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DESIGN AS A CONVERSATION WITH LINES: ‘SKETCHING AND FREE-HAND’ COURSE EXPERIENCES

Year 2018, Volume 6, Issue 1, 31 - 43, 13.03.2018

Abstract

This study deals with the drawing experiences of second-year students in LandscapeArchitectureSchool and the process of teaching them the art of sketching. Sketching is defined as a way of visualizing a mental idea, which affords the designer a means to communicate with him/herself.  Improving sketching abilities of student designers is, therefore, a fundamental part of design education. However, research focused on this process in Landscape Architecture education is not common and information on approaches to teaching sketching is fragmentary. This study aims to share the sketching experiences of landscape architecture students. 

References

  • Goldschmidt, G., “The dialectics of sketching”, Design Studies, 4: 123–143, (1991).
  • Goldschmidt, G., “The backtalk of self-generated sketches”, Design Issues, 19: 72-88, (2003).
  • İnceoğlu, N., Eskizler; Çizerek Düşenme, Düşünerek Çizme, Nemli Yayıncılık, İstanbul, (2012).
  • Manolopoulou, Y., “Unformed drawing: notes, sketches, and diagrams”, The Journal of Architecture, 10 (5), 517-525, (2005). doi: 10.1080/13602360500462323.
  • Bar-Eli, S., “Sketching profiles: Awareness to individual differences in sketching as a means of enhancing design solution development”, Design Studies, 34: 472-493, (2013).
  • Bilda, Z., Gero, J.S. and Purcell, T., “To sketch or not to sketch? That is the question”, Design Studies, 27, 587-613, (2006).
  • Do, E. Y., Gross, M. D., Neiman, B. and Zimring, C., “Intentions in and relations among design drawings”, Design Studies, 21, 483–503, (2000).
  • Dorado, A. and Isabel, M., “Thinking hands. Reflections about the creative process of the architectural project”, EGA, Revista de expresión gráfica arquitectónica, 22, 196-203, (2013). doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.4995/ega.2013.1694.
  • Scrivener, S. A. R., Ball, L. J. and Tseng, W., “Uncertainty and sketching behavior”, Design Studies, 21, 465–481, (2000).
  • Suwa, M., Tversky, B., Gero, J. and Purcell, T., “Seeing into sketches: regrouping encourages new interpretations”, in J. Gero, & B. Tversky (Eds.), Visual and spatial reasoning in design, pp. 207-219, Australia: University of Sydney, Key Centre of Design and Computing and Cognition, (2001).
  • Ulusu Uraz, T., “Mimarlık Bilgisi "Eskizler" ve Düşündürdükleri”, Mimarlık, 289, 11-13, (1999).
  • Soygenis, S., Soygenis, M. and Erktin, E., “Writing as a Tool in Teaching Sketching: Implications for Architectural Design Education”, JADE, 29(3), 283-293, (2010).
  • Goldschmidt, G., “Quo vadis, design space explorer?”, AIE EDAM: Artificial Intelligence for Engineering Design, Analysis, and Manufacturing, 20, 105-111, (2006). doi:10.1017/S0890060406060094.
  • Kavakli, M., Scrivener, S. A. R. and Ball, L. J., “Structure in idea sketching behavior”, Design Studies, 19, 485–517, (1998).
  • Biddulph, M., “Drawing and Thinking: Representing Place in the Practice of Place-making”, Journal of Urban Design, 19 (3), 278–297, (2014).
  • Purcell, A. T. and Gero, J. S., “Drawings and the design process”, Design Studies, 19, 389–430, (1998).
  • Do, E. Y., “Design sketches and sketch design tools”, Knowledge-Based Systems, 18, 383–405, (2005).
  • Menezes, A. and Lawson, B., “How designers perceive sketches”, Design Studies, 27, 571-585, (2006).
  • Tovey, M. and Porter, S., “Sketching, concept development and automotive design”, Design Studies, 24, 135–153, (2003).
  • Edwards, B., “The use of drawing in architectural design: some recent experiences from UK practice”, Architectural Research Quarterly, 9, 273-286, (2005).
  • van der Lugt, R., “How sketching can affect the idea generation process in design group Meetings”, Design Studies, 26, 101-122, (2005).
  • Stones, C. and Cassidy, T., “Seeing and discovering: how do student designers reinterpret sketches and digital marks during graphic design ideation?”, Design Studies, 31, 439-460, (2010).
  • Goel, V., Sketches of Thought, Bradford-MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, (1995).
  • Verstijnen, I. M., Hennessey, J. M., van Leeuwen, C. and Hamel, R., “Sketching and creative discovery”, Design Studies, 19, 519–546, (1998).
  • Ferguson, E. S., Engineering and the Mind’s Eye, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, (1992).
  • Goldschmidt, G., “Problem representation versus domain of solution in architectural design teaching”, Journal of Architectural and Planning Research, 6(3), 204–215, (1989).
  • Bilda, Z. and Demirkan, H., “An insight on designers’ sketching activities in traditional versus digital media”, Design Studies, 24, 27–50, (2003).
  • Prats, M., Lim, S., Jowers, I., Garner, S. W. and Chase, S., “Transforming shape in design: observations from studies of sketching”, Design Studies, 30, 503-520, (2009).
  • Suwa, M., & Tversky, B., “What do architects and students perceive in their design sketches? A protocol analysis”, Design Studies, 18, 385-403, (1997).
  • Akin, O., “How do architects design?”, in J. C. Latombe (Ed), Artificial intelligence and pattern recognition in computer aided design, pp. 65-119, North Holland, Amsterdam, (1978).
  • Casakin, H. and Goldschmidt, G., Expertise and the use of visual analogy: implications for design education, Design Studies, 20, 153–175, (1999).
  • Simon, H. A., “The structure of ill-structured problems”, Artificial Intelligence, 4, 181–201, (1973).
  • Curry, T. A., “Theoretical basis for recommending the use of design methodologies as teaching strategies in the design studio”, Design Studies, 35, 632-646, (2014).
  • Schön, D. A., The reflective practitioner, Arena, Aldershot, UK, (1995).
  • Laseau, P., “Graphic thinking for architects and designers”, Van Nostrand Reinhold, NY, US, (1989).
  • Avidan, Y. and Goldschmidt, G., “Talking Architecture: Language and Its Roles in the Architectural Design Process”, in. A. Chakrabarti and R. V. Prakash (eds.), ICoRD’13, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, pp.1139-1150, Springer. (2013).
  • Jonson, B., “Design ideation: the conceptual sketch in the digital age”, Design Studies, 26, 613-624, (2005). doi:10.1016/j.destud.2005.03.001
  • Rodgers, P. A., Green, G. and McGown, A., “Using concept sketches to track design progress”, Design Studies, 21, 451–464, (2000).

