Research Article
PDF Zotero Mendeley EndNote BibTex Cite

Year 2021, Volume 5, Issue 3, 123 - 129, 30.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.30704/http-www-jivs-net.957807

Abstract

References

  • Assenza, A., Casella, S., Giannetto, C., Fazio, F., Tosto, F., & Piccione, G. (2016). Iron profile in Thoroughbreds during a standard training program. Australian Veterinary Journal, 94, 60-63.
  • Assenza, A., Congiu, F., Giannetto, C., Fazio, F., & Piccione, G. (2017). Serum iron, ferritin, transferrin and hemoglobin concentration variations during repeated show jumping competition in horse. Acta Veterinaria Brno, 85, 343-347.
  • Beutler, E. (2002). History of iron in medicine. Blood cells, Molecules, and Diseases, 29, 297-308.
  • Elghandour, M.M., Adegbeye, M.J., Barbabosa-Pilego, A., Perez, N.R., Hernández, S.R., Zaragoza-Bastida, A., & Salem, A.Z. (2019). Equine contribution in methane emission and its mitigation strategies. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 72, 56-63.
  • EPA. (2004). National emission inventory- ammonia emission from animal husbandry operations. Retrieved from https://www3.epa.gov/ttnchie1/ap42/ch09/related/nh3inventorydraft_jan2004.pdf.
  • Gerber, H. (1973). Chronic pulmonary disease in the horse. Equine Veterinary Journal, 5, 26-33. Gundersen, S. J., Chapman, R.F., & Levine, B.D. (2001). “Living high-training low” altitude training improves sea level performance in male and female elite runners. Journal of Applied Physiology, 91, 1113-1120.
  • Govus, A.D., Garvican-Lewis, L.A., Abbiss, C.R., Peeling, P., & Gore, C.J. (2015). Pre-Altitude serum ferritin levels and daily oral iron supplement dose mediate iron parameter and hemoglobin mass responses to altitude exposure. PloS one. Retreived from https://doi.org/ 10.1371/journal.pone.0135120.
  • Heinicke, K., Prommer, N., Cajigal, J., Viola, T., Behn, C., & Schmidt, W. (2003). Long-term exposure to intermittent hypoxia results in increased hemoglobin mass, reduced plasma volume, and elevated erythropoietin plasma levels in man. European Journal of Applied Physiology 88, 535-543.
  • Hunter, A. (2010). Murjan is the Canonero II of 2010. Retrieved from https://www.bloodhorse.com/horse-racing/articles/139626/murjan-is-the-canonero-ii-of-2010.
  • Kasperowski, D. (2009). Constructing altitude training standards for the 1968 Mexico Olympics: The impact of ideals of equality and uncertainty. The International Journal of the History of Sport, 26,1263-1291.
  • Klosowicz, J. (2017). Iron in the horse's Diet: Careful monitoring is needed to maintainequine health and avoid common health problems. Retrieved from https://www.superiorequinenutrition.com/single-post/2017/03/14/Iron-In-The-Horses-Diet-Careful-Monitoring-Is-Needed-To-Maintain-Equine-Health-And-Avoid-Common-Health-Problems.
  • Levine, B.D., & Gundersen, J.S. (1997). “Living high-training low”: effect of moderate-altitude acclimatization with low-altitude training on performance. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 83, 102-112.
  • Mairbäurl, H. (2013). Red blood cells in sports: effects of exercise and training on oxygen supply by red blood cells. Frontiers in Physiology, 4, 332-332.
  • Milne, C. (2006). Sport and exercise medicine for pharmacists. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 40, 810-811.
  • Moore, L.G., & Regensteiner, J.G. (1983). Adaptation to high altitude. Annual Review of Anthropology, 12, 285-304.
  • Naeije, R. (2010). Physiological adaptation of the cardiovascular system to high altitude. Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases, 52, 456-466.
  • Poole, D.C., & Erickson, H.H. (2011). Highly athletic terrestrial mammals: horses and dogs. Comprehensive Physiology, 1, 1-37.
  • Richards, N., & Nielsen, B.D. (2018). Comparison of equine dietary iron requirements to iron concentrations of 5,837 hay samples. Comparative Exercise Physiology, 14, 24.
  • Segura, J., & Lundby, C. (2014). Blood doping: potential of blood and urine sampling to detect autologous transfusion. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 48, 837-841.
  • Soroko, M., Bajerska, K.Ś., Zaborski, D., Poźniak, B., Dudek, K., & Janczarek, I. (2019). Exercise-induced changes in skin temperature and blood parameters in horses. Archives Animal Breeding, 62, 205.
  • Stewart, G., Riddle, C., & Salmon, P. (1977). Haematology of the racehorse: A recent study of thoroughbreds in Victoria. Australian Veterinary Journal, 53, 353-359.
  • Stewart, M. (2013). Maiden Shamus award unexpectedly scales mountain in the valley of the kings. Retrieved from https://www.heraldsun.com.au/sport/superracing/maiden-shamus-award-unexpectedly-scales-mountain-in-the-valley-of-the-kings/news-story.
  • Theelen, M.P., Beukers, M., & Grinwis, G.M. (2019). Chronic iron overload causing haemochromatosis and hepatopathy in 21 horses and one donkey. Equine Veterinary Journal, 51, 304-309.
  • Vergouwen, P.C.J., Collee, T., & Marx, J.J.M. (1999). Haematocrit in elite athletes. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 8, 538-541.
  • Wehrlin, J.P., Zuest, P., Hallén, J., & Marti, B. (2006). Live high-train low for 24 days increases hemoglobin mass and red cell volume in elite endurance athletes. Journal of Applied Physiology, 6, 1938-1945.
  • Wickler, S.J., & Anderson, T.P. (2000). Hematological changes and athletic performance in horses in response to high altitude (3,800 m). American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 279, 1176-1181.
  • Wolski, L.A., Kenzie, D.M., & Wenger. H. (1996). Altitude training for improvements in sea level performance. Sports Medicine, 22, 251-263.
  • Zoller, H., & Vogel, W. (2004). Iron supplementation in athletes—first do no harm. Nutrition, 20, 615-619.

