Research Article
PDF EndNote BibTex RIS Cite

International Medical Students' Financial Security in China: Lessons from an Individual Case Study

Year 2022, Volume 3, Issue 1, 29 - 44, 30.06.2022
https://doi.org/10.55993/hegp.1073046

Abstract

Financial security affects international students’ success and wellbeing and is a cause for great concern. However, it is still understudied in the literature. This is an especially important issue in countries where most international students are self-financed and/or originate from developing countries. This is the case in China, which hosts a large number of international students, and where such research is still lacking. Adopting a phenomenological approach, this exploratory study was a case study of a high-achieving international medical student in China who experienced (and overcame) financial difficulties. Findings of the study have important implications for policy and practice, and call for an expansion of the Chinese government’s policy concerning the financial needs of poor domestic students, supporting them with financial resources and extending these resources to students from developing countries studying in the Chinese higher education system. The implications also include the need for Chinese universities to assume greater responsibility and provide more support for the learning and wellbeing of international students.

References

  • References Banerjee, P. (2015). Here’s why foreign medical degrees are no longer fancy. Hindustan Times. https://www.hindustantimes.com/education/here-s-why-foreign-medical-degrees-are-no-longer-fancy/story-HpZtWmiCQFv877cfPqtXZO.html
  • Banjong, D. (2015). International Students’ Enhanced Academic Performance: Effects of Campus Resources. Journal of International Students, 5(2), 132-142.
  • Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77-101. http://doi.org/10.1191/1478088706qp063oa
  • Cho, J., & Yu, H. (2015). Roles of University Support for International Students in the United States: Analysis of a Systematic Model of University Identification, University Support, and Psychological Well-Being. Journal of Studies in International Education, 19(1), 11-27. http://doi.org/10.1177/1028315314533606
  • Choudaha, R. (2015). In Search of Solutions for the Agent Debate. International Higher Education (73), 4-6. http://doi.org/10.6017/ihe.2013.73.6116
  • Choudaha, R. (2016). Campus Readiness for Supporting International Student Success. Journal of International Students, 6(4), I-V. http://doi.org/10.32674/jis.v6i4.318
  • Choudaha, R. (2017). Are International Students "Cash Cows"? International Higher Education (90), 5-6. http://doi.org/10.6017/ihe.2017.90.9993
  • Creswell, J. W. (2012). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research (4th Ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.
  • Creswell, J. W., & Poth, C. N. (2013). Qualitative inquiry & research design: Choosing among five approaches. (4th Ed.). SAGE.
  • Devlin, M., & McKay, J. (2018). The financial realities for students from low SES backgrounds at Australian regional universities. Australian and International Journal of Rural Education, 28(1), 121.
  • Forbes-Mewett, H., Marginson, S., Nyland, C., Ramia, G., & Sawir, E. (2009). Australian University International Student Finances. Higher Education Policy, 22, 141-161. http://doi.org/10.1057/hep.2008.4
  • Forbes-Mewett, H., & Sawyer, A. M. (2016). International students and mental health. Journal of International Students, 6(3), 661-677.
  • Hans de Wit (2016, June 14). Commercialization and fraud in international student recruitment. Inside Higher Education. https://www.insidehighered.com/blogs/world-view/commercialization-and-fraud-international-student-recruitment
  • Horta, H. (2009). Global and national prominent universities: Internationalization, competitiveness and the role of the State. Higher Education, 58(3), 387-405. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-009-9201-5
  • Jerry, G. G. (2012). International Students’ Adjustment Problems and Behaviors. Journal of International Students, 2(2), 184-193.
  • Jiang, Q., Yuen, M., & Horta, H. (2020). Factors Influencing Life Satisfaction of International Students in Mainland China. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10447-020-09409-7
