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Holakratik Örgütlenme ve Takım Öğrenmesi

Year 2021, Volume 2, Issue 1, 36 - 53, 30.06.2021

Abstract

Örgütsel yapıların işleyişi ve rekabeti açısından en önemli odak noktalardan biri örgütlerin örgütlenme biçimidir. Bu doğrultuda kamu ve özel teşebbüs niteliği taşıyan organizasyonlar, örgütlerinin verimliliği açısından sürekli bir model arayışı içerisindedirler. Bu yönüyle Holakratik örgütlenme modeli, bu arayış içerisinde son yıllarda önemli bir yer edinmiştir. Bu modelin yapısal işleyişinde takım öğrenmelerine yönelik dinamikleri araştırmak da önem teşkil etmektedir. Araştırma, derleme türü bir çalışma olup ilgili konu alanını kapsayan literatür ele alınarak hazırlanmıştır. Bu araştırmanın amacı, Holakratik örgütlenme modeli ve takım öğrenmesi arasındaki bağlantıları ortaya çıkarmaktır. Holakrasi, en kısa tanımıyla işi yapan insana değil, yapılan işe odaklanan bir örgütlenme modeli olarak tanımlanmaktadır. Geleneksel yönetim modellerinin katı, emredici hiyerarşik yapılarının aksine holakrasi, işin gerçekleşmesiyle ortaya çıkan daireler veya holonlar şeklinde bir örgütlenme yapısına sahip olup örgüt içerisindeki bireylerin birden fazla role sahip oldukları dinamik bir yapısal süreci örgütlere sunmaktadır. Bu modelde unvanlar, yaptıkları göreve, genel olarak dairelerine ve örgütlerine katkıda bulunma biçimlerine göre açıkça tanımlanmış olan çalışanların rolleriyle yer değiştirir. Her ekip veya takım, örgütün ve bulunduğu dairenin amaçlarına ve hedeflerine odaklanmakta ve örgütün amaçları açısından işbirliği yaparak birlikte öğrenmektedirler. Eş yapılar arası işbirliğinin genel şirket dairesine ve örgüte hâkim olduğu bu modelde işbirliği, alt dairelerde takım öğrenmelerinin gelişmesine ve yayılmasına neden olmaktadır. Her çalışanın gerektiğinde farklı rollerde kendini bulduğu bu model, daireler içerisindeki bireylerin işbirliği yapması ve birlikte öğrenmesini zorunlu kılmaktadır. Bu birlikte öğrenmeler, örgütün gelişmesi ve büyümesinin temel yapı taşlarını oluşturmaktadır. Aynı zamanda işlevsel toplantıların da sürece hâkim olduğu bir yapı ortaya koyan Holakraside bu toplantılar, takım öğrenme süreçlerinin aktif olarak yapılandırıldığı bir nitelik taşımaktadır. Takım öğrenmelerinin yoğun yaşandığı bu model, genellikle özel şirketler bazında uygulanmış olmasına rağmen kamu örgüt yapılarına özellikle de eğitim örgütlerine adapte edilmesi, örgütlerin verimliliği açısından yararlı olacaktır

