Research Article
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Design and Fabrication of Soft 3D Printed Sensors and Performance Analysis of the Soft Sensors in a C-leg as Sensing Element

Year 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, 193 - 204, 28.09.2022
https://doi.org/10.17350/HJSE19030000271

Abstract

In soft robotics, a recent challenge is to decrease the number of rigid components used tocreate entirely soft robots. A common rigid component used in soft robots is the rigid encoder, which should be replaced with a soft counterpart if possible. In this work, we de-sign and manufacture a soft sensor, which is embedded into a C-shaped leg of a soft, legged, miniature robot. Our main goal is to show that we can embed a soft sensor into and receive contact feedback from a soft C-shaped leg of our soft miniature quadruped. We test various sensor parameters using custom test setups to analyze the soft sensor performance. Our soft sensor design is iterated by experimentally investigating several sensor shape options. For the C-leg of the soft miniature quadruped, optimal sensor geometry and position for the sensor implementation are found from a discrete design space as the outcome of this work. We received feedback from the soft sensor and compared commercial encoder data to the soft sensor embedded C-leg data. We managed to detect the rotation speed of the C-leg with the accuracy of 87.5% on a treadmill and with the accuracy of %86.7 under free rotation of the C-leg. However, if connection loss occurs in the miniature slipring mechanism, the error percentage in estimating the rotational speed increases significantly.

References

  • S. Kim, C. Laschi and B. Trimmer. Soft robotics: A bioinspired evolution in robotics. Trends in Biotechnology 4, 5 (2013) 287-294.
  • C. Laschi and B. Mazzolai. Lessons from animals and plants: The symbiosis of morphological computation and soft robotics. IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine 23, 3 (2016) 107-114.
  • M. S. Xavier, A. J. Fleming and Y. K. Yong. Experimental characterisation of hydraulic fiber-reinforced soft actuators for worm-like robots. Paper presented at 7th International Conference on Control, Mechatronics and Automation, TU Delft, Netherlands, 6-8 November. pp. 204-209, 2019.
  • Jin, T., Sun, Z., Li, L. et al. Triboelectric nanogenerator sensors for soft robotics aiming at digital twin applications. Nature Communucations 11, 5381 (2020).
  • P. Ferrentino, K. T. Seyedreza, J. Brancart, G. Van Assche, B. Vanderborght and S. Terryn. FEA-Based Inverse Kinematic Control: Hyperelastic Material Characterization of Self-Healing Soft Robots in IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine (2021) 2-12.
  • A. L. Gunderman, J. A. Collins, A. L. Myers, R. T. Threlfall and Y. Chen, Tendon-Driven Soft Robotic Gripper for Blackberry Harvesting. IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters 7, 2 (2022) 2652-2659.