Year 2018, Volume 6, Issue 1, 31 - 43, 13.03.2018

Abstract

References

  • Goldschmidt, G., “The dialectics of sketching”, Design Studies, 4: 123–143, (1991).
  • Goldschmidt, G., “The backtalk of self-generated sketches”, Design Issues, 19: 72-88, (2003).
  • İnceoğlu, N., Eskizler; Çizerek Düşenme, Düşünerek Çizme, Nemli Yayıncılık, İstanbul, (2012).
  • Manolopoulou, Y., “Unformed drawing: notes, sketches, and diagrams”, The Journal of Architecture, 10 (5), 517-525, (2005). doi: 10.1080/13602360500462323.
  • Bar-Eli, S., “Sketching profiles: Awareness to individual differences in sketching as a means of enhancing design solution development”, Design Studies, 34: 472-493, (2013).
  • Bilda, Z., Gero, J.S. and Purcell, T., “To sketch or not to sketch? That is the question”, Design Studies, 27, 587-613, (2006).
  • Do, E. Y., Gross, M. D., Neiman, B. and Zimring, C., “Intentions in and relations among design drawings”, Design Studies, 21, 483–503, (2000).
  • Dorado, A. and Isabel, M., “Thinking hands. Reflections about the creative process of the architectural project”, EGA, Revista de expresión gráfica arquitectónica, 22, 196-203, (2013). doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.4995/ega.2013.1694.
  • Scrivener, S. A. R., Ball, L. J. and Tseng, W., “Uncertainty and sketching behavior”, Design Studies, 21, 465–481, (2000).
  • Suwa, M., Tversky, B., Gero, J. and Purcell, T., “Seeing into sketches: regrouping encourages new interpretations”, in J. Gero, & B. Tversky (Eds.), Visual and spatial reasoning in design, pp. 207-219, Australia: University of Sydney, Key Centre of Design and Computing and Cognition, (2001).
  • Ulusu Uraz, T., “Mimarlık Bilgisi "Eskizler" ve Düşündürdükleri”, Mimarlık, 289, 11-13, (1999).
  • Soygenis, S., Soygenis, M. and Erktin, E., “Writing as a Tool in Teaching Sketching: Implications for Architectural Design Education”, JADE, 29(3), 283-293, (2010).
  • Goldschmidt, G., “Quo vadis, design space explorer?”, AIE EDAM: Artificial Intelligence for Engineering Design, Analysis, and Manufacturing, 20, 105-111, (2006). doi:10.1017/S0890060406060094.
  • Kavakli, M., Scrivener, S. A. R. and Ball, L. J., “Structure in idea sketching behavior”, Design Studies, 19, 485–517, (1998).
  • Biddulph, M., “Drawing and Thinking: Representing Place in the Practice of Place-making”, Journal of Urban Design, 19 (3), 278–297, (2014).
  • Purcell, A. T. and Gero, J. S., “Drawings and the design process”, Design Studies, 19, 389–430, (1998).
  • Do, E. Y., “Design sketches and sketch design tools”, Knowledge-Based Systems, 18, 383–405, (2005).
  • Menezes, A. and Lawson, B., “How designers perceive sketches”, Design Studies, 27, 571-585, (2006).
  • Tovey, M. and Porter, S., “Sketching, concept development and automotive design”, Design Studies, 24, 135–153, (2003).
  • Edwards, B., “The use of drawing in architectural design: some recent experiences from UK practice”, Architectural Research Quarterly, 9, 273-286, (2005).
  • van der Lugt, R., “How sketching can affect the idea generation process in design group Meetings”, Design Studies, 26, 101-122, (2005).
