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Year 2018, Volume: 5 , 59 - 73, 07.09.2018
https://doi.org/10.17350/HJSE19030000119

Abstract

References

  • Mathew A., Brian A. Chris U. 2011. Performance Analysis of the Chena Binary Geothermal Power Plant. Applied Thermal Engineering, Elsevier, 2011.
  • Kilkis B. and Kilkis, San, 2014. Energy and Exergy Based Comparison of Utilizing Waste Heat of a Cogeneration System for Comfort Cooling Using ORC Driven Chillers or Heat Pumps Versus Absorption/Adsorption Cycles, ASME ORC 2013, Conference Proceedings, 7-8 October, De Doelen, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
  • EU, 2004/8/EC. 2008. Directive 2004/8/EC of The European Parliament and of The Council of 11 February 2004 on the Promotion of Cogeneration Based on a Useful Heat Demand in The Internal Energy Market and Amending Directive 92/42/EEC.
  • Kilkis, B., Kilkis, Ş. 2007. Comparison of Poly-generation Systems for Energy Savings, Exergetic Performance, and Harmful Emissions, Proceedings of ES2007, Energy Sustainability, Paper No: ES 2007-36262, June 27-30, Long Beach, California
  • TGE Research. 2017. Top 10 Geothermal Countries- 1 GW Installed Capacity Country Club.
  • Güven, Ö. 2015, Ankara’nın Jeotermal Potansiyeli ve Ankara’daki Jeotermal Projeleri, Jeotermal Kaynaklar Birliği Ekim Olağan Toplantısı, 2015, Haymana.
  • Kilkis, B., Kilkis, Siir, Kilkis, San. 2017. Optimum Hybridization of Wind Turbines, Heat Pumps, and Thermal Energy Storage Systems for Near Zero-Exergy Buildings (NZEXB) Using Rational Exergy Management Model, Paper No. 2, 12th IEA Heat Pump Conference, 15-18 May, Rotterdam 2017. Papers on line, https://www.eiseverywhere.com/ ehome/index.php?eventid=165152&tabid=558494 Also, abstracted in print, pp: 179-180.
  • EGEC. 2015. Developing Geothermal Heat Pumps in Smart Cities and Communities, EU REGEOCITIES, Project Publication, Brussels, June 2015, www.regeoocities.eu
  • Kilkis, B. 2017. Analysis of Fourth-Generation District Energy Systems with Renewable Energy Cogeneration by Using Rational Exergy Management Model, World Sustainable Built Environment Conference 2017 WSBE17, Invited Paper, Paper no: 5693, 5-7 June 2017, Hong Kong.
  • Kilkis, B. 2016. Analysis of Fourth-Generation District Energy Systems with Renewable Energy Cogeneration by Using Rational Exergy Management Model, Paper No. 103, Proceedings, pp: 512-522, SBE 16 Smart Metropoles Conference, Istanbul, 13-15 October, 2016.
  • Rowshanzadeh, R. 2010. Performance and Cost Evaluation of Organic Rankine Cycle at Different Technologies, Master Thesis, Department of Energy Technology, KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
  • Sun, W., Yue, X., and Wang. Y. 2017. Exergy efficiency analysis of ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle) and ORC-based combined cycles driven by low- temperature waste heat, Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 135, 1 March 2017, Pages 63–73.
  • Marini, A., Alexandru, D., Grosu, L. and Gheorghian, A. 2014. Energy and Exergy Analysis of an Organic Rankine Cycle, U.P.B. Sci. Bull., Series D, Vol. 76, Issue 4, 2014 ISSN 1454- 2358.
  • Kılkış, B. ve Kılkış, Ş. 2015. Yenilenebilir Enerji Kaynakları ile Birleşik Isı ve Güç Üretimi, (Combind Heat and Power With Renewable Energy Resources), TTMD Pub. No: 32, First Ed., ISBN: 978-975-6263-25-9, 371 pages, Doğa Pub. Co., İstanbul, 2015.
  • Kilkis, Ş. and Kilkis, B. 2017. A Simplified Exergy Methodology for Net-Zero Buildings Using Rational Exergy Management Model, Seminar 72 Low Energy Building Design Using Exergy Modeling, ASHRAE Winter Meeting, 27 January-1 February, Las Vegas.
  • Kılkış, B., Kılkış, Şiir, Kılkış, Şan. 2017. Hydrogen Economy Based Net-Zero Exergy Cities of The Future with Water- Energy Nexus, The 12th Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water, and Environment Systems- SDEWES Conference, 4-8 October 2017, Dubrovnik.
  • Kılkış, B., Kılkış, Ş. 2018. An Urban Planning Algorithm for Optimizing the Height of Buildings To Maximize the Share of PV Electricity Generation in a Nearly-Zero Exergy District, Proceedings of the 1st Latin American Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water, and Environment Systems, LA. SDEWES 2018.0340, pp. 1-28.
  • Kilkis, B., Kilkis, Şiir, Kilkis, Şan. 2016. Next- Generation PVT System with PCM Layer and Heat Distributing Sheet, Solar TR2016 Conference and Exhibition, 6-9 December, 2016, Paper No: 0006, Proceedings, pp. 20-28, Istanbul.
  • Kilkis, B. 2016. Optimum Operation of Solar PVT Systems: An Exergetic Approach, Solar TR2016, Paper No: 0025, Proceedings, pp. 72-79, Istanbul Conference and Exhibition, 6-9 December, 2016.
  • Kilkis, I. B. 1996. Closed Loop Versus an Open Loop District System: A Techno-Economical Assessment, Geothermal Resources Council, Transactions, Vol. 20. pp: 95-102.
  • Kilkis I. B., Evaluation of the Proposed Geothermal District Energy System for the City of Aydin with New Rating Parameters, ASHRAE Transactions, Vol. 108, Part 2, pp.595-600, 2002.
  • Kilkis, B, Kilkis, Ş. 2017. New Exergy Metrics for Energy, Environment, and Economy Nexus and Optimum Design Model for Nearly-Zero Airport (nZEXAP) Systems, Energy Journal, 140 (2017) 1329-1349, Advanced Technologies in Aviation, Special Issue.
  • Kilkis, B. 2017. Exergetic Comparison of wind energy storage with ice making cycle versus mini-hydrogen economy cycle in off-grid district cooling, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 42 (2017) 17571-17582.

