Year 2021, Volume 5 , Issue 2, Pages 85 - 98 2021-06-30

Effects of Intake Valve Lift Form Modulation on Exhaust Temperature and Fuel Economy of a Low-loaded Automotive Diesel Engine

Hasan Üstün BAŞARAN [1]



Exhaust after-treatment (EAT) systems on automotive vehicles cannot perform effectively at low loads due to low exhaust temperatures (Texhaust < 250oC). Con-ventional late intake valve closure (LIVC) technique - a proven method to im-prove diesel exhaust temperatures - generally requires the modulation of the whole valve lift profile. However, an alternative method - boot-shaped LIVC - only needs partial lift form modulation and can rise exhaust temperatures signif-icantly. Therefore, this study attempts to demonstrate that boot-shaped LIVC can be an alternative solution to improve exhaust temperatures above 250oC at low-loaded operations of automotive vehicles.
A 1-D engine simulation program is used to model the diesel engine system operating at 1200 RPM engine speed and at 2.5 bar brake mean effective pres-sure (BMEP) engine load. Boot-shaped LIVC is achieved via keeping the valve lift constant (at 4.0 mm) for a while during closure and then closing it at different closure angles. The method results in up to 55oC exhaust temperature rise through reduced in-cylinder airflow and thus, is adequate to keep EAT system above 250oC at low loads. The longer the boot is kept during closure, the lower the air-to-fuel ratio is reduced and the higher the exhaust temperature flows at turbine exit. Similar to conventional LIVC, boot-shaped LIVC improves fuel con-sumption as pumping losses are decreased in the system. Despite aforementioned improvements, EAT warm-up is affected negatively due to the significant drop-off on exhaust mass flow rates. The need to modify only some parts of the lift profile is a technical advantage and can reduce production costs.
Intake valve lift modulation;, Late intake valve closure;, Thermal management;, Exhaust temperature;, Fuel efficiency.
  • https://www.dieselnet.com/standards/eu/ld.php#stds. Emission standards, European Union, passenger cars.
  • https://nepis.epa.gov/Exe/ZyPDF.cgi?Dockey=P100O9ZZ.pdf. United States Environmental Protection Agency. Heavy-duty highway compression-ignition engine and urban buses: exhaust emission standards, 2010.
  • Kozina, A., Radica, G., Nizetic, S. (2020). Analysis of methods towards reduction of harmful pollutants from Diesel engines. Journal of Cleaner Production , 262, 121105.
  • Dewangan, A. et al. (2020). Combustion-generated pollutions and strategy for its control in CI engines: A review. Materials Today: Proceedings, 21, 1728-1733.
  • Solmaz, H. (2020). A comparative study on the usage of fusel oil and reference fuels in an HCCI engine at different compression ratios. Fuel, 273, 117775.
  • Sezer, İ. (2020). A review study on using diethyl ether in diesel engines: Effects on fuel properties, injection, and combustion chracteristics. Energy & Environment, 31(2), 179-214.
  • Sezer, İ. (2019). A Review Study on the Using of Diethyl Ether in Diesel Engines: Effects on CO Emissions. Interna-tional Journal of Automotive Science and Technology, 3(1), 6-20.
  • Yao, C. et al. (2017). Methanol fumigation in compression-ignition engines: A critical review of recent academic and technological developments. Fuel, 209, 713-732.
  • Rather, M. A. & Wani, M. M. (2018). A numerical study on the effects of exhaust gas recirculation temperature on controlling combustion and emissions of a diesel engine running on HCCI combustion mode. International Journal of Automotive Science and Technology, 2(3), 17-27.
  • Maiboom, A., Tauzia, X., Hetet, J. F. (2008). Experimental study of various effects of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on combustion and emissions of an automotive direct injection diesel engine. Energy, 33(1), 22-34.
  • Hasan, M. M. & Rahman, M. M. (2016). Homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion: Advantages over compression ignition combustion, challenges and solu-tions. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 57, 282-291.
