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Higher Education Expansion in Emerging Economies: Examples from Turkey and Chile

Year 2022, Volume 3, Issue 1, 45 - 58, 30.06.2022
https://doi.org/10.55993/hegp.1117181

Abstract

Turkey and Chile, both emerging economies, have accomplished to upgrade their tertiary systems to a universal level in the last two decades following different expansion strategies. While Turkey established more than 50 universities, particularly in the least developed regions enabling students from lower socioeconomic status to access higher education in their locale, Chile facilitated privatisation in its higher education sector, causing segregation across lower and upper socioeconomic groups in accessing higher education. This paper starts by presenting the motivations behind attaining higher education and then continues with a delineation of Turkish and Chilean higher education systems. After the previous expansion strategies are summarised, the paper finally focuses on how the recent bold expansion strategies have boosted the tertiary enrolments in both countries and the consequences of the rapid expansion on quality and fair access.

References

  • Aamodt, Per O., Kyvik, S. (2005). Access to Higher Education in the Nordic Countries. In T. Tapper, & D. Palfreyman (Eds.), Understanding mass higher education: comparative perspectives on access, pp. 121-138. London: Routledge.
  • Akçiğit, U., & Özcan-Tok, E. (2020). Türkiye bilim raporu [Turkey Science Report]. TÜBA Raporları, 43. Available at: https://www.tuba.gov.tr/files/yayinlar/raporlar/Tu%CC%88rkiye%20Bilim%20Raporu.pdf
  • Arap, K. S. (2010). Türkiye yeni üniversitelerine kavuşurken: Türkiye'de yeni üniversiteler ve kuruluş gerekçeleri. Ankara Üniversitesi SBF Dergisi, 65(01), 1-29. https://doi.org/10.1501/SBFder_0000002156
  • Bernasconi, A. (2012). Chile: The Rise and Decline of a Student Movement. International Higher Education, 27-29. DOI: https://doi.org/10.6017/ihe.2012.66.8596
  • Bernasconi, A. (2014). Policy path dependence of a research agenda: the case of Chile in the aftermath of the student revolt of 2011. Studies in Higher Education, 39, 1405- 1416. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/03075079.2014.950448
  • Bernasconi, A., & Rojas, F. (2003). Informe sobre la educacion superior en chile: 1980-2002. [Report on higher education in Chile: 1980-2002]. Santiago: IESALC-UNESCO.
  • Bernasconi, A., & Sevilla, M. P. (2017). Against All Odds: How Chile Developed a Successful Technical and Vocational Sector in Postsecondary Education. In P. G. Altbach, L. Reisberg, & H. Wit (Eds.), Responding to Massification: Differentiation in Postsecondary Education Worldwide (pp. 167-176). Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.
  • Chankseliani, M., Gorgodze, S., Janashia, S., & Kurakbayev, K. (2020). Rural disadvantage in the context of centralised university admissions: A multiple case study of Georgia and Kazakhstan. Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education, 50(7), 995–1013. https://doi.org/10.1080/03057925.2020.1761294
  • Cin, F. M., Gümüş, S., & Weiss, F. (2021). Women’s empowerment in the period of the rapid expansion of higher education in Turkey: developments and paradoxes of gender equality in the labour market. Higher Education, 81(1), 31-50. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-020-00587-2
  • Council of Higher Education (2018). YÖK’ün_tercih_anketi_sonuclandi. [News Document]. Turkish Council of Higher Education. https://www.yok.gov.tr/HaberBelgeleri/Haber%20%C4%B0%C3%A7erisindeki%20Belgeler/Dosyalar/2018/yok_un_tercih_anketi_sonuclandi.pdf
  • Council of Higher Education. (2021a). The Brief Table of the Number of Students. [Fact Sheet]. Turkish Council of Higher Education. https://istatistik.yok.gov.tr/
  • Council of Higher Education. (2021b). The number of applications and enrolments by the years [Fact Sheet]. Turkish Council of Higher Education. https://istatistik.yok.gov.tr/images/ykgi/YILLARA_GORE_UNIVERSITELERE_BASVURAN_YERLESEN_ADAY_SAYILARI.pdf
