATEJİLER. ESAM. July 2022;13(1):40-55. doi:10.18354/esam.1134717
Chicago ERDOĞAN, Aytekin. “PHOKAİA ANTİK KENTİNİN AKDENİZ`DE İZLEDİĞİ TİCARİ STRATEJİLER”. Ege Stratejik Araştırmalar Dergisi 13, no. 1 (July 2022): 40-55. https://doi.org/10.18354/esam.1134717.
EndNote ERDOĞAN A (July 1, 2022) PHOKAİA ANTİK KENTİNİN AKDENİZ`DE İZLEDİĞİ TİCARİ STRATEJİLER. Ege Stratejik Araştırmalar Dergisi 13 1 40–55.
IEEE A. ERDOĞAN, “PHOKAİA ANTİK KENTİNİN AKDENİZ`DE İZLEDİĞİ TİCARİ STRATEJİLER”, ESAM, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 40–55, 2022, doi: 10.18354/esam.1134717.
ISNAD ERDOĞAN, Aytekin. “PHOKAİA ANTİK KENTİNİN AKDENİZ`DE İZLEDİĞİ TİCARİ STRATEJİLER”. Ege Stratejik Araştırmalar Dergisi 13/1 (July 2022), 40-55. https://doi.org/10.18354/esam.1134717.
JAMA ERDOĞAN A. PHOKAİA ANTİK KENTİNİN AKDENİZ`DE İZLEDİĞİ TİCARİ STRATEJİLER. ESAM. 2022;13:40–55.
MLA ERDOĞAN, Aytekin. “PHOKAİA ANTİK KENTİNİN AKDENİZ`DE İZLEDİĞİ TİCARİ STRATEJİLER”. Ege Stratejik Araştırmalar Dergisi, vol. 13, no. 1, 2022, pp. 40-55, doi:10.18354/esam.1134717.
Vancouver ERDOĞAN A. PHOKAİA ANTİK KENTİNİN AKDENİZ`DE İZLEDİĞİ TİCARİ STRATEJİLER. ESAM. 2022;13(1):40-55.