Research Article
PDF EndNote BibTex RIS Cite

Year 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, 205 - 211, 28.09.2022
https://doi.org/10.17350/HJSE19030000272

Abstract

References

  • Mulgaonkar Y, Araki B, Koh JS, Guerrero-Bonilla L, Aukes DM, Makineni A, Tolley MT, Rus D, Wood RJ, Kumar V. The flying monkey: A mesoscale robot that can run, fly, and grasp. Paper presented at 2016 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Stockholm, Sweden, 16-21 May. IEEE, pp. 4672–4679, 2016.
  • Zarrouk D, Pullin A, Kohut N, Fearing RS. STAR, a sprawl tuned autonomous robot. Paper presented at 2013 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Karlsruhe, Germany, 6-10 May. IEEE, pp. 20-25, 2013.
  • Ozcan O, Baisch AT, Ithier D, Wood RJ. Powertrain selection for a biologically-inspired miniature quadruped robot. Paper presented at 2014 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Hong Kong, China, 31 May - 7 June, IEEE, pp. 2398–2405, 2014.
  • Rus D, Tolley MT. Design, fabrication and control of origami robots. Nature Reviews Materials 3 (2018) 101–112.
  • Mahkam N, Bakir A, Özcan O. Miniature Modular Legged Robot With Compliant Backbones. IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters 5 (2020) 3923–3930.
  • Kovac M, Fuchs M, Guignard A, Zufferey JC, Floreano D. A miniature 7g jumping robot. Paper presented at 2008 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Pasadena, CA, USA, 19-23 May, IEEE, pp. 373-378, 2008.
  • Yim JK, Singh BRP, Wang EK, Featherstone R, Fearing RS. Precision robotic leaping and landing using stance-phase balance. IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters 5 (2020) 3422- 3429.
  • Lambrecht BG, Horchler AD, Quinn RD. A small, insect-inspired robot that runs and jumps. Paper presented at 2005 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Barcelona, Spain, 18-22 April, IEEE, pp. 1240-1245, 2005.
  • Jung GP, Casarez CS, Lee J, Baek SM, Yim SJ, Chae SH, Fearing RS, Cho KJ. JumpRoACH: A trajectory-adjustable integrated jumping–crawling robot. IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics 24 (2019) 947-958.
  • Saranli U, Buehler M, Koditschek DE. RHex: A simple and highly mobile hexapod robot. The International Journal of Robotics Research 20 (2001) 616-631.
  • Brunete A, Ranganath A, Segovia S, de Frutos JP, Hernando M, Gambao E. Current trends in reconfigurable modular robots design. International Journal of Advanced Robotic Systems 14 (2017) 1–21.
  • Tosun T, Davey J, Liu C, Yim M. Design and characterization of the ep-face connector. Paper presented at 2016 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), Daejeon, South Korea, 9-14 October, IEEE, pp. 45-51, 2016.
  • Spröwitz A, Moeckel R, Vespignani M, Bonardi S, Ijspeert AJ. Roombots: A hardware perspective on 3D self-reconfiguration and locomotion with a homogeneous modular robot. Robotics and Autonomous Systems 62 (2014) 1016-1033.
  • Reid CR, Lutz MJ, Powell S, Kao AB, Couzin ID, Garnier S. Army ants dynamically adjust living bridges in response to a cost–benefit trade-off. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112 (2015) 15113-15118.
  • LeBoeuf AC, Waridel P, Brent CS, Gonçalves AN, Menin L, Ortiz D, RibaGragnuz O, Koto A, Soares ZG, Privman E, Miska EA, Benton R, Keller L. Oral transfer of chemical cues, growth proteins and hormones in social insects. elife 5 (2016).
  • Mahkam N, Yılmaz TB, Özcan O, Smooth and Inclined Surface Locomotion and Obstacle Scaling of a C-Legged Miniature Modular Robot. Paper presented at 2021 IEEE 4th International Conference on Soft Robotics (RoboSoft), New Heaven, CT, USA, 12-16 April, IEEE, pp. 9-14, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1109/RoboSoft51838.2021.9479218
  • Vina A, Barrientos A. C-Legged Hexapod Robot Design Guidelines Based on Energy Analysis. Applied Sciences 11 (2021) 2513.
  • Aydin-Ozkan Y, Goldman D. Self-reconfigurable multilegged robot swarms collectively accomplish challenging terradynamic tasks. Science Robotics 6 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1126/scirobotics. abf1628
  • Gross R, Tuci E, Dorigo M, Bonani M, Mondada F. Object transport by modular robots that self-assemble. Paper presented at 2006 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Orlando, FL, USA, 15-19 May, IEEE, pp. 2558-2564, 2006. https://doi.org/10.1109/ROBOT.2006.1642087
  • Yim M, Zhang Y, Duff D. Modular robots. IEEE Spectrum 39 (2002) 30-34.
  • Wolfe KC, Moses MS, Kutzer MD, Chirikjian GS. M 3 Express: a low-cost independently-mobile reconfigurable modular robot. Presented at 2012 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Saint Paul, MN, USA, 14-18 May, IEEE, pp. 2704-2710, 2012.
  • Yi S, Temel Z, Sycara K. PuzzleBots: physical coupling of robot swarms. Presented at 2021 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Xi’an, China, 30 May – 5 June, IEEE, pp. 8742-8748, 2021.
  • Knizhnik G, Yim M. Docking and Undocking a Modular Underactuated Oscillating Swimming Robot. Presented at 2021 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Xi’an, China, 30 May – 5 June, IEEE, pp. 6754-6760, 2021.
  • Siegwart R, Nourbakhsh IR, Scaramuzza D. Introduction to autonomous mobile robots, second ed. MIT press, 2011.

