Research Article
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MAHATHIR MOHAMAD’S ROLE IN MANAGING ETHNIC PLURALISM AND MAINTAINING POLITICAL STABILITY IN MALAYSIA

Year 2022, Volume 6, Issue 1, 27 - 40, 30.06.2022
https://doi.org/10.31457/hr.1106787

Abstract

When looking at ethnic pluralism, we find that it is one of the most important factors that affected the lives of nations and peoples during different historical stages. It represents a double-edged sword, because on the one hand, we find that it could be one of the most dangerous sources of threats facing the multi-ethnic state, as it may become the beginning of internal divisions that threaten the national security of the state and it may reach the point of wars that may lead to the collapse of the entire country, the impact of ethnic pluralism may extend beyond the borders of the state and be a source of threat to other surrounding communities. On the other hand, ethnic pluralism may be a source of state cohesion and strength. This happens if the state manages to direct this difference between these ethnicities to achieve cohesion between societies, and if the state seeks to establish the state on the basis of cooperation and spreading the spirit of citizenship and national unity among all spectrums of society. This is what the political leader Mahathir Mohamad was able to achieve in Malaysia. He was able to unite the multi-ethnic Malaysian state, he was also able to make the ethnic diversity in Malaysian society a tool for the progress of the state and the achievement of development and political stability in it. This article assumes that the political leader Mahathir Mohamad had a role in managing ethnic pluralism and achieving political stability in Malaysia, which the article will seek to test the validity of this claim.