Rational Exergy Management Model for Effective Utilization of Low-Enthalpy Geothermal Energy Resources

Year 2018, Volume: 5 , 59 - 73, 07.09.2018
https://doi.org/10.17350/HJSE19030000119

Abstract

Within the broad range of sustainability and decarbonization efforts, energy and exergy-rational cities are becoming universally important. Within this context, both ORC systems, which are touted as primarily useful for utilizing low-enthalpy geothermal resources and heat pumps, which are considered as the primary tool for decarbonization are critically analyzed in this study. In this context, two cases regarding an ORC, which is used only for power generation without utilizing its waste heat and a heat pump operating on grid power, were examined and was concluded that they are not exergetically sustainable, if they operate as individual systems. This study instead developed an analysis model, which reveals with case studies and examples that a broad hybridization of combining ORC technology, heat pumps, absorption units, thermal storage, and other renewable energy resources, like solar and wind provides sustainable and exergetically rational design solutions. It is argued and verified that, within practical demand and supply constraints in the built environment, such hybrid systems lead to 4th generation district energy systems and beyond, like nearly-zero energy and exergy cities. In order to arrive such conclusions, new evaluation and rating metrics based on Rational Exergy Management Model were introduced. A novel nearly-zero energy and exergy design about a 20000-inhabitant town having geothermal energy potential at a production well-head temperature of 80o C is presented for a simplified purpose of demonstrating the algorithm of the new model This design incorporates ground-source heat pumps, waste heat utilization, cogeneration units, in addition to ORC system. Such an enrichment of the multiple systems even in a simplistic manner in an exergy economy cycle analytically reduces CO2 emissions by about 66%, when compared to a conventional district energy system utilizing natural gas. Yet analyses have shown that results are sensitive upon design constraints and local conditions and concludes that the only option of achieving a truly sustainable solution in terms of exergy towards net-zero status is optimum bundling of the energy resources and systems on a caseby-case design with the main aim of balancing the supply and demand exergy.