  • Cinar, C. et al. (2015). Effects of intake air temperature on combustion, performance and emission characteristics of a HCCI engine fueled with the blends of 20 % n-heptane and 80 % isooctane fuels. Fuel Processing Technology, 130, 275-281.
  • Li, J. et al. (2017). Review on the management of RCCI engines. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 69, 65-79.
  • Alkemade, U. G., & Schumann, B. (2006). Engines and exhaust after treatment systems for future automotive application. Solid State Ionics, 177(26-32), 2291-2296.
  • Guan, B. et al. (2014). Review of state of the art technologies of selective catalytic reduction of NOx from diesel engine exhaust. Applied Thermal Engineering, 66(1-2), 395-414.
  • Chen, P. & Wang, J. (2014). Control-oriented model for integrated diesel engine and aftertreatment systems thermal management. Control Engineering Practice, 22, 81-93.
  • Stadlbauer, S. et al. (2013). DOC temperature control for low temperature operating ranges with post and main injection actuation. SAE Technical Paper No.2013-01-1580.
  • Boriboonsomsin, K. et al. (2018). Real-world exhaust temperature profiles of on-road heavy-duty diesel vehicles equipped with selective catalytic reduction. Science of the To-tal Environment, 634, 909-921.
  • Zheng, Y. et al. (2015). Enhanced low temperature NOx conversion by high-frequency hydrocarbon pulsing on a dual layer LNT- SCR catalyst. Science of the Total Environ-ment, 8(3), 1117-1125.
  • Culbertson, D. et al. (2018). Exhaust heating system perfor-mance for boosting SCR low temperature efficiency. SAE Technical Paper No.2018-01-1428.
  • Cavina, N. et al. (2013). Thermal management strategies for SCR after treatment systems. SAE Technical Paper No.2013-24-0153.
  • Honardar, S. et al. (2011). Exhaust temperature management for diesel engines assessment of engine concepts and calibration strategies with regard to fuel penalty. SAE Technical Pa-per No. 2011-24-0176.
  • Srinivas, P. K. & Salehi, R. (2019). Optimization of a Diesel Engine with Variable Exhaust Valve Phasing for Fast SCR System Warm-Up. SAE Technical Paper No. 2019-01-0584.
  • Roberts, L., Magee, M., Shaver, G., Garg, A., McCarthy, J., Koeberlein, E., Holloway, E., Shute, R., Koeberlein, D. and Nielsen, D. (2015). Modeling the impact of early exhaust valve opening on exhaust thermal management and efficiency for compression ignition engines. International Journal of Engine Research, 16(6), 773-794.
  • Vos, K. R. et al. (2019). Implementing variable valve actuation on a diesel engine at high-speed idle operation for improved aftertreatment warm-up. International Journal of Engine Research, 1468087419880639.
  • Basaran, H. U. (2020). Utilizing Exhaust Valve Opening Modulation for Fast Warm-up of Exhaust After-treatment Systems on Highway Diesel Vehicles. International Journal of Automotive Science and Technology, 4(1), 10-22.
  • Basaran, H. U. (2019). Improving exhaust temperature management at low-loaded diesel engine operations via internal exhaust gas recirculation. Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi Mühendislik Fakültesi Fen ve Mühendislik Dergisi, 21(61), 125-135.
  • Durve, A. et al. (2019). Calibration Strategies to Improve Exhaust Temperature Management in BSVI with Optimized Fuel Economy for 3.77 Lts Engine. SAE Technical Paper No. 2019-26-0060.
  • Tan, P. et al. (2020). Experimental Study on Thermal Management Strategy of the Exhaust Gas of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Based on In-Cylinder Injection Parameters. SAE Technical Paper No. 2020-01-0621.
  • Ma, T. et al. (1992). Exhaust gas ignition (EGI) - a new concept for rapid light-off of automotive exhaust catalyst. SAE Technical Paper No. 920400.