References

  • Akyüz, M. Y. (2002). Çağdaş Okulda Etkili Liderlik. Ege Eğitim Dergisi, 1 (2), 109-119
  • Appelbaum, S. H. & Goransson, L. (1997). Transformational and adaptive learning. The Learning Organization, 4 (3), 115-28
  • Bernstein, E., Bunch,J., Canner, N. & Lee, M. (2016). Beyond The Holacracy Hype. Harvard Business Review. http://hetprogrammahuis.nl/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/Beyond-the-Holacracy-Hype.pdf adresinden 25 Ekim 2018 tarihinde erişilmiştir.
  • Braudis B. (2016). What are the advantages and disadvantages of Holacracy? https://www.quora.com/What-are-the-advantages-and-disadvantages-of-Holacracy adresinden 21 Kasım 2018 tarihinde erişilmiştir.
  • BSL (Business School Lausanne). A brief overview of BSL’s history. https://www.bsl-lausanne.ch/bsl-history/ adresinden 1 Haziran 2019 tarihinde edinilmiştir.
  • Coughlan, T. & College, M. (2016). Structured for Success: How the Structure of Today’s Professional Organizations Are Changing. Journal of Management and Innovation, 2 (1), 1-18
  • Decuyper, S., Dochy, F., & Van den Bossche, P. (2010). Grasping the dynamic complexity of team learning: An integrative model for effective team learning in organisations. Educational Research Review, 5(2), 111–133.
  • Dochy F., Gijbels D., Raes E., Kyndt E. (2014) Team Learning in Education and Professional Organisations. Billett S., Harteis C., Gruber H. (Ed.) International Handbook of Research in Professional and Practice-based Learning ( pp. 987-1020). Springer International Handbooks of Education. Springer, Dordrecht
  • Edmondson, A. (1999). Psychological safety and learning behaviour in work teams. Administrative Science Quarterly, 44(2), 350–383
  • Eremina, A. (2017). Comparıson Of Organızatıonal Structures – Case Zappos. (Master’s Thesis). Unıversıty Of Oulu/Oulu Business School. Finland.
  • Feloni, R. (3 Haziran 2015). Here's how the 'self-management' system that zappos is using actually works. https://www.businessinsider.com/how-zappos-self-management-system-holacracy-works-2015-6 adresinden 24.10.2018 tarihinde erişilmiştir.
  • French, W. L. & Bell, C. H. (1995). Organization development: Behavioral science interventions for organization improvement. Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice Hall.
  • Herdman, E. A. (2006). Derleme Makale Yazımında, Konferans ve Bildiri Sunumu Hazırlamada Pratik Bilgiler. Hemşirelikte Eğitim ve Araştırma Dergisi, 3 (1), 2-4
  • Holacracy Constitution (2015). Holacracy Constitution v4.1. https://www.holacracy.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/Holacracy-Constitution-v4.1.pdf adresinden 21 Kasım 2018 tarihinde erişilmiştir.
  • Holacracy. org. (2018). What is Holacracy. https://www.holacracy.org/what-is-holacracy adresinden 24/10/2018 tarihinde edinilmiştir.
  • Holacracy Introductory Whıtepaper (2015). Holacracy: Discover A Better Way of Working. https://www.holacracy.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/Holacracy-WhitePaper-v5.pdf adresinden 22/05/2019 tarihinde edinilmiştir.
  • Işık, M., Çiçek, B. (2018). Alternatif Bir Örgütsel Yönetim Modeli: Holakrasi. M. Reyhanoğlu (Edt.). Araştırmalar Işığında Yönetimde Güncel Konular (351-367) içinde, Ankara: Nobel Akademik Yayıncılık
  • Kamp, P.V.D. (2014). Holacracy – A Radıcal Approach To Organızatıonal Desıgn. Hans Dekkers, Wil Leeuwis & Ivan Plantevin (Edt.), Elements Of The Software Development Process (pp.13-25). University of Amsterdam
  • Kassim, N. A. & Nor, A. M. (2007). Team Learnıng In A Learnıng Organızatıon: The Practıces Of Team Learnıng Among Unıversıty Lıbrarıans In Malaysıa. Malaysian Journal of Library & Information Science, 12(1), 55-64
  • Kayes, A. B., Kayes, D. C., & Kolb, D. A. (2005). Experiential learning in teams. Simulation and Gaming, 36, 330-354.
  • Kayes, D. C. (2006). Team Learning in Organizations: A Review and Integration. Submitted to OLKC 2006 Conference at the University of Warwick, Coventry on 20th - 22nd March 2006.