Adaptations of Racing Thoroughbreds to a Hypoxic Chamber: A Pilot Study

Year 2021, Volume 5, Issue 3, 123 - 129, 30.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.30704/http-www-jivs-net.957807

Abstract

Hypoxic exposure results in physiological adaptions and enhanced human athletic performance. However, few reports exist regarding responses of horses to similar conditions. The goals of this preliminary work were to evaluate whether horses could be acclimated to a hypoxic chamber (HC) and to monitor their performance. Trial 1: Two 4-yr-old Thoroughbreds were used to establish protocols for adaptation to the HC. Horses were stalled in the HC for 8 to 10 h/d while O2 concentrations were decreased over 2 wk until 13.5% O2 was achieved. On d 37, horses were removed from the HC and shipped to a track for 7 d before reentering the HC for the remainder of the 2-month study. Resting hemoglobin (Hb) was measured on d 0, 37, and 61 and ranged from 14.8 to 15.2 g/dL. Trial 2: Two 2-yr-old Thoroughbreds were maintained in the HC at 13.5% O2 for 8 to 8.5 h/d for 21 d, shipped to a track for 5 d, and then placed back in the HC 8.5 h daily for the remainder of the 31-d trial. Horses were conditioned on the treadmill or track 6 d/wk. Horses underwent a standardized exercise test (SET) prior to being initially placed in the HC. The SET was repeated on d 10 and 31. Peak heart rate (HR) reached during exercise, and HR at 3 and 5 min post-exercise were recorded. Hemoglobin was measured immediately upon cessation of exercise. There was no difference in HR at 3 min (P=0.18), and 5 min post-exercise (P=0.64). Hb was greater on d 31 compared to d 0 (P<0.01). Without controls for comparison, we cannot confirm that differences detected were caused by the effect of HC, due to potential training effects. Results demonstrated horses can be adapted to HC but improvements in race performance were not noted.