References

  • Mathew A., Brian A. Chris U. 2011. Performance Analysis of the Chena Binary Geothermal Power Plant. Applied Thermal Engineering, Elsevier, 2011.
  • Kilkis B. and Kilkis, San, 2014. Energy and Exergy Based Comparison of Utilizing Waste Heat of a Cogeneration System for Comfort Cooling Using ORC Driven Chillers or Heat Pumps Versus Absorption/Adsorption Cycles, ASME ORC 2013, Conference Proceedings, 7-8 October, De Doelen, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
  • EU, 2004/8/EC. 2008. Directive 2004/8/EC of The European Parliament and of The Council of 11 February 2004 on the Promotion of Cogeneration Based on a Useful Heat Demand in The Internal Energy Market and Amending Directive 92/42/EEC.
  • Kilkis, B., Kilkis, Ş. 2007. Comparison of Poly-generation Systems for Energy Savings, Exergetic Performance, and Harmful Emissions, Proceedings of ES2007, Energy Sustainability, Paper No: ES 2007-36262, June 27-30, Long Beach, California
  • TGE Research. 2017. Top 10 Geothermal Countries- 1 GW Installed Capacity Country Club.
  • Güven, Ö. 2015, Ankara’nın Jeotermal Potansiyeli ve Ankara’daki Jeotermal Projeleri, Jeotermal Kaynaklar Birliği Ekim Olağan Toplantısı, 2015, Haymana.
  • Kilkis, B., Kilkis, Siir, Kilkis, San. 2017. Optimum Hybridization of Wind Turbines, Heat Pumps, and Thermal Energy Storage Systems for Near Zero-Exergy Buildings (NZEXB) Using Rational Exergy Management Model, Paper No. 2, 12th IEA Heat Pump Conference, 15-18 May, Rotterdam 2017. Papers on line, https://www.eiseverywhere.com/ ehome/index.php?eventid=165152&tabid=558494 Also, abstracted in print, pp: 179-180.
  • EGEC. 2015. Developing Geothermal Heat Pumps in Smart Cities and Communities, EU REGEOCITIES, Project Publication, Brussels, June 2015, www.regeoocities.eu
  • Kilkis, B. 2017. Analysis of Fourth-Generation District Energy Systems with Renewable Energy Cogeneration by Using Rational Exergy Management Model, World Sustainable Built Environment Conference 2017 WSBE17, Invited Paper, Paper no: 5693, 5-7 June 2017, Hong Kong.
  • Kilkis, B. 2016. Analysis of Fourth-Generation District Energy Systems with Renewable Energy Cogeneration by Using Rational Exergy Management Model, Paper No. 103, Proceedings, pp: 512-522, SBE 16 Smart Metropoles Conference, Istanbul, 13-15 October, 2016.
  • Rowshanzadeh, R. 2010. Performance and Cost Evaluation of Organic Rankine Cycle at Different Technologies, Master Thesis, Department of Energy Technology, KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
  • Sun, W., Yue, X., and Wang. Y. 2017. Exergy efficiency analysis of ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle) and ORC-based combined cycles driven by low- temperature waste heat, Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 135, 1 March 2017, Pages 63–73.
  • Marini, A., Alexandru, D., Grosu, L. and Gheorghian, A. 2014. Energy and Exergy Analysis of an Organic Rankine Cycle, U.P.B. Sci. Bull., Series D, Vol. 76, Issue 4, 2014 ISSN 1454- 2358.
  • Kılkış, B. ve Kılkış, Ş. 2015. Yenilenebilir Enerji Kaynakları ile Birleşik Isı ve Güç Üretimi, (Combind Heat and Power With Renewable Energy Resources), TTMD Pub. No: 32, First Ed., ISBN: 978-975-6263-25-9, 371 pages, Doğa Pub. Co., İstanbul, 2015.
  • Kilkis, Ş. and Kilkis, B. 2017. A Simplified Exergy Methodology for Net-Zero Buildings Using Rational Exergy Management Model, Seminar 72 Low Energy Building Design Using Exergy Modeling, ASHRAE Winter Meeting, 27 January-1 February, Las Vegas.
  • Kılkış, B., Kılkış, Şiir, Kılkış, Şan. 2017. Hydrogen Economy Based Net-Zero Exergy Cities of The Future with Water- Energy Nexus, The 12th Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water, and Environment Systems- SDEWES Conference, 4-8 October 2017, Dubrovnik.
  • Kılkış, B., Kılkış, Ş. 2018. An Urban Planning Algorithm for Optimizing the Height of Buildings To Maximize the Share of PV Electricity Generation in a Nearly-Zero Exergy District, Proceedings of the 1st Latin American Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water, and Environment Systems, LA. SDEWES 2018.0340, pp. 1-28.
  • Kilkis, B., Kilkis, Şiir, Kilkis, Şan. 2016. Next- Generation PVT System with PCM Layer and Heat Distributing Sheet, Solar TR2016 Conference and Exhibition, 6-9 December, 2016, Paper No: 0006, Proceedings, pp. 20-28, Istanbul.
  • Kilkis, B. 2016. Optimum Operation of Solar PVT Systems: An Exergetic Approach, Solar TR2016, Paper No: 0025, Proceedings, pp. 72-79, Istanbul Conference and Exhibition, 6-9 December, 2016.
  • Kilkis, I. B. 1996. Closed Loop Versus an Open Loop District System: A Techno-Economical Assessment, Geothermal Resources Council, Transactions, Vol. 20. pp: 95-102.
  • Kilkis I. B., Evaluation of the Proposed Geothermal District Energy System for the City of Aydin with New Rating Parameters, ASHRAE Transactions, Vol. 108, Part 2, pp.595-600, 2002.
  • Kilkis, B, Kilkis, Ş. 2017. New Exergy Metrics for Energy, Environment, and Economy Nexus and Optimum Design Model for Nearly-Zero Airport (nZEXAP) Systems, Energy Journal, 140 (2017) 1329-1349, Advanced Technologies in Aviation, Special Issue.
  • Kilkis, B. 2017. Exergetic Comparison of wind energy storage with ice making cycle versus mini-hydrogen economy cycle in off-grid district cooling, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 42 (2017) 17571-17582.

Details

Primary Language English
Journal Section Research Article
Authors

Birol KILKIŞ This is me

Şiir KILKIŞ This is me

Publication Date September 7, 2018
Published in Issue Year 2018 Volume: 5

Cite

Vancouver KILKIŞ B, KILKIŞ Ş. Rational Exergy Management Model for Effective Utilization of Low-Enthalpy Geothermal Energy Resources. Hittite J Sci Eng. 2018;5:59-73.

Hittite Journal of Science and Engineering is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY NC).