  • X. Huang, K. Kumar, M. Khalid Jawed, Z. Ye and C. Majidi. Soft Electrically Actuated Quadruped (SEAQ)—Integrating a Flex Circuit Board and Elastomeric Limbs for Versatile Mobility. IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters 4, 3 (2019) 2415-2422.
  • M. A. İ. Kalın, C. Aygül, A. Türkmen, J. Kwiczak-Yiğitbaşı, B. Baytekin and O. Özcan. Design, Fabrication, and Locomotion Analysis of an Untethered Miniature Soft Quadruped, SQuad. IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters 5, 3 (2020) 3854-3860.
  • D. Özbek, T. B. Yılmaz, M. A. İ. Kalın, K. Şentürk and O. Özcan. Detecting Scalable Obstacles Using Soft Sensors in the Body of a Compliant Quadruped. IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters 7, 2 (2022) 1745-1751.
  • Wehner, M., Truby, R., Fitzgerald, D. et al. An integrated design and fabrication strategy for entirely soft, autonomous robots. Nature 536 (2016) 451–455.
  • T. G. Thuruthel, B. Shih, C. Laschi and M. T. Tolley. Soft robot perception using embedded soft sensors and recurrent neural networks. Science Robotics 4, 26 (2019) eaav1488.
  • B. Shih et al. Design considerations for 3D printed soft multimaterial resistive sensors for soft robotics. Frontiers in Robotics and AI 6 (2019).
  • K. B. Justus et al. A biosensing soft robot: Autonomous parsing of chemical signals through integrated organic and inorganic interfaces. Science Robotics 4, 31 (2019) eaax0765.
  • A. Atalay et al. Batch fabrication of customizable silicone-textile composite capacitive strain sensors for human motion tracking. Advance Materials Technologies 2, 9 (2017) 1700136.
  • Y. Mengüç et al. Wearable soft sensing suit for human gait measurement. The International Journal of Robotics Research 33, 14 (2014) 1748-1764.
  • GONG, Jun, et al. MetaSense: Integrating Sensing Capabilities into Mechanical Metamaterial. Paper presented at The 34th Annual ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology, Virtual Event USA, 10-14 October. E-Publishing Inc., New York, pp. 1063–1073, 2021.
  • W.-Y. Li, A. Takata, H. Nabae, G. Endo and K. Suzumori. Shape recognition of a tensegrity with soft sensor threads and artificial muscles using a recurrent neural network. IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters 6, 4 (2021) 6228-6234.
  • TAWK, Charbel, et al. Soft pneumatic sensing chambers for generic and interactive human–machine interfaces. Advanced Intelligent Systems 1,1 (2019) 1900002.
  • C. To, T. L. Hellebrekers and Y. -L. Park. Highly stretchable optical sensors for pressure, strain, and curvature measurement. Paper presented at IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, 28 September - 2 October. pp. 5898-5903, 2015.
  • Jones, R.M. Mechanics of Composite Materials, second ed. CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1999.