  • Gumus, M. (2009). Reducing cold-start emission from inter-nal combustion engines by means of thermal energy storage system. Applied Thermal Engineering. 29(4), 652-660.
  • Kim, C. H. et al. (2012). Electrically heated catalysts for cold-start emissions in diesel aftertreatment. SAE Technical Paper No. 2012-01-1092.
  • Gehrke, S. et al. (2013). Investigation of VVA-based exhaust management strategies by means of a HD single cylinder research engine and rapid prototyping systems. SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles, 6(1), 47-61.
  • Mayer, A. et al. (2003). Engine intake throttling for active regeneration of diesel particulate filters. SAE Technical Paper No.2003-01-0381.
  • Bai, S. et al. (2017). Influence of active control strategies on exhaust thermal management for diesel particular filter active regeneration. Applied Thermal Engineering. 119, 297-303.
  • Basaran, H. U. (2019). A Simulation Based Study to Im-prove Active Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration through Waste-gate Valve Opening Modulation. International Jour-nal of Automotive Science and Technology, 3(2), 32-41.
  • Betz, M. & Eilts, P. (2019). Optimization of the Exhaust Aftertreatment System of a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine by Means of Variable Valve Timing. SAE Technical Paper No.2019-24-0143.
  • Schwoerer, J. A et al. (2010). Lost-motion VVA systems for enabling next generation diesel engine efficiency and after-treatment optimization. SAE Technical Paper No.2010-01-1189.
  • Garg, A. et al. (2016). Fuel-efficient exhaust thermal management using cylinder throttling via intake valve closing timing modulation. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechan-ical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineer-ing, 230(4), 470-478.
  • Basaran, H. U. and Ozsoysal, O. A. (2017). Effects of application of variable valve timing on the exhaust gas temperature improvement. Applied Thermal Engineering, 122, 758-767.
  • Ramesh, A. K. et al. (2019). Cylinder deactivation for increased engine efficiency and aftertreatment thermal management in diesel engines. SAE Technical Paper No.2018-01-0384.
  • Vos, K. R. et al. (2019). Impact of cylinder deactivation and cylinder cutout via flexible valve actuation on fuel efficient aftertreatment thermal management at curb idle. Frontiers in Mechanical Engineering, 5:52.
  • Morris, A. & McCarthy, J. (2020). The Effect of Heavy-Duty Diesel Cylinder Deactivation on Exhaust Temperature, Fuel Consumption, and Turbocharger Performance up to 3 bar BMEP. SAE Technical Paper No.2020-01-1407.
  • Basaran, H. U. (2018). Fuel-saving exhaust after-treatment management on a spark-ignition engine system via cylinder deactivation method. Isı Bilimi ve Tekniği Dergisi (Journal of Thermal Science and Technology), 38(2), 87-98.
  • https://www.lotuscars.com/engineering/engineering-software. Lotus Engineering Software, Lotus Engine Simulation 2020 version.
  • https://lotusproactive.files.wordpress.com/2013/08/getting-started-with-lotus-engine-simulation.pdf. Lotus Engineering, Getting started with Lotus Engine Simulation.
  • Stanton, D. W. (2013). Systematic Development of Highly Efficient and Clean Engines to Meet Future Commercial Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Regulations. SAE International Jour-nal of Engines, 6(3), 1395-1480.
  • Ding, C. (2014). Thermal efficiency and emission analysis of advanced thermodynamic strategies in a multi-cylinder diesel engine utilizing valve-train flexibility. PhD Thesis, School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayetta, Indiana.