  • Crawford, C., Gregg, P., Macmillan, L., Vignoles, A., & Wyness, G. (2016). Higher education, career opportunities, and intergenerational inequality. Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 32(4), 553–575. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxrep/grw030
  • Çelik, Z., & Gür, B. S. (2013). Turkey's education policy during the AK party era (2002-2013). Insight Turkey, 15(4), 151. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/BekirGur/publication/287054002_Turkey's_education_policy_during_the_AK_party_era_2002-2013/links/5757db1608ae5c654904c919/Turkeys-education-policy-during-the-AK-party-era-2002-2013.pdf
  • Dobbins, M., Knill, C., & Vögtle, E. M. (2011). An analytical framework for the cross-country comparison of higher education governance. Higher Education, 62(5), 665–683. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-011-9412-4
  • Geven, K., & Herbaut, E. (2019). What Works to Reduce Inequality in Higher Education?. International Higher Education, (99), 10-11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rssm.2019.100442
  • Gök, E. (2016). The Turkish higher education system from the kaleidoscope of Martin Trow. Eğitim ve Bilim-Education and Science, 41, 147–168. DOI:10.15390/EB.2016.3193
  • Espinoza, O., & González, L. E. (2013). Access to higher education in Chile: A public vs. private analysis. Prospects (Paris), 43(2), 199–214. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11125-013-9268-8
  • Espinoza, O., (2017) Privatización de la educación superior en Chile: consecuencias y lecciones aprendidas [Privatization of higher education in Chile: consequences and lessons learned].. Eccos (São Paulo, Brazil). [Online] (44), 175–202.
  • Guzman-Concha, C. (2012). The Students’ Rebellion in Chile: Occupy Protest or Classic Social Movement? Social Movement Studies, 11(3-4), 408–415. https://doi.org/10.1080/14742837.2012.710748
  • Holz, M., & Poblete, M. (2018). Beneficiarios, egresados y desertores con CAE: 2006-2017. Tech. rep., Biblioteca del Congreso Nacional de Chile (BCN) [Beneficiaries, graduates and deserters with CAE: 2006-2017. Tech. rep., Library of the National Congress of Chile (BCN)] Retrieved from https://www.bcn.cl/obtienearchivo id=repositorio/10221/25883/1/BCN_Participacion_de_estudiantes_con_CAE_en_la_matricula_de_la_Educacion_Superior_final.pdf
  • Jamshidi, L., Arasteh, H., Naveh Ebrahim, A., Zeinabadi, H., & Rasmussen, P. D. (2012). Developmental patterns of privatization in higher education: A comparative study. Higher Education, 64(6), 789–803.
  • Jongbloed, B., & Vossensteyn, H. (2016). University funding and student funding: International comparisons. Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 32(4), 576-595. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxrep/grw029
  • Kaiser, F., & Vossensteyn, H. (2005), “Access to Dutch higher education: policies and trends,” Understanding Mass Higher Education, eds. Ted Tapper and David Palfreyman, pp. 92-120. London: Routledge.
  • Kromydas, T. (2017) Rethinking higher education and its relationship with social inequalities: Past knowledge, present state, and future potential. Palgrave communications. [Online] 3 (1).
  • Leiva, M., & Campbell, J. C. (2016). Politica de educacion superior en chile: entre claidad, equidad e innovacion [Higher education policy in Chile: between quality, equity and innovation]. Revista Internacional de Educacion Superior GIEPES, 2, 51- 66.
  • Levy, D. C. (2018). Global private higher education: an empirical profile of its size and geographical shape. Higher Education, 76(4), 701-715. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-018-0233-6
  • Marginson, S., (2016). High Participation Systems of Higher Education. The Journal of Higher Education, 87:2, 243-271, https://doi.org/10.1080/00221546.2016.11777401
  • McCowan T., (2016). Three dimensions of equity of access to higher education. Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education, 46:4, 645-665. https://doi.org/10.1080/03057925.2015.1043237
