Year 2018, Volume 7 , Issue 1, Pages 57 - 85 2018-05-10

KÜRESEL İKLİM DEĞİŞİKLİĞİ VE GÜVENLİK
GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE AND SECURITY

Çağla VURAL [1]


Öz

Dünya yüzeyindeki sıcaklık gittikçe artmaktadır. Hızlı nüfus artışı, kentleşme ve sanayileşme sonucunda atmosfere bırakılan kirletici gazlar atmosferde sera etkisi yaratmaktadır. Ormanlık alanların yok olması sonucunda karbondioksit salımını dengeleyecek mekanizmalar işlevsiz hale gelmektedir. Tüm bunların sonucunda iklim değişikliği; küresel boyutlarda dünyanın en acil sorunu olarak karşımıza çıkmaktadır ve söz konusu olaylar güvenlik boyutu ile de değerlendirilmeye başlanmıştır. Bu bağlamda küresel iklim değişikliği çevresel bir güvenlik sorunu olarak kabul edilmektedir. Bununla birlikte sorun geleneksel, ortak, insani ve ekolojik güvenlik yaklaşımları bakımından farklı bakış açılarıyla ele alınmaktadır. Bu çalışmanın gayesi; küresel ölçekte yaşanan iklim değişikliği sorununun güvenlikle ilişkisinin incelenmesi ve sorunun çözümüne yönelik en uygun bakış açısını sunabilen güvenlik yaklaşımının araştırılmasıdır. Bu araştırmalar yapılırken; literatür taraması yöntemine başvurulmuş; bilimsel kitaplardan, makalelerden, tezlerden ve internet kaynaklarından yararlanılmıştır.

Abstract

World surface temperature is increasin gradually. Pollutant gases released into the atmosphere as a result of rapid population growth, urbanization and industrialization create a greenhouse effect in the atmosphere. As a consequence of the disappearance of the forest areas, the mechanisms to balance carbon dioxide emissions are becoming dysfunctional. Climate change as a result of this emerges as the most urgent problem of the world in global dimensions, and the related events have begun to be evaluated with the security dimension as well. In this context, global climate change is regarded as an environmental security problem. However, the problem is addressed by different perspectives in respect to traditional, common, human and ecological security approaches. This study therefore aims to examine the security implications of the global climate change, and study the security approach that can present the most appropriate perspective to solve the problem. In order to analyze these aspects, a thorough literature review was conducted, including scientific books, articles, theses; and internet resources.