References

  • Ahsan, S. (n.d.). Mahathir Mohamad and Malaysia’s Political Transition. İnsamer. https://insamer.com/en/mahathir-mohamad-and-malaysias-political-transition- _3300.html
  • Akıncı, A. (2019). Milliyetçiliğin Kökenleri: Etnisite/Ulus (Millet) İlişkisi. İnsan Ve İnsan Dergisi, 6(21), 413-430.
  • Barringtonm, L. (2006). After Independence: Making and Protecting the Nation in Postcolonial And Postcommunist States. Michigan Publishing.
  • Bonhoefferl, D. (2006). The Obligation to Use Force to Stop Acts of Genocide: An Overview of Legal Precedents, Customary Norms, and State Responsibility. The San Diego International Law Journal, Vol.7, 461-490.
  • Ferris, E. & Stoltz, K. (2008). Minorities, Displacement and Iraq’s Future. Brookings. https://www.brookings.edu/research/minorities-displacement-and-iraqs-future.
  • Francis, E. K. (n.d.). The Nature of the Ethnic Group. Pressbooks. https://pressbooks.ulib.csuohio.edu/ethnicity/chapter/the-nature-of-the-ethnic-group/.
  • Ghai, Y. (2005, May). Ethnic Conflicts and Power Sharing. Adalah’s Newsletter, Vol.13,1-4.
  • Green, E. D. (2005, February). What is an Ethnic Group? Political Economy, Constructivism and the Common Language Approach to Ethnicity. Development Studies Institute London School of Economics and Political Science, No.05-57, 1-34.
  • Guan, L. H. (2000, August). Ethnic Relations in Peninsular Malaysia: The Cultural and Economic Dimensions. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, No.1, 2-39.
  • Jones, K. (2014). A Time Of Great Tension: Memory And The Malaysian Chinese Construction Of The May 13 Race Riots. Berkeley Undergraduate Journal, Vol.27, 75-97.
  • Kayadibi, S. (2016, September). Dini ve Kültürel Çoğulculukta Varoluş Mücadelesine Bir Bakış: Malezya Tecrübesi. Tarih Kültür ve Sanat Araştırmaları Dergisi, 5(3), 93-128.
  • Korkut, M. (2020). Post Kolonyal Toplumlarda Birlikte Yaşama Kültürü: Malezya’da Farkliliklarin Varoluş Tecrübesi. Selçuk Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Sosyoloji Anabilim Dali, Doktora Tezi, Konya.
  • Laws Of Malaysia Federal Constitution, Clause 1 (8) Of The Malaysian Constitution.
  • Matsuno, A. (2014). Ethnic Groups’ Right to Independence: Self-determination, Secession and the Post-Cold War International Relations. Asia Peacebuilding Initiatives (APBI) project. http://peacebuilding.asia/ethnic-groups-right-to-independence-self-determinationsecession-and-post-cold-war-international-relations/
  • Momade, H. (n.d.). Malaysian Indians History Of their migration & their impact on Malaysia’s development. Academia.edu. https://www.academia.edu/25574486/Malaysian_indians.
  • Onyekachukwu, E. & Oghogho, O. (2018). Cultural And Ethnic Pluralism: Implications For National Integration In Nigeria. Asrican Journal Of Multidisciplinary Research, 3(1). 74-88. Pdhre (n.d.). The Human Rights of Ethnic Minorities, https://www.pdhre.org/rights/ethnicity.html.
  • Reza, M. & Yasmin, N. (2019 April 9). Development Of Malaysia Under The Leadership Of Mahathir Mohamad: Turned Malaysia Into a Rich Country. International Journal of Social Sciences, Vol.5, 498-506.
  • Rudiger, A. & Spencer, S. (2003, January 21-23). Social Integration of Migrants and Ethnic Minorities: Policies to Combat Discrimination. The Economic And Social Aspects Of Migration Conference Jointly Organised By The European Commission And The OECD Brussels.
  • Shelley, N. P. (2016). The Concept Of Ethnicity In Early Antiquity: Ethno-Symbolic Identities In Ancient Greek, Biblical Hebrew, And Middle Babylonian Texts. Columbıa Unıversıty, The Graduate School Of Arts And Sciences, The Degree Of Doctor Of Philosophy, New York.
  • Snodgrass, D. R. (1995). Successful Economic Development in a Multi-ethnic Society: The Malaysian Case. Harvard University Harvard Institute for International Development, Cambridge.
  • Suaedy, A. (2010). Islam And Mınorıtıes:Managing Identity İn Malaysia. Al-Jami’ah, 48(1). 2-44.
  • Udin, M. & Omar, R. (2020, January-February). Tun Dr Mahathir”S Leadership Patterns And The Success Story Of Malaysia. Test Engineering And Management, vol.82,10290- 10302.
  • رضيخ دمحم ةعماج ، ”يزيلاملا جذومنلا يف ةسارد :ةلودلا ءانب يف اهرودو ةينثلإا ةيددعتلا ةرادإ تايلآ ”، يعبرم ،مساقلب . 2015 -2014 ،ريتسجام ةلاسر ،ةيسايسلا مولعلا مسق ،ةيسايسلا مولعلاو قوقحلا ةيلك ،ةركسب [Belkacem, M., “Mechanisms of managing ethnic pluralism and its role in building the state: A study of the Malaysian model,” Mohamed Khider University of Biskra, Faculty of Law and Political Science, Department of Political Science, Master’s thesis, 2014- 2015].
  • يطارقميدلا زكرملا .يزيلاملا يسايسلا ماظنلا روطت ىلع هرثأو يقرعلا عونتلا .)2017( .دومحم ءارسا ،ديسلا يبرعلاhttps://democraticac.de/?p=47220. [Elsayed, E., M. (2017). Ethnic diversity and its impact on the development of the Malaysian political system. Arab Democratic Center https://democraticac.de/?p=47220].
  • .يكيرملأا جذومنلاو يزيلاملا جذومنلا :مغانتلا ىلإ عزانتلا نم يقرعلا ددعتلا .)2013رياربف 22( .دومحم دمحم ،لاعلا دبع .تاساردلل عونتلا زكرم [Abdel Alaal, M. M. (22 February 2013). Ethnic pluralism from conflict to harmony: the Malaysian model and the American model, Diversity Studies Center].

MAHATHİR MOHAMAD’İN ETNİK ÇOĞULCULUĞU YÖNETMEDEKİ VE MALEZYA’DA SİYASİ İSTİKRARI SAĞLAMADAKİ ROLÜ

Year 2022, Volume 6, Issue 1, 27 - 40, 30.06.2022
https://doi.org/10.31457/hr.1106787