  • Knapp, R. (2010). Collective (team) learning process models: a conceptual review. Human Resource Development Review, 9(3), 285–299
  • Krasulja, N., Radojević, I. & Janjušić, D. (2016). Holacracy - The New Management System. The Prıorıty Dırectıons Of Natıonal Economy Development International Scientific Conference, Faculty of Economics, University of Niš, 13 October 2016.
  • Küçük, Ceyhun, (2017). Eğitim Liderliğine Holakrasi Üzerinden Bir Bakış, Hacettepe Üniversitesi, Eğitim Yönetimi Teftişi Planlaması ve Ekonomisi Bilim Dalı, Yüksek Lisans Ders Ödevi
  • London, M., Polzer, K. T., & Omoregie, H. (2005). Interpersonal congruence, transactive memory, and feedback processes: An integrative model of group learning. Human Resource Development Review, 4(2), 114–135
  • McCarthy, A., & Garavan, T. N. (2008). Team learning and metacognition: A neglected area of HRD research and practice. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 19, 509-524.
  • MacGregor, J. “Zappos says goodbye to bosses,” The Wall Street Journal, 3 Haziran 2014, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/on-leadership/wp/2014/01/03/zappos-gets-rid-of-all-managers/?noredirect=on&utm_&utm_content=buffer93d6c&utm_medium=twitter&utm_source=buffer&utm_term=.8bf03b206368 adresinden 25 Mayıs 2019 tarihinde edinilmiştir.
  • Muff, K. (2016). Achieving power-distribution and self-organisation through Holacracy. John North (Edt.). Global Responsibility (pp. 24-27). Belgium: GRLI Press
  • Omicsgroup (2019). Holacracy. http://research.omicsgroup.org/index.php/Holacracy adresinden 22/05/2019 tarihinde edinilmiştir.
  • Özden, Y. (2005). Eğitimde Yeni Değerler. Ankara: Pegem A Yayıncılık
  • Rees, L. (2016, 9 Nisan). Can Holacracy Work in Education? (Blog yazısı). https://www.sycol.com/can-holacracy-work-education/ adresinden 21/05/2019 tarihinde edinilmiştir.
  • Rishipal (2014). Analytical Comparison of Flat and Vertical Organizational Structures. European Journal of Business and Management, 6(36), 56-66
  • Robertson, B. J. (2007). Organization at the Leading Edge: Introducing Holacracy™.http://library.uniteddiversity.coop/Decision_Making_and_Democracy/Holacracy/HolacracyIntro2007-06.pdf adresinden 25 Ekim 2018 tarihinde erişilmiştir.
  • Robertson, B.J. (2015). Holacracy - The New Management System for a Rapidly Changing World. New York: Henry Holt and Company.
  • Russo, S. (2014, 31 Ocak). Holacracy: pros and cons of a radical challenge to the traditional organisation. HRreview. http://www.hrreview.co.uk/hr-news/strategy-news/holacracy-pros-and-cons-of-a-radical-challenge-to-the-traditional-organisation/50404 adresinden 21/11/2018 tarihinde erişilmiştir.
  • Senge, P. (1990). The fifth discipline: The art and practice of the learning organization. New York: Currency Doubleday.
  • Thordarson, K. (2015, 10 Kasım). Holacracy in the Classroom? (Blog Yazısı). http://www.kamithordarson.com/blog-1/2015/11/9/holacracy-in-the-classroom adresinden 21/05/2019 tarihinde edinilmiştir.
  • Uğur, S. S. (2017). Yönetimde Yeni Bir Örgütsel Davranış Modeli: Holakrasi. Akademik Sosyal Araştırmalar Dergisi, (59), 211-218
  • Van den Bossche, P., Gijselaers, W. H., Segers, M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2006). Social and cognitive factors driving teamwork in collaborative learning environments. Small Group Research, 37(5), 490–521
  • Van den Bossche, P., Gijselaers, W.H., Segers, M. Woltjer, G. & Kirschner, P. A. (2011). Team learning: building shared mental models. Instructional Science, 39(3), 283-301
  • Velinov, E., Vassilev, V.& Denisov, I. (2018). Holacracy and Obliquity: contingency management approaches in organizing companies. Problems and Perspectives in Management, 16(1), 330-335
  • Vera, D. & Crossan, M. (2004). Strategic leadership and organizational learning. Academy of Management Review, 29(2), 222–240.
  • Wilber, K. (2001). A brief history of everything. Boulder, Shambhala