Year 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, 193 - 204, 28.09.2022
https://doi.org/10.17350/HJSE19030000271

Abstract

References

  • S. Kim, C. Laschi and B. Trimmer. Soft robotics: A bioinspired evolution in robotics. Trends in Biotechnology 4, 5 (2013) 287-294.
  • C. Laschi and B. Mazzolai. Lessons from animals and plants: The symbiosis of morphological computation and soft robotics. IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine 23, 3 (2016) 107-114.
  • M. S. Xavier, A. J. Fleming and Y. K. Yong. Experimental characterisation of hydraulic fiber-reinforced soft actuators for worm-like robots. Paper presented at 7th International Conference on Control, Mechatronics and Automation, TU Delft, Netherlands, 6-8 November. pp. 204-209, 2019.
  • Jin, T., Sun, Z., Li, L. et al. Triboelectric nanogenerator sensors for soft robotics aiming at digital twin applications. Nature Communucations 11, 5381 (2020).
  • P. Ferrentino, K. T. Seyedreza, J. Brancart, G. Van Assche, B. Vanderborght and S. Terryn. FEA-Based Inverse Kinematic Control: Hyperelastic Material Characterization of Self-Healing Soft Robots in IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine (2021) 2-12.
  • A. L. Gunderman, J. A. Collins, A. L. Myers, R. T. Threlfall and Y. Chen, Tendon-Driven Soft Robotic Gripper for Blackberry Harvesting. IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters 7, 2 (2022) 2652-2659.
  • X. Huang, K. Kumar, M. Khalid Jawed, Z. Ye and C. Majidi. Soft Electrically Actuated Quadruped (SEAQ)—Integrating a Flex Circuit Board and Elastomeric Limbs for Versatile Mobility. IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters 4, 3 (2019) 2415-2422.
  • M. A. İ. Kalın, C. Aygül, A. Türkmen, J. Kwiczak-Yiğitbaşı, B. Baytekin and O. Özcan. Design, Fabrication, and Locomotion Analysis of an Untethered Miniature Soft Quadruped, SQuad. IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters 5, 3 (2020) 3854-3860.
  • D. Özbek, T. B. Yılmaz, M. A. İ. Kalın, K. Şentürk and O. Özcan. Detecting Scalable Obstacles Using Soft Sensors in the Body of a Compliant Quadruped. IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters 7, 2 (2022) 1745-1751.
  • Wehner, M., Truby, R., Fitzgerald, D. et al. An integrated design and fabrication strategy for entirely soft, autonomous robots. Nature 536 (2016) 451–455.
  • T. G. Thuruthel, B. Shih, C. Laschi and M. T. Tolley. Soft robot perception using embedded soft sensors and recurrent neural networks. Science Robotics 4, 26 (2019) eaav1488.
  • B. Shih et al. Design considerations for 3D printed soft multimaterial resistive sensors for soft robotics. Frontiers in Robotics and AI 6 (2019).
  • K. B. Justus et al. A biosensing soft robot: Autonomous parsing of chemical signals through integrated organic and inorganic interfaces. Science Robotics 4, 31 (2019) eaax0765.
  • A. Atalay et al. Batch fabrication of customizable silicone-textile composite capacitive strain sensors for human motion tracking. Advance Materials Technologies 2, 9 (2017) 1700136.
  • Y. Mengüç et al. Wearable soft sensing suit for human gait measurement. The International Journal of Robotics Research 33, 14 (2014) 1748-1764.
  • GONG, Jun, et al. MetaSense: Integrating Sensing Capabilities into Mechanical Metamaterial. Paper presented at The 34th Annual ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology, Virtual Event USA, 10-14 October. E-Publishing Inc., New York, pp. 1063–1073, 2021.
  • W.-Y. Li, A. Takata, H. Nabae, G. Endo and K. Suzumori. Shape recognition of a tensegrity with soft sensor threads and artificial muscles using a recurrent neural network. IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters 6, 4 (2021) 6228-6234.
  • TAWK, Charbel, et al. Soft pneumatic sensing chambers for generic and interactive human–machine interfaces. Advanced Intelligent Systems 1,1 (2019) 1900002.
  • C. To, T. L. Hellebrekers and Y. -L. Park. Highly stretchable optical sensors for pressure, strain, and curvature measurement. Paper presented at IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, 28 September - 2 October. pp. 5898-5903, 2015.
  • Jones, R.M. Mechanics of Composite Materials, second ed. CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1999.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Engineering
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Doğa ÖZBEK This is me
İHSAN DOĞRAMACI BİLKENT ÜNİVERSİTESİ, MÜHENDİSLİK FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0002-8918-0655
Türkiye


Talip Batuhan YILMAZ This is me
İHSAN DOĞRAMACI BİLKENT ÜNİVERSİTESİ, MÜHENDİSLİK FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0003-4051-7517
Türkiye


Mert Ali İhsan KALIN This is me
İHSAN DOĞRAMACI BİLKENT ÜNİVERSİTESİ, MÜHENDİSLİK FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0001-9846-0379
Türkiye


Onur ÖZCAN> (Primary Author)
İHSAN DOĞRAMACI BİLKENT ÜNİVERSİTESİ, MÜHENDİSLİK FAKÜLTESİ, MAKİNE MÜHENDİSLİĞİ BÖLÜMÜ
0000-0002-3190-6433
Türkiye

Publication Date September 28, 2022
Application Date July 19, 2022
Acceptance Date September 8, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3