References

  • Assenza, A., Casella, S., Giannetto, C., Fazio, F., Tosto, F., & Piccione, G. (2016). Iron profile in Thoroughbreds during a standard training program. Australian Veterinary Journal, 94, 60-63.
  • Assenza, A., Congiu, F., Giannetto, C., Fazio, F., & Piccione, G. (2017). Serum iron, ferritin, transferrin and hemoglobin concentration variations during repeated show jumping competition in horse. Acta Veterinaria Brno, 85, 343-347.
  • Beutler, E. (2002). History of iron in medicine. Blood cells, Molecules, and Diseases, 29, 297-308.
  • Elghandour, M.M., Adegbeye, M.J., Barbabosa-Pilego, A., Perez, N.R., Hernández, S.R., Zaragoza-Bastida, A., & Salem, A.Z. (2019). Equine contribution in methane emission and its mitigation strategies. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 72, 56-63.
  • EPA. (2004). National emission inventory- ammonia emission from animal husbandry operations. Retrieved from https://www3.epa.gov/ttnchie1/ap42/ch09/related/nh3inventorydraft_jan2004.pdf.
  • Gerber, H. (1973). Chronic pulmonary disease in the horse. Equine Veterinary Journal, 5, 26-33. Gundersen, S. J., Chapman, R.F., & Levine, B.D. (2001). “Living high-training low” altitude training improves sea level performance in male and female elite runners. Journal of Applied Physiology, 91, 1113-1120.
  • Govus, A.D., Garvican-Lewis, L.A., Abbiss, C.R., Peeling, P., & Gore, C.J. (2015). Pre-Altitude serum ferritin levels and daily oral iron supplement dose mediate iron parameter and hemoglobin mass responses to altitude exposure. PloS one. Retreived from https://doi.org/ 10.1371/journal.pone.0135120.
  • Heinicke, K., Prommer, N., Cajigal, J., Viola, T., Behn, C., & Schmidt, W. (2003). Long-term exposure to intermittent hypoxia results in increased hemoglobin mass, reduced plasma volume, and elevated erythropoietin plasma levels in man. European Journal of Applied Physiology 88, 535-543.
  • Hunter, A. (2010). Murjan is the Canonero II of 2010. Retrieved from https://www.bloodhorse.com/horse-racing/articles/139626/murjan-is-the-canonero-ii-of-2010.
  • Kasperowski, D. (2009). Constructing altitude training standards for the 1968 Mexico Olympics: The impact of ideals of equality and uncertainty. The International Journal of the History of Sport, 26,1263-1291.
  • Klosowicz, J. (2017). Iron in the horse's Diet: Careful monitoring is needed to maintainequine health and avoid common health problems. Retrieved from https://www.superiorequinenutrition.com/single-post/2017/03/14/Iron-In-The-Horses-Diet-Careful-Monitoring-Is-Needed-To-Maintain-Equine-Health-And-Avoid-Common-Health-Problems.
  • Levine, B.D., & Gundersen, J.S. (1997). “Living high-training low”: effect of moderate-altitude acclimatization with low-altitude training on performance. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 83, 102-112.
  • Mairbäurl, H. (2013). Red blood cells in sports: effects of exercise and training on oxygen supply by red blood cells. Frontiers in Physiology, 4, 332-332.
  • Milne, C. (2006). Sport and exercise medicine for pharmacists. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 40, 810-811.
  • Moore, L.G., & Regensteiner, J.G. (1983). Adaptation to high altitude. Annual Review of Anthropology, 12, 285-304.
  • Naeije, R. (2010). Physiological adaptation of the cardiovascular system to high altitude. Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases, 52, 456-466.
  • Poole, D.C., & Erickson, H.H. (2011). Highly athletic terrestrial mammals: horses and dogs. Comprehensive Physiology, 1, 1-37.
  • Richards, N., & Nielsen, B.D. (2018). Comparison of equine dietary iron requirements to iron concentrations of 5,837 hay samples. Comparative Exercise Physiology, 14, 24.
  • Segura, J., & Lundby, C. (2014). Blood doping: potential of blood and urine sampling to detect autologous transfusion. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 48, 837-841.
  • Soroko, M., Bajerska, K.Ś., Zaborski, D., Poźniak, B., Dudek, K., & Janczarek, I. (2019). Exercise-induced changes in skin temperature and blood parameters in horses. Archives Animal Breeding, 62, 205.
  • Stewart, G., Riddle, C., & Salmon, P. (1977). Haematology of the racehorse: A recent study of thoroughbreds in Victoria. Australian Veterinary Journal, 53, 353-359.
  • Stewart, M. (2013). Maiden Shamus award unexpectedly scales mountain in the valley of the kings. Retrieved from https://www.heraldsun.com.au/sport/superracing/maiden-shamus-award-unexpectedly-scales-mountain-in-the-valley-of-the-kings/news-story.
  • Theelen, M.P., Beukers, M., & Grinwis, G.M. (2019). Chronic iron overload causing haemochromatosis and hepatopathy in 21 horses and one donkey. Equine Veterinary Journal, 51, 304-309.
  • Vergouwen, P.C.J., Collee, T., & Marx, J.J.M. (1999). Haematocrit in elite athletes. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 8, 538-541.
  • Wehrlin, J.P., Zuest, P., Hallén, J., & Marti, B. (2006). Live high-train low for 24 days increases hemoglobin mass and red cell volume in elite endurance athletes. Journal of Applied Physiology, 6, 1938-1945.
  • Wickler, S.J., & Anderson, T.P. (2000). Hematological changes and athletic performance in horses in response to high altitude (3,800 m). American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 279, 1176-1181.
  • Wolski, L.A., Kenzie, D.M., & Wenger. H. (1996). Altitude training for improvements in sea level performance. Sports Medicine, 22, 251-263.
  • Zoller, H., & Vogel, W. (2004). Iron supplementation in athletes—first do no harm. Nutrition, 20, 615-619.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Veterinary
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Jie Lİ This is me
Michigan State University
0000-0003-2522-1777
United States


Brian NİELSEN (Primary Author)
Michigan State University
0000-0002-2570-5731
United States


Cara ROBİSON This is me
Michigan State University
0000-0002-3421-5064
United States


Holly SPOONER This is me
Middle Tennessee State University
0000-0002-2864-7776
United States

Supporting Institution Michigan State University
Publication Date December 30, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 5, Issue 3

Cite

APA Li, J. , Nielsen, B. , Robison, C. & Spooner, H. (2021). Adaptations of Racing Thoroughbreds to a Hypoxic Chamber: A Pilot Study . Journal of Istanbul Veterinary Sciences , 5 (3) , 123-129 . DOI: 10.30704/http-www-jivs-net.957807

CC-BY
This journal is presented to the reader under  Creative Commons attribution 4.0 international  (CC-BY 4.0)