  • Ak, T. (2013). Ulusal Güvenlik-Çevresel Güvenlik Ekseninde Silahlı Kuvvetler Çevre İlişkisi. Yayımlanmamış Doktora Tezi. Ankara Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Ankara.
  • Anthropocene Project, Anthropecene Defined, https://theanthropocene.org/anthropocene/(erişim tarihi: 02.03.2017).
  • Barlas, N. (2013). Küresel Krizlerden Sürdürülebilir Topluma Çağımızın Çevre Sorunları. Boğaziçi Yayınevi, İstanbul.
  • Barnett, J. (2001). The Meaning of Environmental Security: Ecological Politics and Policy in the New Security Era. Zed Books London and New York, New York.
  • Barnett, J. (2003). "Security and Climate Change". Global Environmental Change, 13(1): 7-17.
  • Barnett, J., ve Adger, W. (2007). "Climate Change Human Security and Violent Conflict". Political Geography, 26(6): 639-655.
  • BBC News, 2004 Scientist renews climate attack, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/politics/3584679.stm (erişim tarihi: 25.04.2017).
  • Bingöl, O. (2016). "Yeni Güvenlik Yaklaşımları ve 21. Yüzyıl Sorunları". H, Çomak vd. (ed.). Uluslararası Güvenlik. Beta, İstanbul, s.17-44.
  • Brauch, H. G. (2009). "Securitizing Global Environmental Change". U, Spring; J, Grin; C, Mesjazs; P.K., Mbote; N, Behera; B,Chourou; H, Krummenacher (ed.). Facing Global Environmental Change: Environmental, Human, Energy, Food, Health, Security Concepts. Springer, Berlin, s.65-102
  • Bremner, J. ve Hunter, L. (2014) "Migration and The Environment". Population Reference Bureau, 69(1): 1-12.
  • Buzan, B. (1991). "New Patterns of Global Security in the twenty-first Century". International Affairs(Royal Institute International Affairs), 67(3): 431-451.
  • Buzan, B., Weaver, O. ve Wilde, J. (1998). Security: A new Framework Analysis. Lynne Rienner Publishers, Colorado.
  • Climate Change Vulnerable Communities and Adaptation, 2003, Livelihoods and Climate Change, https://www.iisd.org/pdf/2003/natres_livelihoods_cc.pdf (erişim tarihi: 07.04.2017).
  • Coldicott D. ve O'Brien, T. (2012). "Environmental Security". C, Snyder (ed.). Contemporary Security and Strategy. Palgrave Macmillan, Hampshire, s.72-88.
  • Dalby, S. (2013). "Climate Change: New Dimensions of Environmental Security". The Rusi Journal, 158(3): 34-43.
  • Detraz, N. ve Betsill, M. (2009). "Climate Change and Environmental Security: For Whom the Discourse Shifts". International Studies Perspectives, 10: 303-320
  • Field, C. B., Barros, V. R., Dokken, D., Mach, K., Mastrandrea, M. (ed.). (2014). Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability,Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects, Working Group 2 Contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Fisher, P., The ‘Pre-Holocene’ Climate is Returning-and it won’t be fun, The Conversations, http://theconversation.com/the-pre-holocene-climate-is-returning-and-it-wont-be-fun-27742 (erişim tarihi 02.03.2017).
  • Fujita, R., 5 Ways Climate Change Affecting Our Oceans, Environmental Defense Fund, https://www.edf.org/blog/2013/11/14/five-ways-climate-change-affecting-our-oceans (erişim tarihi: 27.03.2017).
  • Gleick, P. H. (2006). The Implications of Global Climatic Change for International Security. Pasific Institute. http://pacinst.org/app/uploads/2013/04/gleick_testimony_congress_5-16-06.pdf (erişim tarihi: 13.03.2017).
  • Global Justice Ecology Project, Climate Justice, http://globaljusticeecology.org/climate-justice/ (erişim tarihi: 26.03.2017)
  • Griffiths, M., O’Callaghan, T. Ve Roach, C. S. (2013). Uluslararası İlişkilerde Temel Kavramlar. (Çev. CESRAN), Nobel, Ankara.
  • Haines, A., Kovats, R. S., Campbell-Lendrum, D. ve Corvalan, C. (2005). "Climate Change and Human Health: Impacts Vulnerability and Public Health". Public Health, 120:585-596.
  • Henson, R. (2011). The Rough Guide to Climate Change: The Symptoms, The Science, The Solutions. Rough Guides Ltd, Nev Delhi.
  • Homer-Dixon, T. 1994, http://www.homerdixon.com/projects/evidence /evid1.htm (erişim tarihi: 29.01.2017).
  • Houger, J. S. (2012). "Climate Change and Environmental Security in the Asia Pasific Region: A Role For APEC". R, Azizian ve A, Lukin (ed.). From APEC 2011 To APEC 2012: American and Russian Perspectives on Asia Security and Cooperation. Far Easten Federal University Press, Vladivostok.
  • Howard, B. C., First Mammal Species Goes Extinct Due to Climate Change, National Geographic, Haziran 2016 http://news.nationalgeographic.com/2016/06/first-mammal-extinct-climate-change-bramble-cay-melomys/ (erişim tarihi: 05.04.2017).
  • International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI). (2015). 2014-2015 Global Food Policy Report. A Peer Reviewed Publication, Washington.
  • IPCC, Fifth Assessment Report (AR5), https://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/ (erişim tarihi: 24.03.2017).
  • IPCC Working Group, Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis, Frequently Asked Questions,
  • https://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar4/wg1/ar4-wg1-faqs.pdf (erişim tarihi: 07.03.2017).
  • IPCC Working Group, Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis, Summary For Policymakers, http://www.climatechange2013.org/ (erişim tarihi: 06.03.2017).
  • Kahn, B., Longest Global Coral Bleaching on Record isn't Over Yet, Climate Central, Şubat 2016, http://www.climatecentral.org/news/longest-global-coral-bleaching-20062 (erişim tarihi: 05.04.2017).