  • Leong, P. (2015). Coming to America: Assessing the patterns of acculturation, friendship formation, and the academic experiences of international students at a U.S. college. Journal of International Students, 5(4), 459-474.
  • Liu, Y. (2015). A Preliminary Study of the Enrollment Strategy of International Students in Universities. Education Teaching Forum, 000(020), 1-3.
  • Marginson, S., Nyland, C., Sawir, E., & Forbes-Mewett, H. (2010). International Student Security. Cambridge University Press. Merriam, S. B. (2009). Qualitative research: a guide to design and implementation. John Wiley & Sons.
  • Ministry of Education. (2006, July 26). Aid System for Poor College Students. http://www.moe.gov.cn/jyb_xwfb/xw_zt/moe_357/s3579/moe_489/moe_490/tnull_16666.html
  • Ministry of Education. (2016, December 30). The General Office of the Ministry of Education on Further Strengthening and Regulating Universities for the Identification of Students with Financial difficulties. http://www.moe.gov.cn/srcsite/A05/s7505/201701/t20170122_295524.html
  • Nasirudeen, A. M. A., Josephine, K., Adeline, L., Seng, L., & Ling, H. (2014). Acculturative Stress among Asian International Students in Singapore. Journal of International Students, 4(4), 363-373.
  • Okusolubo, G. S. (2018). Academic and social challenges faced by African international students in collegiate institutions in America. International Journal of Economics & Management Sciences, 7(3), 1-8.
  • Parr, C. (2014, September 3). Student recruitment agents sometimes engage in ‘outright fraud’. The World University Rankings. https://www.timeshighereducation.com/news/student-recruitment-agents-sometimes-engage-in-outright-fraud/2015573.article
  • Patton, M. Q. (2015). Qualitative Evaluation and Research Methods. SAGE.
  • Philip, S., Neuer Colburn, A. A., Underwood, L., & Bayne, H. (2019). The Impact of Religion/Spirituality on Acculturative Stress among International Students. Journal of College Counseling, 22(1), 27-40.
  • Potter, R., & Lee, J. J. (2012). S. Marginson, C. Nyland, E. Sawir, and H. Forbes-Mewett: International Student Security. Higher Education, 64(1), 135. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-011-9469-0
  • Punch, K., & Oancea, A. (2014). Introduction to research methods in education (2nd edition. / Keith F. Punch, Alis E. Oancea. Ed.). SAGE.
  • Rosalind, E., & Holland, J. (2013). What Is Qualitative Interviewing? Bloomsbury Information.
  • Sawir, E., Marginson, S., Nyland, C., Ramia, G., & Rawlings-sanaei, F. (2009). The social and economic security of international students: A New Zealand study. Higher Education Policy, 22(4), 461-482. http://dx.doi.org.eproxy.lib.hku.hk/10.1057/hep.2009.4
  • Schulte, S., & Choudaha, R. (2014). Improving the Experiences of International Students. Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning, 46(6), 52-58. http://doi.org/10.1080/00091383.2014.969184
  • Smith, R. A., & Khawaja, N. G. (2011). A review of the acculturation experiences of international students. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 35(6), 699-713. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2011.08.004
  • Study International Staff (2020, August 13). International students in Australia face COVID-19 financial stress. https://www.studyinternational.com/news/financial-stress-international-students-in-australia/
  • Wright, E., & Horta, H. (2018). Higher education participation in “high-income” universal higher education systems. Asian Education and Development Studies, 7(2), 184-204. http://doi.org/10.1108/AEDS-07-2017-0061
  • Yan, K., & Berliner, D. (2013). Chinese International Students' Personal and Sociocultural Stressors in the United States. Journal of College Student Development, 54(1), 62-84.
  • Yang, P. (2018). Compromise and complicity in international student mobility: the ethnographic case of Indian medical students at a Chinese university. Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 39(5), 694-708. http://doi.org/10.1080/01596306.2018.1435600
  • Yin, R. K. (2012). Applications of Case Study Research (3rd Ed.). SAGE.
  • Zhao, R. (2018, October 6). African students set their sights on China. China Daily. https://www.chinadaily.com.cn/a/201810/06/WS5bb80f27a310eff303280d1e.html
  • Zucker, Donna M., “How to Do Case Study Research” (2009). Teaching Research Methods in the Social Sciences. https://scholarworks.umass.edu/nursing_faculty_pubs/2