Holacratic Organization and Team Learning

Year 2021, Volume 2, Issue 1, 36 - 53, 30.06.2021

Abstract

One of the most important focal points in terms of the functioning and competition of organizational structures is the way in which the organization is organized. In this respect, organizations that are public and private enterprises are in search of a continuous model in terms of the efficiency of their organizations. Holacratic organization model has taken an important place in this direction in recent years. It is also important to investigate the dynamics of team learning in the structural functioning of this model. This study is a review of literature involving a compilation of research studies on the relevant subject matter. The aim of this research is to reveal the connections between Holacratic organization model and team learning. In short, Holacracy is defined as an organization model that focuses on the work done, not the person doing the work. Contrary to the strict, mandatory hierarchical structures of the traditional governance models, holacracy has an organization structure in the form of circles or holons, which arise from the realization of the work, and presents a dynamic structural process in which the individuals within the organization have more than one role. In this model, titles are generally replaced by the roles of employees, which are clearly defined according to the way they contribute to their work, their departments and organizations. Each crew or team focuses on the aims and objectives of the organization and the departments in which they studied, and learns in cooperation in the light of organization’s purposes. In this model, where collaboration between peer groups dominates all units and organizations, team learning develops and disseminates in the sub-units. In this model, where each employee finds himself / herself in different roles when necessary, individuals in units have to turn to cooperate and learn together. These co-learning forms create the basic building blocks of the development and growth of the organization. At the same time, holacratic organization, which sets out a structure where functional meetings dominate the process, has a quality in which team learning processes are actively structured. At the same time, in a holacratic organization, where functional meetings dominate the process, these meetings are of a nature in which team learning processes are actively structured. Although this model, which is intensely experienced in team learning, is generally applied in private companies, adaptation to public organization (especially to educational organizations) structures will be beneficial for the efficiency of organizations.