  • Kılıçaslan, E. (2016). "Kopenhag Okulu". H, Çomak vd. (ed.). Uluslararası Güvenlik. Beta, İstanbul, s.45-64.
  • Kumar, S. ve Yalew, A. (2012) "Economic Impacts of Climate Change on Secondary Activities: A Literature Review". Scientific Research Low Carbon Economy, 3:39-48.
  • Matthew, R. A. (2013) "Climate Change and Security". R, Floyd ve R, Matthew (ed.). Environmental Security: Approaches and Issues. Routledge, Oxon, s.264-278.
  • McDonald, M. (2013). "Discourse of Climate Security". Political Geography, 33: 42-51.
  • McDonald, M. (2015). "Ecological Security". E-International Relations. http://www.e-ir.info/2015/11/28/ecological-security/ (erişim tarihi 27.03.2017).
  • Mcsweeney, C., New, M., Lizcano, G. ve Lu, X. (2010) "The UNDP Climate Change Country Profiles: Improving the Accessibility of Observed and Projected Climate Information for Studies of Climate Change in Developing Countries". Bulletion of the American Meteorogical Society, 91(2): 157-166.
  • Met Office Hadley Centre, What is Climate Change, http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/climate-guide/climate-change (erişim tarihi: 05.03.2017).
  • NASA Vital Signs of the Planet, http://climate.nasa.gov/vital-signs/global-temperature/ (erişim tarihi: 06.03.2017).
  • NOAA a, What is the difference between climate change and global warming?,http://www.noaa.gov/explainers/what-s-difference-between-climate-and-weather (erişim tarihi: 07.03.2017).
  • NOAA b, State of the Climate, https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/sotc/summary-info/global/201612 (erişim tarihi: 07.03.2017).
  • NOAA c, Assessing the Globe Climate in 2017, https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/news/global-climate-201712?position=0&list=2mucoKpynDvvEJgbJPnWZ46WILhdtpYEg0_HWLvsGbg (erişim tarihi: 31.01.2018)
  • O'Brien, K., Sygna, L., Leichenko, R, Adger, N., Barnett, J., Mitchell, T., Schipper, L., Tanner, T., Vogel, C. ve Mortreux, C. (2008). Disaster Risk Reduction Climate Change Adaptation and Human Security. GECHS Report, 2008: 3.
  • Onuoha, F. (2010). "Climate Change Population Surge and Resource Overuse in the Lake Chad Area". D, Anthony ve J, Wyk (ed.). Climate Change and Natural Resources Conflict in Africa, Make Peace Happen Institute for Security Studies, s.23-44.
  • Özmen, M. T. (2009). ‘Sera Gazı Küresel Isınma ve Kyoto Protokolü’ http://www.imo.org.tr/resimler/dosya_ekler/c513b61577481aa_ek.pdf?dergi=145 (erişim tarihi: 18.03.2017).
  • Poloczanska, E., Brown, J., Sydeman, J., Kiessling, W., Schoeman, D., Moore, P., Brander, K., Bruno, J., Buckley, L., Burrows, M., Duarte, C., Halpern, B., Holding, J., Kappel, C., O’Connor, M., Pandolfi, J., Parmesan, C., Schwing, F., Thompson, S. ve Richardson, A., (2013). Global İmprint of Climate Change on Marine Life. Nature Climate Change. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Pippa_Moore/publication/256426448_Global_imprint_of_climate_change_on_marine_life/links/004635230186961bd3000000.pdf (erişim tarihi: 25.05.2017).
  • Sattertwaite, D., Huq, S., Pelling, M., Reid, H. Ve Lankao, P.(2007). Adapting to Climate Change in Urban Areas: The possibilities and constrainst in low-and middle-income nations. Human Settlements Discussion Paper Series, London.
  • Sigortacı, ‘İklim değişikliği, sektörü kara kara düşündürüyor’, http://www.sigortacigazetesi.com.tr/iklim-degisikligi-sektoru-kara-kara-dusunduruyor/ (erişim tarihi: 24.05.2017).
  • Smith, D., ve Vivekananda, J. (2007). A Climate of Conflict: The Links Between Climate Change Peace and War. International Alert. Jason Print.
  • Snow, M. ve Snow, R. (2015). "The Climate Impact of Climate Change on Human Health". Journal of Climatol Weather Forecasting, 3(1): 1-3.
  • Subcomission on Quaternary Stratigraphy, What is the Anthropocene-current definition and status, https://quaternary.stratigraphy.org/ workinggroups/anthropocene/ (erişim tarihi: 05.03.2017).
  • The Guardian, 2004 Environment, Now the Pentagon tells Bush: climate change will destroy us, https://www.theguardian.com/environment/ 2004/feb/22/usnews.theobserver (erişim tarihi: 25.04.2017).
  • The Nature Concervancy, Gulf of Mexico, https://www.nature.org/ ourinitiatives/regions/northamerica/areas/gulfofmexico/explore/gulf-of-mexico-dead-zone.xml (erişim tarihi: 06.04.2017).
  • Trombetta, M. J. (2008). "Environmental Security and Climate Change: Analysing the Discourse". Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 21(4): 585-602.
  • Tubiello, F., Schmidhuber, J., Howden, M., Neofotis P. G., Park, S., Fernandes, E. ve Thapa, D., (2008) Climate Change Response Strategies for Agriculture and Rural Development Discussion paper 42 The World Bank.
  • U.S Global Change Research Programme, National Climate Assessment, Rural Communities, http://nca2014.globalchange.gov/highlights/ regions/ruralcommunities#intro-section (erişim tarihi: 27.03.2017).
  • Wolfers, A. (1952). ‘National Security As An Ambiguous Symbol’. Political Science Quarterly, LXVII(4): 481-502.
  • World Food Programme, What is Food Security, https://www.wfp.org/node/359289 (erişim tarihi: 27.03.2017).
Primary Language tr
Subjects Social
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Author: Çağla VURAL (Primary Author)
Country: Turkey


