Writing Rules

1. Authors can prepare and submit their manuscript in Turkish or English for the review process. The manuscript to be prepared should be written with clear, simple and passive sentences by using word document.

2. The standard page size should be 210*297mm (A4). Manuscripts should be typed in justified single column format, 10 punts font size with “Times New Roman” font face and 1.5 line spacing.

3. All pages (excluding the page where “Öz” and “Abstract” are written) should be numbered.

4. The manuscript title should be short and informative, written in 15 punts font size with “Arial” font face, aligned left and bold.

5. All author names and their addresses are to be listed on the title page, below the title of the manuscript. Name of the authors should be written with the surname in full. Address (affiliation) information should be given without using any abbreviation in the form e.g.; university or organization name, faculty name, department name, postal code (zip number), city, state/province (if applicable), country.

6.The abstract should present the reasons for writing the manuscript, methods, findings and outstanding conclusions concisely and informatively. The abstract should be written both in Turkish and English and must not be longer than 300 words. Öz and Abstract should be in the first page, not to be exceed second page. Keywords should follow the abstract and not be less than 3 and more than 6 separated by a comma. The titles of Öz and Abstract should be written in 10 punts font size with “Arial” font face and bold.

7. Except for standard and conventional abbreviations, use of abbreviations should be avoided in the abstract. In case, abbreviations are needed to be included in, please define an abbreviation in parenthesis where it appears in the text for the first time.

8. The text of the manuscript should be designed in sections as follows; “Introduction”, “Main Sections”, “Subsections”, “Numerical Application”, “Analyses”, “Conclusions” (Conclusions and Suggestions), “Acknowledgments” (if any), “References”, “Appendices” (if any). Titles and subtitles of the sections and subsections should be numbered sequentially in decimal numbers. Section numbering should not exceed three levels. (Example: 1. Introduction, 2. Main Section, 2.1. Subsection, 2.1.1. Subsection)

9. The main titles and subtitles of the manuscript should be written in 11 punts and 10 punts font size with “Arial” font face, respectively.

10. “Introduction” part should give the nature of the problem under investigation, the main objectives of the study and method of approach accompanying relevant references of literature. Following sections may review on the theoretical bases of the study, the used and/or suggested methods and/or algorithms, the numerical applications, and the analyses on the provided results. Obtained results from the study can be summarized and suggestions can be presented in the “Conclusions” section.

11. The equations are to be justified to the left side of the manuscript and numbered sequentially. Equation numbers should be placed next to the corresponding equation and justified to the right margin into parenthesis.

12. All tables and figures should be placed in the manuscript. All tables and figures should have captions. The table caption should be placed above the table and the figure caption should be placed below the figure, examples: “Table 1: Table caption”, “Figure 1: Figure caption”. The expression of Table and Figure should be bold, then the captions should be written in 7.5 punts font size with “Arial” font face and italic. All tables and figures should be referred to in the text successively.

13. The institutions and associations from which the financial supports are provided, the personal contacts of the authors who contribute to the manuscript can be acknowledged in the “Acknowledgments” section. Acknowledgments should not be placed in any part of the manuscript as footnotes. “Acknowledgments” section should be as concise as possible.

14. All references arranged in “References” section should be cited in the text and ordered alphabetically according to the APA “American Psychological Association” 6.0 rules. “References” section should be designed as given below. For more information, please check out: http://www.apastyle.org/learn/tutorials/basics-tutorial.aspx

Journal Article:

• One work by one author:

Citing References in text;
Author’s Surname (Year)…
…(Author’s Surname, Year, p. xx).
Guo (2019)
…(Guo, 2019, p.12).

In “Reference” section;
Author’s Surname, Initial letter of name. (Year). Title of the article. Journal Name, Volume(Issue), pp. https://doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx
Guo, J. (2019). Quality assessment of the affine-constrained GNSS attitude model. GPS Solutions, 23(1), 24. https://doi:10.1007/s10291-018-0819-6

• One work by multiple authors:
When a work has two authors, cite both names every time the reference occurs in text.