Path Tracking and Connection Mechanism of a Reconfigurable, Foldable, Legged, and Miniature Robot

Year 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, 205 - 211, 28.09.2022
https://doi.org/10.17350/HJSE19030000272

Abstract

This work introduces the reconfigurable, foldable, legged, and miniature robot (REMIRO), a palm-size modular robot with compliant c-shaped legs. The robot’s body modules are made by folding acetate sheets. The legs connected to these modules are made of Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) using molding. The backbone modules are made of Thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) using 3D printing. In this study, we propose a path tracking algorithm for our robot that enables our modules to move from a random initial location to the pose required to lock with another module. We also design and manufacture backbones with embedded permanent magnets to allow connection between modules. We also present a kinematic model of our robot utilizing c-shaped leg kinematics, predicting the forward differential kinematics of the robot, which is then used to test the path tracking algorithm. Our experiments show that the proposed path tracking algorithm moves our robot to the desired location with an average positioning error of 5mm and an average orientation error of 22°, which are small enough to permit docking between modules.

References

  • Mulgaonkar Y, Araki B, Koh JS, Guerrero-Bonilla L, Aukes DM, Makineni A, Tolley MT, Rus D, Wood RJ, Kumar V. The flying monkey: A mesoscale robot that can run, fly, and grasp. Paper presented at 2016 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Stockholm, Sweden, 16-21 May. IEEE, pp. 4672–4679, 2016.
  • Zarrouk D, Pullin A, Kohut N, Fearing RS. STAR, a sprawl tuned autonomous robot. Paper presented at 2013 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Karlsruhe, Germany, 6-10 May. IEEE, pp. 20-25, 2013.
  • Ozcan O, Baisch AT, Ithier D, Wood RJ. Powertrain selection for a biologically-inspired miniature quadruped robot. Paper presented at 2014 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Hong Kong, China, 31 May - 7 June, IEEE, pp. 2398–2405, 2014.
  • Rus D, Tolley MT. Design, fabrication and control of origami robots. Nature Reviews Materials 3 (2018) 101–112.
  • Mahkam N, Bakir A, Özcan O. Miniature Modular Legged Robot With Compliant Backbones. IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters 5 (2020) 3923–3930.
  • Kovac M, Fuchs M, Guignard A, Zufferey JC, Floreano D. A miniature 7g jumping robot. Paper presented at 2008 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Pasadena, CA, USA, 19-23 May, IEEE, pp. 373-378, 2008.
  • Yim JK, Singh BRP, Wang EK, Featherstone R, Fearing RS. Precision robotic leaping and landing using stance-phase balance. IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters 5 (2020) 3422- 3429.
  • Lambrecht BG, Horchler AD, Quinn RD. A small, insect-inspired robot that runs and jumps. Paper presented at 2005 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Barcelona, Spain, 18-22 April, IEEE, pp. 1240-1245, 2005.
  • Jung GP, Casarez CS, Lee J, Baek SM, Yim SJ, Chae SH, Fearing RS, Cho KJ. JumpRoACH: A trajectory-adjustable integrated jumping–crawling robot. IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics 24 (2019) 947-958.
  • Saranli U, Buehler M, Koditschek DE. RHex: A simple and highly mobile hexapod robot. The International Journal of Robotics Research 20 (2001) 616-631.