  • Mercan, Z. (2016). Decision-making process in the academic career orientation: agentic and communal perspectives of Turkish postgraduate education scholars (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Istanbul Bilgi University, Turkey.
  • Morley, L., & Lugg, R. (2009). Mapping meritocracy: Intersecting gender, poverty and higher educational opportunity structures. Higher Education Policy, 22(1), 37-60. https://doi.org/10.1057/hep.2008.26
  • OECD. (1998). Education at a Glance. (OECD, Ed.) Paris: OECD.
  • OECD. (2009). Reviews of National Policies for Education Reviews of National Policies for Education: Tertiary Education in Chile. (OECD, Ed.) Paris: OECD Publishing.
  • Oketch, M. (2016). Financing higher education in sub-Saharan Africa: Some reflections and implications for sustainable development. Higher Education, 72(4), 525–539. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-016-0044-6
  • Özoğlu, M., Gür, B. S., & Gümüs, S. (2016). The rapid expansion of higher education in Turkey: The challenges of recently established public universities (2006–2013). Higher Education Policy, 29(1), 21-39. doi:10.1057/hep.2015.7
  • Páez, A., Kremerman, M., & Sáez, B. (2018). Endeudar para gobernar y mercantilizar: El caso del CAE [In debt to govern and commodify: The case of the CAE]. Santiago: Fundación Sol. Available at http://www.fundacionsol.cl/wp- content/uploads/2018/06/CAE2018-2.pdf
  • Pavlic, R. D. (2018) Sentenced to Debt: Explaining Student Mobilization in Chile. Latin American research review. [Online] 53 (3), 448–465.
  • Paredes, R. (2015). Desafios de la experiencia de financimiento de la educacion superior en Chile [Challenges of the higher education financing experience in Chile] In E. A. Bernasconi (Ed.), La Educación Superior De Chile - Transformación, Desarrollo Y Crisis (Pp. 219-259). Santiago: Universidad Catolica de Chile.
  • Polat, S. (2017). The Expansion of Higher Education in Turkey: Access, Equality and Regional Return to Education. Structural Change and Economic Dynamics 43, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.strueco.2017.06.001
  • Sargın, S. (2007). Türkiye’de Üniversitelerin Gelişim Süreci Ve Bölgesel Dağilimi [Development Process and Regional Distribution of Universities in Turkey]. Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, (5), 133-150.
  • SIES. (2022). Base Matricula 2022 [Enrollment Base 2022]. Retrieved 15 May from https://www.mifuturo.cl/instituciones-de-educacion-superior-en-chile/
  • Schendel, R., & McCowan, T. (2016). Expanding higher education systems in low- and middle-income countries: The challenges of equity and quality. Higher Education, 72(4), 407–411. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-016-0028-6
  • Tekneci, P. D. (2016). Evolution of Turkish Higher Education System in the Last Decade. Yükseköğretim ve Bilim Dergisi, (3), 277-287. https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/higheredusci/issue/61491/918089
  • Trow, M. (1973). Problems in the transition from elite to mass higher education. Carnegie Commission on Higher Education. Berkeley, California: McGraw-Hill.
  • Trow, M., & Burrage, M. (2010). Twentieth-century higher education: elite to mass to universal / Martin Trow; edited by Michael Burrage. Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • UNESCO Institute for Statistics (2022). Enrolment by the level of education. Retrieved 6 May 2022, from http://data.uis.unesco.org/#
  • Williamson, C., Kutscher, M., Riquelme, C., & Santelices, M. (2019). Tuition Fees, Students Financial Aid and Higher Education Enrollment. In M. V. Santelices, C. Horn, & X. Catalán (Eds.), The quest for equity in Chile's higher education: decades of continued efforts (pp. 59-77). London: Lexington Books.
  • World Bank (2022), School enrollment, tertiary (% gross) - Turkey, Chile. Retrieved 6 May 2022, from https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.TER.ENRR?locations=TR-CL
  • World Bank (2022), High income, Retrieved 11 May 2022, from https://data.worldbank.org/country/XD