Abstract

Etnik çoğulculuğa baktığımızda, çeşitli tarihsel aşamalarda milletlerin ve halkların yaşamlarını etkileyen en önemli faktörlerden biri olduğunu görüyoruz. Etnik çeşitlilik iki tarafı keskin bir kılıca benzer, çünkü bir yandan etnik çoğulculuk, çok etnikli devletin karşı karşıya olduğu en tehlikeli tehdit kaynaklarından biri olabilir. Diğer yandan devletin ulusal güvenliğini tehdit eden iç bölünmelerin de başlangıcı olabilir ve tüm ülkenin çöküşüne yol açabilecek savaşlar noktasına ulaşabilir. Etnik çoğulculuğun etkisi devlet sınırlarının ötesine geçebilir ve diğer komşu ülkeler için bir tehdit kaynağı olabilir. Bununla birlikte, etnik çoğulculuk, devletin birlik ve gücünün kaynağı da olabilir. Eğer devlet, toplum arasındaki uyumu sağlamak için etnisiteler arasındaki farklılığı yönlendirmeyi başarırsa ve devlet, toplumun tüm kesimleri arasında işbirliği ve ulusal birlik temelinde devleti kurmaya çalışırsa olur. Siyasi lider Mahathir Mohamad’ın Malezya’da başarabildiği şey buydu. Mohamad, çok etnik gruptan oluşan Malezya devletini birleştirip, Malezya toplumundaki etnik çeşitliliği devletin ilerlemesi için bir araç haline getirerek kalkınma ve siyasi istikrar sağladı. Bu makale, siyasi lider Mahathir Mohamad’ın Malezya’da çok etnikliliği yönetmede ve siyasi istikrarı sağlamada bir rolü olduğunu iddia etmekte ve bu iddianın geçerliliğini test etmeye çalışmaktadır.