Primary Language en
Subjects Engineering, Mechanical
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Orcid: 0000-0002-1491-0465
Author: Hasan Üstün BAŞARAN (Primary Author)
Institution: İZMİR KATİP ÇELEBİ ÜNİVERSİTESİ, GEMİ İNŞAATI VE DENİZCİLİK FAKÜLTESİ
Country: Turkey


Supporting Institution İzmir Katip Çelebi Üniversitesi BAP Koordinatörlüğü
Project Number 2019-GAP-GİDF-0016
Dates

Application Date : September 18, 2020
Acceptance Date : February 17, 2021
Publication Date : June 30, 2021

Bibtex @research article { ijastech796769, journal = {International Journal of Automotive Science And Technology}, issn = {}, eissn = {2587-0963}, address = {Gazi Üniversitesi Teknoloji Fakültesi Otomotiv Mühendisliği Bölümü, Teknikokullar, Ankara}, publisher = {Otomotiv Mühendisleri Derneği}, year = {2021}, volume = {5}, pages = {85 - 98}, doi = {10.30939/ijastech..796769}, title = {Effects of Intake Valve Lift Form Modulation on Exhaust Temperature and Fuel Economy of a Low-loaded Automotive Diesel Engine}, key = {cite}, author = {Başaran, Hasan Üstün} }
APA Başaran, H . (2021). Effects of Intake Valve Lift Form Modulation on Exhaust Temperature and Fuel Economy of a Low-loaded Automotive Diesel Engine . International Journal of Automotive Science And Technology , 5 (2) , 85-98 . DOI: 10.30939/ijastech..796769
MLA Başaran, H . "Effects of Intake Valve Lift Form Modulation on Exhaust Temperature and Fuel Economy of a Low-loaded Automotive Diesel Engine" . International Journal of Automotive Science And Technology 5 (2021 ): 85-98 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/ijastech/issue/60881/796769>
Chicago Başaran, H . "Effects of Intake Valve Lift Form Modulation on Exhaust Temperature and Fuel Economy of a Low-loaded Automotive Diesel Engine". International Journal of Automotive Science And Technology 5 (2021 ): 85-98
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Effects of Intake Valve Lift Form Modulation on Exhaust Temperature and Fuel Economy of a Low-loaded Automotive Diesel Engine AU - Hasan Üstün Başaran Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - doi: 10.30939/ijastech..796769 DO - 10.30939/ijastech..796769 T2 - International Journal of Automotive Science And Technology JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 85 EP - 98 VL - 5 IS - 2 SN - -2587-0963 M3 - doi: 10.30939/ijastech..796769 UR - https://doi.org/10.30939/ijastech..796769 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 International Journal of Automotive Science and Technology Effects of Intake Valve Lift Form Modulation on Exhaust Temperature and Fuel Economy of a Low-loaded Automotive Diesel Engine %A Hasan Üstün Başaran %T Effects of Intake Valve Lift Form Modulation on Exhaust Temperature and Fuel Economy of a Low-loaded Automotive Diesel Engine %D 2021 %J International Journal of Automotive Science And Technology %P -2587-0963 %V 5 %N 2 %R doi: 10.30939/ijastech..796769 %U 10.30939/ijastech..796769
ISNAD Başaran, Hasan Üstün . "Effects of Intake Valve Lift Form Modulation on Exhaust Temperature and Fuel Economy of a Low-loaded Automotive Diesel Engine". International Journal of Automotive Science And Technology 5 / 2 (June 2021): 85-98 . https://doi.org/10.30939/ijastech..796769
AMA Başaran H . Effects of Intake Valve Lift Form Modulation on Exhaust Temperature and Fuel Economy of a Low-loaded Automotive Diesel Engine. ijastech. 2021; 5(2): 85-98.
Vancouver Başaran H . Effects of Intake Valve Lift Form Modulation on Exhaust Temperature and Fuel Economy of a Low-loaded Automotive Diesel Engine. International Journal of Automotive Science And Technology. 2021; 5(2): 85-98.
IEEE H. Başaran , "Effects of Intake Valve Lift Form Modulation on Exhaust Temperature and Fuel Economy of a Low-loaded Automotive Diesel Engine", International Journal of Automotive Science And Technology, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 85-98, Jun. 2021, doi:10.30939/ijastech..796769