Year 2022, Volume 3, Issue 1, 45 - 58, 30.06.2022
https://doi.org/10.55993/hegp.1117181

Abstract

References

  • Aamodt, Per O., Kyvik, S. (2005). Access to Higher Education in the Nordic Countries. In T. Tapper, & D. Palfreyman (Eds.), Understanding mass higher education: comparative perspectives on access, pp. 121-138. London: Routledge.
  • Akçiğit, U., & Özcan-Tok, E. (2020). Türkiye bilim raporu [Turkey Science Report]. TÜBA Raporları, 43. Available at: https://www.tuba.gov.tr/files/yayinlar/raporlar/Tu%CC%88rkiye%20Bilim%20Raporu.pdf
  • Arap, K. S. (2010). Türkiye yeni üniversitelerine kavuşurken: Türkiye'de yeni üniversiteler ve kuruluş gerekçeleri. Ankara Üniversitesi SBF Dergisi, 65(01), 1-29. https://doi.org/10.1501/SBFder_0000002156
  • Bernasconi, A. (2012). Chile: The Rise and Decline of a Student Movement. International Higher Education, 27-29. DOI: https://doi.org/10.6017/ihe.2012.66.8596
  • Bernasconi, A. (2014). Policy path dependence of a research agenda: the case of Chile in the aftermath of the student revolt of 2011. Studies in Higher Education, 39, 1405- 1416. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/03075079.2014.950448
  • Bernasconi, A., & Rojas, F. (2003). Informe sobre la educacion superior en chile: 1980-2002. [Report on higher education in Chile: 1980-2002]. Santiago: IESALC-UNESCO.
  • Bernasconi, A., & Sevilla, M. P. (2017). Against All Odds: How Chile Developed a Successful Technical and Vocational Sector in Postsecondary Education. In P. G. Altbach, L. Reisberg, & H. Wit (Eds.), Responding to Massification: Differentiation in Postsecondary Education Worldwide (pp. 167-176). Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.
  • Chankseliani, M., Gorgodze, S., Janashia, S., & Kurakbayev, K. (2020). Rural disadvantage in the context of centralised university admissions: A multiple case study of Georgia and Kazakhstan. Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education, 50(7), 995–1013. https://doi.org/10.1080/03057925.2020.1761294
  • Cin, F. M., Gümüş, S., & Weiss, F. (2021). Women’s empowerment in the period of the rapid expansion of higher education in Turkey: developments and paradoxes of gender equality in the labour market. Higher Education, 81(1), 31-50. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-020-00587-2
  • Council of Higher Education (2018). YÖK’ün_tercih_anketi_sonuclandi. [News Document]. Turkish Council of Higher Education. https://www.yok.gov.tr/HaberBelgeleri/Haber%20%C4%B0%C3%A7erisindeki%20Belgeler/Dosyalar/2018/yok_un_tercih_anketi_sonuclandi.pdf
  • Council of Higher Education. (2021a). The Brief Table of the Number of Students. [Fact Sheet]. Turkish Council of Higher Education. https://istatistik.yok.gov.tr/
  • Council of Higher Education. (2021b). The number of applications and enrolments by the years [Fact Sheet]. Turkish Council of Higher Education. https://istatistik.yok.gov.tr/images/ykgi/YILLARA_GORE_UNIVERSITELERE_BASVURAN_YERLESEN_ADAY_SAYILARI.pdf
  • Crawford, C., Gregg, P., Macmillan, L., Vignoles, A., & Wyness, G. (2016). Higher education, career opportunities, and intergenerational inequality. Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 32(4), 553–575. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxrep/grw030
  • Çelik, Z., & Gür, B. S. (2013). Turkey's education policy during the AK party era (2002-2013). Insight Turkey, 15(4), 151. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/BekirGur/publication/287054002_Turkey's_education_policy_during_the_AK_party_era_2002-2013/links/5757db1608ae5c654904c919/Turkeys-education-policy-during-the-AK-party-era-2002-2013.pdf
  • Dobbins, M., Knill, C., & Vögtle, E. M. (2011). An analytical framework for the cross-country comparison of higher education governance. Higher Education, 62(5), 665–683. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-011-9412-4