Citing References in text;
The first Author’s Surname and The Second Author’s Surname (Year)…
(The first Author’s Surname & The Second Author’s Surname, Year).
Dawidowicz and Kulawiak (2018)…
(Dawidowicz & Kulawiak, 2018)

In “Reference” section;
Dawidowicz, A., & Kulawiak, M. (2018). The potential of Web-GIS and geovisual analytics in the context of marine cadastre. Survey Review, 50(363), 501-512.

• When a work has three, four, or five authors, cite all authors the first time the reference occurs; in subsequent citations, include only the surname of the first author followed by et al. (not italicized and with a period after al) and the year if it is the first citation of the reference within a paragraph. Omit year from subsequent citations after first nonparenthetical citation within a paragraph.

Citing References in text;
Use as first citation in text (The First Author’s Surname, The Second Author’s Surname, The Third Author’s Surname and The Fourth Author’s Surname, Year)
The second and subsequent citations in text (The First Author’s Surname et al., Year)

Erdogan, Karlitepe, Ocalan, and Tunalioglu (2017)… (The first citation)
Erdogan et al. (2017) (The second and subsequent citations)
Erdogan et al. (Citation in the same paragraph)

In “Reference” section;
Erdogan, B., Karlitepe, F., Ocalan, T., & Tunalioglu, N. (2018). Performance analysis of Real Time PPP for transit of Mercury. Measurement, 129, 358-367.

• When a work has six or more authors, cite only the surname of the first author followed by et al. (not italicized and with a period after al) and the year for the first and subsequent citations.

For the books and reports, capitalize only the first word of the title and of the subtitle, if any, and any proper nouns; italicize the title.
Hampel, F. R., Ronchetti, E. M., Rousseeuw, P. J., & Stahel, W. A. (1986). Robust statistics (pp. 29-30). New York: Wiley.

Meetings and Symposia:
Proceedings of meetings and symposia can be published in book or periodical form. To cite published proceedings from a book, use the same format as for a book or book chapter. To cite proceedings that are published regularly, use the same format as for a periodical. For contributions to symposia or for paper or poster presentations that have not been formally published, use the following templates:
Contributor, A. A., Contributor, B. B., Contributor, C. C., & Contributor, D. D. (Year, Month). Title of contribution. In E. E. Chairperson (Chair), Title of symposium. Symposium conducted at the meeting of Organization Name, Location.

Doctoral Dissertations and Master's Theses:
Doctoral dissertations and master's theses can be retrieved from subscription databases, institutional archives, and personal websites.
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of doctoral dissertation or master's thesis (Doctoral dissertation or master's thesis). Retrieved from Name of database. (Accession or Order No.)

For an unpublished dissertation or thesis, use the following template:
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of doctoral dissertation or master's thesis (Unpublished doctoral dissertation or master's thesis). Name of Institution, Location.

15. Quoting and Paraphrasing/ Direct Quotation of Sources

When quoting, always provide the author, year, and specific page citation or paragraph number for nonpaginated material in the text and include a complete reference in the reference list. If the quotation comprises fewer than 40 words, incorporate it into text and enclose the quotation with double quotation marks. If the quotation appears in midsentence, end the passage with quotation marks, cite the source in parentheses immediately after the quotation marks, and continue the sentence. Use no other punctuation unless the meaning of the sentence requires such punctuation.

Interpreting these results, Robbins et al. (2003) suggested that the "therapists in dropout cases may have inadvertently validated parental negativity about the adolescent without adequately responding to the adolescent's needs or concerns" (p. 541), contributing to an overall climate of negativity.

If the quotation appears at the end of a sentence, close the quoted passage with quotation marks, cite the source in parentheses immediately after the quotation marks, and end with a period or other punctuation outside the final parenthesis.

Confusing this issue is the overlapping nature of roles in palliative care, whereby "medical needs are met by those in the medical disciplines; nonmedical needs may be addressed by anyone on the team" (Csikai & Chaitin, 2006, p. 112)..