References

  • Ahsan, S. (n.d.). Mahathir Mohamad and Malaysia’s Political Transition. İnsamer. https://insamer.com/en/mahathir-mohamad-and-malaysias-political-transition- _3300.html
  • Akıncı, A. (2019). Milliyetçiliğin Kökenleri: Etnisite/Ulus (Millet) İlişkisi. İnsan Ve İnsan Dergisi, 6(21), 413-430.
  • Barringtonm, L. (2006). After Independence: Making and Protecting the Nation in Postcolonial And Postcommunist States. Michigan Publishing.
  • Bonhoefferl, D. (2006). The Obligation to Use Force to Stop Acts of Genocide: An Overview of Legal Precedents, Customary Norms, and State Responsibility. The San Diego International Law Journal, Vol.7, 461-490.
  • Ferris, E. & Stoltz, K. (2008). Minorities, Displacement and Iraq’s Future. Brookings. https://www.brookings.edu/research/minorities-displacement-and-iraqs-future.
  • Francis, E. K. (n.d.). The Nature of the Ethnic Group. Pressbooks. https://pressbooks.ulib.csuohio.edu/ethnicity/chapter/the-nature-of-the-ethnic-group/.
  • Ghai, Y. (2005, May). Ethnic Conflicts and Power Sharing. Adalah’s Newsletter, Vol.13,1-4.
  • Green, E. D. (2005, February). What is an Ethnic Group? Political Economy, Constructivism and the Common Language Approach to Ethnicity. Development Studies Institute London School of Economics and Political Science, No.05-57, 1-34.
  • Guan, L. H. (2000, August). Ethnic Relations in Peninsular Malaysia: The Cultural and Economic Dimensions. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, No.1, 2-39.
  • Jones, K. (2014). A Time Of Great Tension: Memory And The Malaysian Chinese Construction Of The May 13 Race Riots. Berkeley Undergraduate Journal, Vol.27, 75-97.
  • Kayadibi, S. (2016, September). Dini ve Kültürel Çoğulculukta Varoluş Mücadelesine Bir Bakış: Malezya Tecrübesi. Tarih Kültür ve Sanat Araştırmaları Dergisi, 5(3), 93-128.
  • Korkut, M. (2020). Post Kolonyal Toplumlarda Birlikte Yaşama Kültürü: Malezya’da Farkliliklarin Varoluş Tecrübesi. Selçuk Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Sosyoloji Anabilim Dali, Doktora Tezi, Konya.
  • Laws Of Malaysia Federal Constitution, Clause 1 (8) Of The Malaysian Constitution.
  • Matsuno, A. (2014). Ethnic Groups’ Right to Independence: Self-determination, Secession and the Post-Cold War International Relations. Asia Peacebuilding Initiatives (APBI) project. http://peacebuilding.asia/ethnic-groups-right-to-independence-self-determinationsecession-and-post-cold-war-international-relations/
  • Momade, H. (n.d.). Malaysian Indians History Of their migration & their impact on Malaysia’s development. Academia.edu. https://www.academia.edu/25574486/Malaysian_indians.
  • Onyekachukwu, E. & Oghogho, O. (2018). Cultural And Ethnic Pluralism: Implications For National Integration In Nigeria. Asrican Journal Of Multidisciplinary Research, 3(1). 74-88. Pdhre (n.d.). The Human Rights of Ethnic Minorities, https://www.pdhre.org/rights/ethnicity.html.
  • Reza, M. & Yasmin, N. (2019 April 9). Development Of Malaysia Under The Leadership Of Mahathir Mohamad: Turned Malaysia Into a Rich Country. International Journal of Social Sciences, Vol.5, 498-506.
  • Rudiger, A. & Spencer, S. (2003, January 21-23). Social Integration of Migrants and Ethnic Minorities: Policies to Combat Discrimination. The Economic And Social Aspects Of Migration Conference Jointly Organised By The European Commission And The OECD Brussels.
  • Shelley, N. P. (2016). The Concept Of Ethnicity In Early Antiquity: Ethno-Symbolic Identities In Ancient Greek, Biblical Hebrew, And Middle Babylonian Texts. Columbıa Unıversıty, The Graduate School Of Arts And Sciences, The Degree Of Doctor Of Philosophy, New York.
  • Snodgrass, D. R. (1995). Successful Economic Development in a Multi-ethnic Society: The Malaysian Case. Harvard University Harvard Institute for International Development, Cambridge.
  • Suaedy, A. (2010). Islam And Mınorıtıes:Managing Identity İn Malaysia. Al-Jami’ah, 48(1). 2-44.
  • Udin, M. & Omar, R. (2020, January-February). Tun Dr Mahathir”S Leadership Patterns And The Success Story Of Malaysia. Test Engineering And Management, vol.82,10290- 10302.
  • رضيخ دمحم ةعماج ، ”يزيلاملا جذومنلا يف ةسارد :ةلودلا ءانب يف اهرودو ةينثلإا ةيددعتلا ةرادإ تايلآ ”، يعبرم ،مساقلب . 2015 -2014 ،ريتسجام ةلاسر ،ةيسايسلا مولعلا مسق ،ةيسايسلا مولعلاو قوقحلا ةيلك ،ةركسب [Belkacem, M., “Mechanisms of managing ethnic pluralism and its role in building the state: A study of the Malaysian model,” Mohamed Khider University of Biskra, Faculty of Law and Political Science, Department of Political Science, Master’s thesis, 2014- 2015].
  • يطارقميدلا زكرملا .يزيلاملا يسايسلا ماظنلا روطت ىلع هرثأو يقرعلا عونتلا .)2017( .دومحم ءارسا ،ديسلا يبرعلاhttps://democraticac.de/?p=47220. [Elsayed, E., M. (2017). Ethnic diversity and its impact on the development of the Malaysian political system. Arab Democratic Center https://democraticac.de/?p=47220].
  • .يكيرملأا جذومنلاو يزيلاملا جذومنلا :مغانتلا ىلإ عزانتلا نم يقرعلا ددعتلا .)2013رياربف 22( .دومحم دمحم ،لاعلا دبع .تاساردلل عونتلا زكرم [Abdel Alaal, M. M. (22 February 2013). Ethnic pluralism from conflict to harmony: the Malaysian model and the American model, Diversity Studies Center].

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Social
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Esraa ELSAYED> (Primary Author)
SÜLEYMAN DEMİREL ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0001-9462-0953
Türkiye


Muharrem GÜRKAYNAK This is me
SÜLEYMAN DEMİREL ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-5371-0474
Türkiye

Publication Date June 30, 2022
Application Date April 21, 2022
Acceptance Date May 20, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 6, Issue 1

Cite

APA Elsayed, E. & Gürkaynak, M. (2022). MAHATHIR MOHAMAD’S ROLE IN MANAGING ETHNIC PLURALISM AND MAINTAINING POLITICAL STABILITY IN MALAYSIA . Hakkari Review , 6 (1) , 27-40 . DOI: 10.31457/hr.1106787