  • Geven, K., & Herbaut, E. (2019). What Works to Reduce Inequality in Higher Education?. International Higher Education, (99), 10-11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rssm.2019.100442
  • Gök, E. (2016). The Turkish higher education system from the kaleidoscope of Martin Trow. Eğitim ve Bilim-Education and Science, 41, 147–168. DOI:10.15390/EB.2016.3193
  • Espinoza, O., & González, L. E. (2013). Access to higher education in Chile: A public vs. private analysis. Prospects (Paris), 43(2), 199–214. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11125-013-9268-8
  • Espinoza, O., (2017) Privatización de la educación superior en Chile: consecuencias y lecciones aprendidas [Privatization of higher education in Chile: consequences and lessons learned].. Eccos (São Paulo, Brazil). [Online] (44), 175–202.
  • Guzman-Concha, C. (2012). The Students’ Rebellion in Chile: Occupy Protest or Classic Social Movement? Social Movement Studies, 11(3-4), 408–415. https://doi.org/10.1080/14742837.2012.710748
  • Holz, M., & Poblete, M. (2018). Beneficiarios, egresados y desertores con CAE: 2006-2017. Tech. rep., Biblioteca del Congreso Nacional de Chile (BCN) [Beneficiaries, graduates and deserters with CAE: 2006-2017. Tech. rep., Library of the National Congress of Chile (BCN)] Retrieved from https://www.bcn.cl/obtienearchivo id=repositorio/10221/25883/1/BCN_Participacion_de_estudiantes_con_CAE_en_la_matricula_de_la_Educacion_Superior_final.pdf
  • Jamshidi, L., Arasteh, H., Naveh Ebrahim, A., Zeinabadi, H., & Rasmussen, P. D. (2012). Developmental patterns of privatization in higher education: A comparative study. Higher Education, 64(6), 789–803.
  • Jongbloed, B., & Vossensteyn, H. (2016). University funding and student funding: International comparisons. Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 32(4), 576-595. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxrep/grw029
  • Kaiser, F., & Vossensteyn, H. (2005), “Access to Dutch higher education: policies and trends,” Understanding Mass Higher Education, eds. Ted Tapper and David Palfreyman, pp. 92-120. London: Routledge.
  • Kromydas, T. (2017) Rethinking higher education and its relationship with social inequalities: Past knowledge, present state, and future potential. Palgrave communications. [Online] 3 (1).
  • Leiva, M., & Campbell, J. C. (2016). Politica de educacion superior en chile: entre claidad, equidad e innovacion [Higher education policy in Chile: between quality, equity and innovation]. Revista Internacional de Educacion Superior GIEPES, 2, 51- 66.
  • Levy, D. C. (2018). Global private higher education: an empirical profile of its size and geographical shape. Higher Education, 76(4), 701-715. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-018-0233-6
  • Marginson, S., (2016). High Participation Systems of Higher Education. The Journal of Higher Education, 87:2, 243-271, https://doi.org/10.1080/00221546.2016.11777401
  • McCowan T., (2016). Three dimensions of equity of access to higher education. Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education, 46:4, 645-665. https://doi.org/10.1080/03057925.2015.1043237
  • Mercan, Z. (2016). Decision-making process in the academic career orientation: agentic and communal perspectives of Turkish postgraduate education scholars (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Istanbul Bilgi University, Turkey.
  • Morley, L., & Lugg, R. (2009). Mapping meritocracy: Intersecting gender, poverty and higher educational opportunity structures. Higher Education Policy, 22(1), 37-60. https://doi.org/10.1057/hep.2008.26
  • OECD. (1998). Education at a Glance. (OECD, Ed.) Paris: OECD.
  • OECD. (2009). Reviews of National Policies for Education Reviews of National Policies for Education: Tertiary Education in Chile. (OECD, Ed.) Paris: OECD Publishing.
  • Oketch, M. (2016). Financing higher education in sub-Saharan Africa: Some reflections and implications for sustainable development. Higher Education, 72(4), 525–539. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-016-0044-6