Year 2022, Volume 3, Issue 1, 29 - 44, 30.06.2022
https://doi.org/10.55993/hegp.1073046

Abstract

References

  • References Banerjee, P. (2015). Here’s why foreign medical degrees are no longer fancy. Hindustan Times. https://www.hindustantimes.com/education/here-s-why-foreign-medical-degrees-are-no-longer-fancy/story-HpZtWmiCQFv877cfPqtXZO.html
  • Banjong, D. (2015). International Students’ Enhanced Academic Performance: Effects of Campus Resources. Journal of International Students, 5(2), 132-142.
  • Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77-101. http://doi.org/10.1191/1478088706qp063oa
  • Cho, J., & Yu, H. (2015). Roles of University Support for International Students in the United States: Analysis of a Systematic Model of University Identification, University Support, and Psychological Well-Being. Journal of Studies in International Education, 19(1), 11-27. http://doi.org/10.1177/1028315314533606
  • Choudaha, R. (2015). In Search of Solutions for the Agent Debate. International Higher Education (73), 4-6. http://doi.org/10.6017/ihe.2013.73.6116
  • Choudaha, R. (2016). Campus Readiness for Supporting International Student Success. Journal of International Students, 6(4), I-V. http://doi.org/10.32674/jis.v6i4.318
  • Choudaha, R. (2017). Are International Students "Cash Cows"? International Higher Education (90), 5-6. http://doi.org/10.6017/ihe.2017.90.9993
  • Creswell, J. W. (2012). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research (4th Ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.
  • Creswell, J. W., & Poth, C. N. (2013). Qualitative inquiry & research design: Choosing among five approaches. (4th Ed.). SAGE.
  • Devlin, M., & McKay, J. (2018). The financial realities for students from low SES backgrounds at Australian regional universities. Australian and International Journal of Rural Education, 28(1), 121.
  • Forbes-Mewett, H., Marginson, S., Nyland, C., Ramia, G., & Sawir, E. (2009). Australian University International Student Finances. Higher Education Policy, 22, 141-161. http://doi.org/10.1057/hep.2008.4
  • Forbes-Mewett, H., & Sawyer, A. M. (2016). International students and mental health. Journal of International Students, 6(3), 661-677.
  • Hans de Wit (2016, June 14). Commercialization and fraud in international student recruitment. Inside Higher Education. https://www.insidehighered.com/blogs/world-view/commercialization-and-fraud-international-student-recruitment
  • Horta, H. (2009). Global and national prominent universities: Internationalization, competitiveness and the role of the State. Higher Education, 58(3), 387-405. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-009-9201-5
  • Jerry, G. G. (2012). International Students’ Adjustment Problems and Behaviors. Journal of International Students, 2(2), 184-193.
  • Jiang, Q., Yuen, M., & Horta, H. (2020). Factors Influencing Life Satisfaction of International Students in Mainland China. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10447-020-09409-7
  • Leong, P. (2015). Coming to America: Assessing the patterns of acculturation, friendship formation, and the academic experiences of international students at a U.S. college. Journal of International Students, 5(4), 459-474.
  • Liu, Y. (2015). A Preliminary Study of the Enrollment Strategy of International Students in Universities. Education Teaching Forum, 000(020), 1-3.
  • Marginson, S., Nyland, C., Sawir, E., & Forbes-Mewett, H. (2010). International Student Security. Cambridge University Press. Merriam, S. B. (2009). Qualitative research: a guide to design and implementation. John Wiley & Sons.
  • Ministry of Education. (2006, July 26). Aid System for Poor College Students. http://www.moe.gov.cn/jyb_xwfb/xw_zt/moe_357/s3579/moe_489/moe_490/tnull_16666.html
  • Ministry of Education. (2016, December 30). The General Office of the Ministry of Education on Further Strengthening and Regulating Universities for the Identification of Students with Financial difficulties. http://www.moe.gov.cn/srcsite/A05/s7505/201701/t20170122_295524.html
  • Nasirudeen, A. M. A., Josephine, K., Adeline, L., Seng, L., & Ling, H. (2014). Acculturative Stress among Asian International Students in Singapore. Journal of International Students, 4(4), 363-373.