  • Stones, C. and Cassidy, T., “Seeing and discovering: how do student designers reinterpret sketches and digital marks during graphic design ideation?”, Design Studies, 31, 439-460, (2010).
  • Goel, V., Sketches of Thought, Bradford-MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, (1995).
  • Verstijnen, I. M., Hennessey, J. M., van Leeuwen, C. and Hamel, R., “Sketching and creative discovery”, Design Studies, 19, 519–546, (1998).
  • Ferguson, E. S., Engineering and the Mind’s Eye, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, (1992).
  • Goldschmidt, G., “Problem representation versus domain of solution in architectural design teaching”, Journal of Architectural and Planning Research, 6(3), 204–215, (1989).
  • Bilda, Z. and Demirkan, H., “An insight on designers’ sketching activities in traditional versus digital media”, Design Studies, 24, 27–50, (2003).
  • Prats, M., Lim, S., Jowers, I., Garner, S. W. and Chase, S., “Transforming shape in design: observations from studies of sketching”, Design Studies, 30, 503-520, (2009).
  • Suwa, M., & Tversky, B., “What do architects and students perceive in their design sketches? A protocol analysis”, Design Studies, 18, 385-403, (1997).
  • Akin, O., “How do architects design?”, in J. C. Latombe (Ed), Artificial intelligence and pattern recognition in computer aided design, pp. 65-119, North Holland, Amsterdam, (1978).
  • Casakin, H. and Goldschmidt, G., Expertise and the use of visual analogy: implications for design education, Design Studies, 20, 153–175, (1999).
  • Simon, H. A., “The structure of ill-structured problems”, Artificial Intelligence, 4, 181–201, (1973).
  • Curry, T. A., “Theoretical basis for recommending the use of design methodologies as teaching strategies in the design studio”, Design Studies, 35, 632-646, (2014).
  • Schön, D. A., The reflective practitioner, Arena, Aldershot, UK, (1995).
  • Laseau, P., “Graphic thinking for architects and designers”, Van Nostrand Reinhold, NY, US, (1989).
  • Avidan, Y. and Goldschmidt, G., “Talking Architecture: Language and Its Roles in the Architectural Design Process”, in. A. Chakrabarti and R. V. Prakash (eds.), ICoRD’13, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, pp.1139-1150, Springer. (2013).
  • Jonson, B., “Design ideation: the conceptual sketch in the digital age”, Design Studies, 26, 613-624, (2005). doi:10.1016/j.destud.2005.03.001
  • Rodgers, P. A., Green, G. and McGown, A., “Using concept sketches to track design progress”, Design Studies, 21, 451–464, (2000).

Details

Journal Section Architecture
Authors

Sema Mumcu> (Primary Author)

0000-0002-5198-9117
Türkiye


Doruk Görkem Özkan>

0000-0002-0127-0948
Türkiye

Publication Date March 13, 2018
Application Date November 30, 2017
Acceptance Date January 29, 2018
Published in Issue Year 2018, Volume 6, Issue 1

Cite

APA Mumcu, S. & Özkan, D. G. (2018). DESIGN AS A CONVERSATION WITH LINES: ‘SKETCHING AND FREE-HAND’ COURSE EXPERIENCES . Gazi University Journal of Science Part B: Art Humanities Design and Planning , 6 (1) , 31-43 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/gujsb/issue/36065/359914