References

  • Akyüz, M. Y. (2002). Çağdaş Okulda Etkili Liderlik. Ege Eğitim Dergisi, 1 (2), 109-119
  • Appelbaum, S. H. & Goransson, L. (1997). Transformational and adaptive learning. The Learning Organization, 4 (3), 115-28
  • Bernstein, E., Bunch,J., Canner, N. & Lee, M. (2016). Beyond The Holacracy Hype. Harvard Business Review. http://hetprogrammahuis.nl/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/Beyond-the-Holacracy-Hype.pdf adresinden 25 Ekim 2018 tarihinde erişilmiştir.
  • Braudis B. (2016). What are the advantages and disadvantages of Holacracy? https://www.quora.com/What-are-the-advantages-and-disadvantages-of-Holacracy adresinden 21 Kasım 2018 tarihinde erişilmiştir.
  • BSL (Business School Lausanne). A brief overview of BSL’s history. https://www.bsl-lausanne.ch/bsl-history/ adresinden 1 Haziran 2019 tarihinde edinilmiştir.
  • Coughlan, T. & College, M. (2016). Structured for Success: How the Structure of Today’s Professional Organizations Are Changing. Journal of Management and Innovation, 2 (1), 1-18
  • Decuyper, S., Dochy, F., & Van den Bossche, P. (2010). Grasping the dynamic complexity of team learning: An integrative model for effective team learning in organisations. Educational Research Review, 5(2), 111–133.
  • Dochy F., Gijbels D., Raes E., Kyndt E. (2014) Team Learning in Education and Professional Organisations. Billett S., Harteis C., Gruber H. (Ed.) International Handbook of Research in Professional and Practice-based Learning ( pp. 987-1020). Springer International Handbooks of Education. Springer, Dordrecht
  • Edmondson, A. (1999). Psychological safety and learning behaviour in work teams. Administrative Science Quarterly, 44(2), 350–383
  • Eremina, A. (2017). Comparıson Of Organızatıonal Structures – Case Zappos. (Master’s Thesis). Unıversıty Of Oulu/Oulu Business School. Finland.
  • Feloni, R. (3 Haziran 2015). Here's how the 'self-management' system that zappos is using actually works. https://www.businessinsider.com/how-zappos-self-management-system-holacracy-works-2015-6 adresinden 24.10.2018 tarihinde erişilmiştir.
  • French, W. L. & Bell, C. H. (1995). Organization development: Behavioral science interventions for organization improvement. Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice Hall.
  • Herdman, E. A. (2006). Derleme Makale Yazımında, Konferans ve Bildiri Sunumu Hazırlamada Pratik Bilgiler. Hemşirelikte Eğitim ve Araştırma Dergisi, 3 (1), 2-4
  • Holacracy Constitution (2015). Holacracy Constitution v4.1. https://www.holacracy.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/Holacracy-Constitution-v4.1.pdf adresinden 21 Kasım 2018 tarihinde erişilmiştir.
  • Holacracy. org. (2018). What is Holacracy. https://www.holacracy.org/what-is-holacracy adresinden 24/10/2018 tarihinde edinilmiştir.
  • Holacracy Introductory Whıtepaper (2015). Holacracy: Discover A Better Way of Working. https://www.holacracy.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/Holacracy-WhitePaper-v5.pdf adresinden 22/05/2019 tarihinde edinilmiştir.
  • Işık, M., Çiçek, B. (2018). Alternatif Bir Örgütsel Yönetim Modeli: Holakrasi. M. Reyhanoğlu (Edt.). Araştırmalar Işığında Yönetimde Güncel Konular (351-367) içinde, Ankara: Nobel Akademik Yayıncılık
  • Kamp, P.V.D. (2014). Holacracy – A Radıcal Approach To Organızatıonal Desıgn. Hans Dekkers, Wil Leeuwis & Ivan Plantevin (Edt.), Elements Of The Software Development Process (pp.13-25). University of Amsterdam
  • Kassim, N. A. & Nor, A. M. (2007). Team Learnıng In A Learnıng Organızatıon: The Practıces Of Team Learnıng Among Unıversıty Lıbrarıans In Malaysıa. Malaysian Journal of Library & Information Science, 12(1), 55-64
  • Kayes, A. B., Kayes, D. C., & Kolb, D. A. (2005). Experiential learning in teams. Simulation and Gaming, 36, 330-354.
  • Kayes, D. C. (2006). Team Learning in Organizations: A Review and Integration. Submitted to OLKC 2006 Conference at the University of Warwick, Coventry on 20th - 22nd March 2006.
  • Knapp, R. (2010). Collective (team) learning process models: a conceptual review. Human Resource Development Review, 9(3), 285–299