  • Okusolubo, G. S. (2018). Academic and social challenges faced by African international students in collegiate institutions in America. International Journal of Economics & Management Sciences, 7(3), 1-8.
  • Parr, C. (2014, September 3). Student recruitment agents sometimes engage in ‘outright fraud’. The World University Rankings. https://www.timeshighereducation.com/news/student-recruitment-agents-sometimes-engage-in-outright-fraud/2015573.article
  • Patton, M. Q. (2015). Qualitative Evaluation and Research Methods. SAGE.
  • Philip, S., Neuer Colburn, A. A., Underwood, L., & Bayne, H. (2019). The Impact of Religion/Spirituality on Acculturative Stress among International Students. Journal of College Counseling, 22(1), 27-40.
  • Potter, R., & Lee, J. J. (2012). S. Marginson, C. Nyland, E. Sawir, and H. Forbes-Mewett: International Student Security. Higher Education, 64(1), 135. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-011-9469-0
  • Punch, K., & Oancea, A. (2014). Introduction to research methods in education (2nd edition. / Keith F. Punch, Alis E. Oancea. Ed.). SAGE.
  • Rosalind, E., & Holland, J. (2013). What Is Qualitative Interviewing? Bloomsbury Information.
  • Sawir, E., Marginson, S., Nyland, C., Ramia, G., & Rawlings-sanaei, F. (2009). The social and economic security of international students: A New Zealand study. Higher Education Policy, 22(4), 461-482. http://dx.doi.org.eproxy.lib.hku.hk/10.1057/hep.2009.4
  • Schulte, S., & Choudaha, R. (2014). Improving the Experiences of International Students. Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning, 46(6), 52-58. http://doi.org/10.1080/00091383.2014.969184
  • Smith, R. A., & Khawaja, N. G. (2011). A review of the acculturation experiences of international students. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 35(6), 699-713. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2011.08.004
  • Study International Staff (2020, August 13). International students in Australia face COVID-19 financial stress. https://www.studyinternational.com/news/financial-stress-international-students-in-australia/
  • Wright, E., & Horta, H. (2018). Higher education participation in “high-income” universal higher education systems. Asian Education and Development Studies, 7(2), 184-204. http://doi.org/10.1108/AEDS-07-2017-0061
  • Yan, K., & Berliner, D. (2013). Chinese International Students' Personal and Sociocultural Stressors in the United States. Journal of College Student Development, 54(1), 62-84.
  • Yang, P. (2018). Compromise and complicity in international student mobility: the ethnographic case of Indian medical students at a Chinese university. Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 39(5), 694-708. http://doi.org/10.1080/01596306.2018.1435600
  • Yin, R. K. (2012). Applications of Case Study Research (3rd Ed.). SAGE.
  • Zhao, R. (2018, October 6). African students set their sights on China. China Daily. https://www.chinadaily.com.cn/a/201810/06/WS5bb80f27a310eff303280d1e.html
  • Zucker, Donna M., “How to Do Case Study Research” (2009). Teaching Research Methods in the Social Sciences. https://scholarworks.umass.edu/nursing_faculty_pubs/2

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Education and Educational Research
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Qınxu JIANG> (Primary Author)
UNIVERSITY OF HONG KONG
0000-0002-7881-3349
China

Thanks This paper based on the doctoral research of the author under supervision of Dr. Hugo Horta at the Faculty of Education, the University of Hong Kong. The author is grateful to Dr. Horta for his guidance and to anonymous reviewers for their comments. The author is also grateful to Shimin Soon for the proofreading and directional inputs for this article.
Publication Date June 30, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 3, Issue 1

Cite

APA Jıang, Q. (2022). International Medical Students' Financial Security in China: Lessons from an Individual Case Study . Higher Education Governance and Policy , 3 (1) , 29-44 . DOI: 10.55993/hegp.1073046