  • Özoğlu, M., Gür, B. S., & Gümüs, S. (2016). The rapid expansion of higher education in Turkey: The challenges of recently established public universities (2006–2013). Higher Education Policy, 29(1), 21-39. doi:10.1057/hep.2015.7
  • Páez, A., Kremerman, M., & Sáez, B. (2018). Endeudar para gobernar y mercantilizar: El caso del CAE [In debt to govern and commodify: The case of the CAE]. Santiago: Fundación Sol. Available at http://www.fundacionsol.cl/wp- content/uploads/2018/06/CAE2018-2.pdf
  • Pavlic, R. D. (2018) Sentenced to Debt: Explaining Student Mobilization in Chile. Latin American research review. [Online] 53 (3), 448–465.
  • Paredes, R. (2015). Desafios de la experiencia de financimiento de la educacion superior en Chile [Challenges of the higher education financing experience in Chile] In E. A. Bernasconi (Ed.), La Educación Superior De Chile - Transformación, Desarrollo Y Crisis (Pp. 219-259). Santiago: Universidad Catolica de Chile.
  • Polat, S. (2017). The Expansion of Higher Education in Turkey: Access, Equality and Regional Return to Education. Structural Change and Economic Dynamics 43, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.strueco.2017.06.001
  • Sargın, S. (2007). Türkiye’de Üniversitelerin Gelişim Süreci Ve Bölgesel Dağilimi [Development Process and Regional Distribution of Universities in Turkey]. Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, (5), 133-150.
  • SIES. (2022). Base Matricula 2022 [Enrollment Base 2022]. Retrieved 15 May from https://www.mifuturo.cl/instituciones-de-educacion-superior-en-chile/
  • Schendel, R., & McCowan, T. (2016). Expanding higher education systems in low- and middle-income countries: The challenges of equity and quality. Higher Education, 72(4), 407–411. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-016-0028-6
  • Tekneci, P. D. (2016). Evolution of Turkish Higher Education System in the Last Decade. Yükseköğretim ve Bilim Dergisi, (3), 277-287. https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/higheredusci/issue/61491/918089
  • Trow, M. (1973). Problems in the transition from elite to mass higher education. Carnegie Commission on Higher Education. Berkeley, California: McGraw-Hill.
  • Trow, M., & Burrage, M. (2010). Twentieth-century higher education: elite to mass to universal / Martin Trow; edited by Michael Burrage. Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • UNESCO Institute for Statistics (2022). Enrolment by the level of education. Retrieved 6 May 2022, from http://data.uis.unesco.org/#
  • Williamson, C., Kutscher, M., Riquelme, C., & Santelices, M. (2019). Tuition Fees, Students Financial Aid and Higher Education Enrollment. In M. V. Santelices, C. Horn, & X. Catalán (Eds.), The quest for equity in Chile's higher education: decades of continued efforts (pp. 59-77). London: Lexington Books.
  • World Bank (2022), School enrollment, tertiary (% gross) - Turkey, Chile. Retrieved 6 May 2022, from https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.TER.ENRR?locations=TR-CL
  • World Bank (2022), High income, Retrieved 11 May 2022, from https://data.worldbank.org/country/XD

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Education and Educational Research
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Tugay DURAK> (Primary Author)
UCL (University College London)
0000-0002-8171-4915
United Kingdom


M. Furkan UZAN>
It is not affiliated with an institution
0000-0002-1023-8018
United Kingdom


Valeria REBOLLEDO ROBERT This is me
University of Cambridge
0000-0001-6616-7979
United Kingdom

Publication Date June 30, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 3, Issue 1

Cite

APA Durak, T. , Uzan, M. F. & Rebolledo Robert, V. (2022). Higher Education Expansion in Emerging Economies: Examples from Turkey and Chile . Higher Education Governance and Policy , 3 (1) , 45-58 . DOI: 10.55993/hegp.1117181