  • Krasulja, N., Radojević, I. & Janjušić, D. (2016). Holacracy - The New Management System. The Prıorıty Dırectıons Of Natıonal Economy Development International Scientific Conference, Faculty of Economics, University of Niš, 13 October 2016.
  • Küçük, Ceyhun, (2017). Eğitim Liderliğine Holakrasi Üzerinden Bir Bakış, Hacettepe Üniversitesi, Eğitim Yönetimi Teftişi Planlaması ve Ekonomisi Bilim Dalı, Yüksek Lisans Ders Ödevi
  • London, M., Polzer, K. T., & Omoregie, H. (2005). Interpersonal congruence, transactive memory, and feedback processes: An integrative model of group learning. Human Resource Development Review, 4(2), 114–135
  • McCarthy, A., & Garavan, T. N. (2008). Team learning and metacognition: A neglected area of HRD research and practice. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 19, 509-524.
  • MacGregor, J. “Zappos says goodbye to bosses,” The Wall Street Journal, 3 Haziran 2014, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/on-leadership/wp/2014/01/03/zappos-gets-rid-of-all-managers/?noredirect=on&utm_&utm_content=buffer93d6c&utm_medium=twitter&utm_source=buffer&utm_term=.8bf03b206368 adresinden 25 Mayıs 2019 tarihinde edinilmiştir.
  • Muff, K. (2016). Achieving power-distribution and self-organisation through Holacracy. John North (Edt.). Global Responsibility (pp. 24-27). Belgium: GRLI Press
  • Omicsgroup (2019). Holacracy. http://research.omicsgroup.org/index.php/Holacracy adresinden 22/05/2019 tarihinde edinilmiştir.
  • Özden, Y. (2005). Eğitimde Yeni Değerler. Ankara: Pegem A Yayıncılık
  • Rees, L. (2016, 9 Nisan). Can Holacracy Work in Education? (Blog yazısı). https://www.sycol.com/can-holacracy-work-education/ adresinden 21/05/2019 tarihinde edinilmiştir.
  • Rishipal (2014). Analytical Comparison of Flat and Vertical Organizational Structures. European Journal of Business and Management, 6(36), 56-66
  • Robertson, B. J. (2007). Organization at the Leading Edge: Introducing Holacracy™.http://library.uniteddiversity.coop/Decision_Making_and_Democracy/Holacracy/HolacracyIntro2007-06.pdf adresinden 25 Ekim 2018 tarihinde erişilmiştir.
  • Robertson, B.J. (2015). Holacracy - The New Management System for a Rapidly Changing World. New York: Henry Holt and Company.
  • Russo, S. (2014, 31 Ocak). Holacracy: pros and cons of a radical challenge to the traditional organisation. HRreview. http://www.hrreview.co.uk/hr-news/strategy-news/holacracy-pros-and-cons-of-a-radical-challenge-to-the-traditional-organisation/50404 adresinden 21/11/2018 tarihinde erişilmiştir.
  • Senge, P. (1990). The fifth discipline: The art and practice of the learning organization. New York: Currency Doubleday.
  • Thordarson, K. (2015, 10 Kasım). Holacracy in the Classroom? (Blog Yazısı). http://www.kamithordarson.com/blog-1/2015/11/9/holacracy-in-the-classroom adresinden 21/05/2019 tarihinde edinilmiştir.
  • Uğur, S. S. (2017). Yönetimde Yeni Bir Örgütsel Davranış Modeli: Holakrasi. Akademik Sosyal Araştırmalar Dergisi, (59), 211-218
  • Van den Bossche, P., Gijselaers, W. H., Segers, M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2006). Social and cognitive factors driving teamwork in collaborative learning environments. Small Group Research, 37(5), 490–521
  • Van den Bossche, P., Gijselaers, W.H., Segers, M. Woltjer, G. & Kirschner, P. A. (2011). Team learning: building shared mental models. Instructional Science, 39(3), 283-301
  • Velinov, E., Vassilev, V.& Denisov, I. (2018). Holacracy and Obliquity: contingency management approaches in organizing companies. Problems and Perspectives in Management, 16(1), 330-335
  • Vera, D. & Crossan, M. (2004). Strategic leadership and organizational learning. Academy of Management Review, 29(2), 222–240.
  • Wilber, K. (2001). A brief history of everything. Boulder, Shambhala

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Education, Scientific Disciplines
Journal Section Manuscripts
Authors

Mesut DEMİRBİLEK (Primary Author)
T.C. MİLLİ EĞİTİM BAKANLIĞI
0000-0002-7570-7807
Türkiye

Publication Date June 30, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 2, Issue 1

Cite

APA Demirbilek, M. (2021). Holakratik Örgütlenme ve Takım Öğrenmesi . Eğitim Yönetimi ve Politikaları Dergisi , 2 (1) , 36-53 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/eypd/issue/63464/932018