  • Brunete A, Ranganath A, Segovia S, de Frutos JP, Hernando M, Gambao E. Current trends in reconfigurable modular robots design. International Journal of Advanced Robotic Systems 14 (2017) 1–21.
  • Tosun T, Davey J, Liu C, Yim M. Design and characterization of the ep-face connector. Paper presented at 2016 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), Daejeon, South Korea, 9-14 October, IEEE, pp. 45-51, 2016.
  • Spröwitz A, Moeckel R, Vespignani M, Bonardi S, Ijspeert AJ. Roombots: A hardware perspective on 3D self-reconfiguration and locomotion with a homogeneous modular robot. Robotics and Autonomous Systems 62 (2014) 1016-1033.
  • Reid CR, Lutz MJ, Powell S, Kao AB, Couzin ID, Garnier S. Army ants dynamically adjust living bridges in response to a cost–benefit trade-off. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112 (2015) 15113-15118.
  • LeBoeuf AC, Waridel P, Brent CS, Gonçalves AN, Menin L, Ortiz D, RibaGragnuz O, Koto A, Soares ZG, Privman E, Miska EA, Benton R, Keller L. Oral transfer of chemical cues, growth proteins and hormones in social insects. elife 5 (2016).
  • Mahkam N, Yılmaz TB, Özcan O, Smooth and Inclined Surface Locomotion and Obstacle Scaling of a C-Legged Miniature Modular Robot. Paper presented at 2021 IEEE 4th International Conference on Soft Robotics (RoboSoft), New Heaven, CT, USA, 12-16 April, IEEE, pp. 9-14, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1109/RoboSoft51838.2021.9479218
  • Vina A, Barrientos A. C-Legged Hexapod Robot Design Guidelines Based on Energy Analysis. Applied Sciences 11 (2021) 2513.
  • Aydin-Ozkan Y, Goldman D. Self-reconfigurable multilegged robot swarms collectively accomplish challenging terradynamic tasks. Science Robotics 6 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1126/scirobotics. abf1628
  • Gross R, Tuci E, Dorigo M, Bonani M, Mondada F. Object transport by modular robots that self-assemble. Paper presented at 2006 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Orlando, FL, USA, 15-19 May, IEEE, pp. 2558-2564, 2006. https://doi.org/10.1109/ROBOT.2006.1642087
  • Yim M, Zhang Y, Duff D. Modular robots. IEEE Spectrum 39 (2002) 30-34.
  • Wolfe KC, Moses MS, Kutzer MD, Chirikjian GS. M 3 Express: a low-cost independently-mobile reconfigurable modular robot. Presented at 2012 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Saint Paul, MN, USA, 14-18 May, IEEE, pp. 2704-2710, 2012.
  • Yi S, Temel Z, Sycara K. PuzzleBots: physical coupling of robot swarms. Presented at 2021 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Xi’an, China, 30 May – 5 June, IEEE, pp. 8742-8748, 2021.
  • Knizhnik G, Yim M. Docking and Undocking a Modular Underactuated Oscillating Swimming Robot. Presented at 2021 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Xi’an, China, 30 May – 5 June, IEEE, pp. 6754-6760, 2021.
  • Siegwart R, Nourbakhsh IR, Scaramuzza D. Introduction to autonomous mobile robots, second ed. MIT press, 2011.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Engineering
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Mustafa UĞUR>
İHSAN DOĞRAMACI BİLKENT ÜNİVERSİTESİ, MÜHENDİSLİK FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0003-3472-2311
Türkiye


Muhammed UYGUN>
İHSAN DOĞRAMACI BİLKENT ÜNİVERSİTESİ, MÜHENDİSLİK FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0002-9736-6935
Türkiye


Alihan BAKIR>
İHSAN DOĞRAMACI BİLKENT ÜNİVERSİTESİ, MÜHENDİSLİK FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0002-2660-6698
Türkiye