Cite

Bibtex @research article { hjse1145180, journal = {Hittite Journal of Science and Engineering}, eissn = {2148-4171}, address = {Hitit Üniversitesi Mühendislik Fakültesi Kuzey Kampüsü Çevre Yolu Bulvarı 19030 Çorum / TÜRKİYE}, publisher = {Hitit University}, year = {2022}, volume = {9}, number = {3}, pages = {193 - 204}, doi = {10.17350/HJSE19030000271}, title = {Design and Fabrication of Soft 3D Printed Sensors and Performance Analysis of the Soft Sensors in a C-leg as Sensing Element}, key = {cite}, author = {Özbek, Doğa and Yılmaz, Talip Batuhan and Kalın, Mert Ali İhsan and Özcan, Onur} }
APA Özbek, D. , Yılmaz, T. B. , Kalın, M. A. İ. & Özcan, O. (2022). Design and Fabrication of Soft 3D Printed Sensors and Performance Analysis of the Soft Sensors in a C-leg as Sensing Element . Hittite Journal of Science and Engineering , 9 (3) , 193-204 . DOI: 10.17350/HJSE19030000271
MLA Özbek, D. , Yılmaz, T. B. , Kalın, M. A. İ. , Özcan, O. "Design and Fabrication of Soft 3D Printed Sensors and Performance Analysis of the Soft Sensors in a C-leg as Sensing Element" . Hittite Journal of Science and Engineering 9 (2022 ): 193-204 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/hjse/issue/72726/1145180>
Chicago Özbek, D. , Yılmaz, T. B. , Kalın, M. A. İ. , Özcan, O. "Design and Fabrication of Soft 3D Printed Sensors and Performance Analysis of the Soft Sensors in a C-leg as Sensing Element". Hittite Journal of Science and Engineering 9 (2022 ): 193-204
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Design and Fabrication of Soft 3D Printed Sensors and Performance Analysis of the Soft Sensors in a C-leg as Sensing Element AU - DoğaÖzbek, Talip BatuhanYılmaz, Mert Ali İhsanKalın, OnurÖzcan Y1 - 2022 PY - 2022 N1 - doi: 10.17350/HJSE19030000271 DO - 10.17350/HJSE19030000271 T2 - Hittite Journal of Science and Engineering JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 193 EP - 204 VL - 9 IS - 3 SN - -2148-4171 M3 - doi: 10.17350/HJSE19030000271 UR - https://doi.org/10.17350/HJSE19030000271 Y2 - 2022 ER -
EndNote %0 Hittite Journal of Science and Engineering Design and Fabrication of Soft 3D Printed Sensors and Performance Analysis of the Soft Sensors in a C-leg as Sensing Element %A Doğa Özbek , Talip Batuhan Yılmaz , Mert Ali İhsan Kalın , Onur Özcan %T Design and Fabrication of Soft 3D Printed Sensors and Performance Analysis of the Soft Sensors in a C-leg as Sensing Element %D 2022 %J Hittite Journal of Science and Engineering %P -2148-4171 %V 9 %N 3 %R doi: 10.17350/HJSE19030000271 %U 10.17350/HJSE19030000271
ISNAD Özbek, Doğa , Yılmaz, Talip Batuhan , Kalın, Mert Ali İhsan , Özcan, Onur . "Design and Fabrication of Soft 3D Printed Sensors and Performance Analysis of the Soft Sensors in a C-leg as Sensing Element". Hittite Journal of Science and Engineering 9 / 3 (September 2022): 193-204 . https://doi.org/10.17350/HJSE19030000271
AMA Özbek D. , Yılmaz T. B. , Kalın M. A. İ. , Özcan O. Design and Fabrication of Soft 3D Printed Sensors and Performance Analysis of the Soft Sensors in a C-leg as Sensing Element. Hittite J Sci Eng. 2022; 9(3): 193-204.
Vancouver Özbek D. , Yılmaz T. B. , Kalın M. A. İ. , Özcan O. Design and Fabrication of Soft 3D Printed Sensors and Performance Analysis of the Soft Sensors in a C-leg as Sensing Element. Hittite Journal of Science and Engineering. 2022; 9(3): 193-204.
IEEE D. Özbek , T. B. Yılmaz , M. A. İ. Kalın and O. Özcan , "Design and Fabrication of Soft 3D Printed Sensors and Performance Analysis of the Soft Sensors in a C-leg as Sensing Element", Hittite Journal of Science and Engineering, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 193-204, Sep. 2022, doi:10.17350/HJSE19030000271