If the quotation comprises 40 or more words, display it in a freestanding block of text and omit the quotation marks. Start such a block quotation on a new line and indent the block about a half inch (1,25 cm) from the left margin (in the same position as a new paragraph). If there are additional paragraphs within the quotation, indent the first line of each an additional half inch. Double-space the entire quotation. At the end of a block quotation, cite the quoted source and the page or paragraph number in parentheses after the final punctuation mark.

Others have contradicted this view:
Co-presence does not ensure intimate interaction among all group members. Consider large-scale social gatherings in which hundreds or thousands of people gather in a location to perform a ritual or celebrate an event.
In these instances, participants are able to see the visible manifestation of the group, the physical gathering, yet their ability to make direct, intimate connections with those around them is limited by the sheer magnitude of the assembly. (Purcell, 1997, pp. 111-112)

Alternatively, if the quoted source is cited in the sentence introducing the block quote (e.g., "In 1997, Purcell contradicted this view ... "), only the page or paragraph number is needed at the end of the quotation.

Credit direct quotations of online material by giving the author, year, and page number in parentheses. Many electronic sources do not provide page numbers. If paragraph numbers are visible, use them in place of page numbers. Use the abbreviation para.

Basu and Jones (2007) went so far as to suggest the need for a new "intellectual framework in which to consider the nature and form of regulation in cyberspace" (para. 4).

If the document includes headings and neither paragraph nor page numbers are visible, cite the heading and the number of the paragraph following it to direct the reader to the location of the quoted material.

In their study, Verbunt, Pernot, and Smeets (2008) found that "the level of perceived disability in patients with fibromyalgia seemed best explained by their mental health condition and less by their physical condition" (Discussion section, para. 1).

Direct quotations must be accurate. The quotation must follow the wording, spelling, and interior punctuation of the original source, even if the source is incorrect. If any incorrect spelling, punctuation, or grammar in the source might confuse readers, insert the word sic, italicized and bracketed, immediately after the error in the quotation. Always check the manuscript copy against the source to ensure that there are no discrepancies.

“Bibliometrics is currently not able to properly distinguish sense from nonsense in scientific publications. Expertise in the field [Expertise in the field] is required for this task” (Wouters, 2013, para. 6).

Use three spaced ellipsis points ( ... ) within a sentence to indicate that you have omitted material from the original source. Use four points to indicate any omission between two sentences. The first point indicates the period at the end of the first sentence quoted, and the three spaced ellipsis points follow. Do not use ellipsis points at the beginning or end of any quotation unless, to prevent misinterpretation, you need to emphasize that the quotation begins or ends in midsentence.

"They are studying, from an evolutionary perspective, to what extent [children's] play is a luxury that can be dispensed with when there are too many other competing claims on the growing brain ... " {Henig, 2008, p. 40).

Do not omit citations embedded within the original material you are quoting. The works cited need not be included in the list of references (unless you happen to cite them as primary sources elsewhere in your paper).

"In the United States, the American Cancer Society (2007) estimated that about 1 million cases of NMSC and 59,940 cases of melanoma would be diagnosed in 2007, with melanoma resulting in 8,110 deaths" (Miller et al., 2009, p. 209).

You may need written permission from the owner of copyrighted work if you include lengthy quotations or if you include reprinted or adapted tables or figures. Requirements for obtaining permission to quote copyrighted material vary from one copyright owner to another; for example, APA policy permits authors to use, with some exceptions, a maximum of three figures or tables from a journal article or book chapter, single text extracts of fewer than 400 words, or a series of text extracts that total fewer than 800 words without requesting formal permission from APA. If you must obtain written permission from the copyright owner, append a footnote to the quoted material with a superscript number, and in the footnote acknowledge permission from the owner of the copyright.

Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6. bs.). (2010). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Şencan, İ., & Doğan, G. (Eds.). (2017). Bilimsel yayınlarda kaynak gösterme, tablo ve şekil oluşturma rehberi: APA 6 kuralları. Türk Kütüphaneciler Derneği Yayınları.