Onur ÖZCAN> (Primary Author)
İHSAN DOĞRAMACI BİLKENT ÜNİVERSİTESİ, MÜHENDİSLİK FAKÜLTESİ, MAKİNE MÜHENDİSLİĞİ BÖLÜMÜ
0000-0002-3190-6433
Türkiye

Publication Date September 28, 2022
Application Date July 18, 2022
Acceptance Date August 31, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3

Cite

Bibtex @research article { hjse1145204, journal = {Hittite Journal of Science and Engineering}, eissn = {2148-4171}, address = {Hitit Üniversitesi Mühendislik Fakültesi Kuzey Kampüsü Çevre Yolu Bulvarı 19030 Çorum / TÜRKİYE}, publisher = {Hitit University}, year = {2022}, volume = {9}, number = {3}, pages = {205 - 211}, doi = {10.17350/HJSE19030000272}, title = {Path Tracking and Connection Mechanism of a Reconfigurable, Foldable, Legged, and Miniature Robot}, key = {cite}, author = {Uğur, Mustafa and Uygun, Muhammed and Bakır, Alihan and Özcan, Onur} }
APA Uğur, M. , Uygun, M. , Bakır, A. & Özcan, O. (2022). Path Tracking and Connection Mechanism of a Reconfigurable, Foldable, Legged, and Miniature Robot . Hittite Journal of Science and Engineering , 9 (3) , 205-211 . DOI: 10.17350/HJSE19030000272
MLA Uğur, M. , Uygun, M. , Bakır, A. , Özcan, O. "Path Tracking and Connection Mechanism of a Reconfigurable, Foldable, Legged, and Miniature Robot" . Hittite Journal of Science and Engineering 9 (2022 ): 205-211 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/hjse/issue/72726/1145204>
Chicago Uğur, M. , Uygun, M. , Bakır, A. , Özcan, O. "Path Tracking and Connection Mechanism of a Reconfigurable, Foldable, Legged, and Miniature Robot". Hittite Journal of Science and Engineering 9 (2022 ): 205-211
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Path Tracking and Connection Mechanism of a Reconfigurable, Foldable, Legged, and Miniature Robot AU - MustafaUğur, MuhammedUygun, AlihanBakır, OnurÖzcan Y1 - 2022 PY - 2022 N1 - doi: 10.17350/HJSE19030000272 DO - 10.17350/HJSE19030000272 T2 - Hittite Journal of Science and Engineering JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 205 EP - 211 VL - 9 IS - 3 SN - -2148-4171 M3 - doi: 10.17350/HJSE19030000272 UR - https://doi.org/10.17350/HJSE19030000272 Y2 - 2022 ER -
EndNote %0 Hittite Journal of Science and Engineering Path Tracking and Connection Mechanism of a Reconfigurable, Foldable, Legged, and Miniature Robot %A Mustafa Uğur , Muhammed Uygun , Alihan Bakır , Onur Özcan %T Path Tracking and Connection Mechanism of a Reconfigurable, Foldable, Legged, and Miniature Robot %D 2022 %J Hittite Journal of Science and Engineering %P -2148-4171 %V 9 %N 3 %R doi: 10.17350/HJSE19030000272 %U 10.17350/HJSE19030000272
ISNAD Uğur, Mustafa , Uygun, Muhammed , Bakır, Alihan , Özcan, Onur . "Path Tracking and Connection Mechanism of a Reconfigurable, Foldable, Legged, and Miniature Robot". Hittite Journal of Science and Engineering 9 / 3 (September 2022): 205-211 . https://doi.org/10.17350/HJSE19030000272
AMA Uğur M. , Uygun M. , Bakır A. , Özcan O. Path Tracking and Connection Mechanism of a Reconfigurable, Foldable, Legged, and Miniature Robot. Hittite J Sci Eng. 2022; 9(3): 205-211.
Vancouver Uğur M. , Uygun M. , Bakır A. , Özcan O. Path Tracking and Connection Mechanism of a Reconfigurable, Foldable, Legged, and Miniature Robot. Hittite Journal of Science and Engineering. 2022; 9(3): 205-211.
IEEE M. Uğur , M. Uygun , A. Bakır and O. Özcan , "Path Tracking and Connection Mechanism of a Reconfigurable, Foldable, Legged, and Miniature Robot", Hittite Journal of Science and Engineering, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 205-211, Sep. 2022, doi:10.17350/HJSE19030000272