Dates

Publication Date : May 10, 2018

Bibtex @research article { gbd422726, journal = {Güvenlik Bilimleri Dergisi}, issn = {2147-2912}, eissn = {2147-5075}, address = {Jandarma Okullar Komutanlığı Beytepe/ANKARA}, publisher = {Jandarma ve Sahil Güvenlik Akademisi Başkanlığı}, year = {2018}, volume = {7}, pages = {57 - 85}, doi = {10.28956/gbd.422726}, title = {KÜRESEL İKLİM DEĞİŞİKLİĞİ VE GÜVENLİK}, key = {cite}, author = {VURAL, Çağla} }
APA VURAL, Ç . (2018). KÜRESEL İKLİM DEĞİŞİKLİĞİ VE GÜVENLİK. Güvenlik Bilimleri Dergisi , 7 (1) , 57-85 . DOI: 10.28956/gbd.422726
MLA VURAL, Ç . "KÜRESEL İKLİM DEĞİŞİKLİĞİ VE GÜVENLİK". Güvenlik Bilimleri Dergisi 7 (2018 ): 57-85 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/gbd/issue/36946/422726>
Chicago VURAL, Ç . "KÜRESEL İKLİM DEĞİŞİKLİĞİ VE GÜVENLİK". Güvenlik Bilimleri Dergisi 7 (2018 ): 57-85
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - KÜRESEL İKLİM DEĞİŞİKLİĞİ VE GÜVENLİK AU - Çağla VURAL Y1 - 2018 PY - 2018 N1 - doi: 10.28956/gbd.422726 DO - 10.28956/gbd.422726 T2 - Güvenlik Bilimleri Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 57 EP - 85 VL - 7 IS - 1 SN - 2147-2912-2147-5075 M3 - doi: 10.28956/gbd.422726 UR - https://doi.org/10.28956/gbd.422726 Y2 - 2018 ER -
EndNote %0 Güvenlik Bilimleri Dergisi KÜRESEL İKLİM DEĞİŞİKLİĞİ VE GÜVENLİK %A Çağla VURAL %T KÜRESEL İKLİM DEĞİŞİKLİĞİ VE GÜVENLİK %D 2018 %J Güvenlik Bilimleri Dergisi %P 2147-2912-2147-5075 %V 7 %N 1 %R doi: 10.28956/gbd.422726 %U 10.28956/gbd.422726
ISNAD VURAL, Çağla . "KÜRESEL İKLİM DEĞİŞİKLİĞİ VE GÜVENLİK". Güvenlik Bilimleri Dergisi 7 / 1 (May 2018): 57-85 . https://doi.org/10.28956/gbd.422726
AMA VURAL Ç . KÜRESEL İKLİM DEĞİŞİKLİĞİ VE GÜVENLİK. GBD. 2018; 7(1): 57-85.
Vancouver VURAL Ç . KÜRESEL İKLİM DEĞİŞİKLİĞİ VE GÜVENLİK. Güvenlik Bilimleri Dergisi. 2018; 7(1): 85-57.