Year 2015, Volume 2 , Issue 2, Pages 16 - 26 2015-08-03

Connection between Ocean Acidification and Sound Propagation

Cem Gazioğlu [1] , A. Edip Müftüoğlu [2] , Volkan Demir [3] , Abdullah Aksu [4] , Volkan Okutan [5]


Ocean Ambient Noise (OAN) results from both anthropogenic and natural sources. Varied noise sources are dominant in low (LFB: 10 to 500 Hz), medium (MFB: 500 Hz to 25 kHz) and high (HFB:>25 kHz) frequency bands. Mostly, LFB is dominated by anthropogenic sources. MFB that cannot spread over long ranges of sound sources contribute to the OAN. Ocean is an exceptionally noisy place. Ocean acidification (OAc) from rising Carbon dioxide (CO2 ) levels will result in decreased sound absorption and therefore, amplified levels of OAN. Carbon dioxide spewed into the atmosphere by burned fossil-fuel which dissolves in the seawater causes more acidic condition in oceans which has strong connection between chemical oceanography and sound propagation. As the ocean becomes more acidic, sound absorption at LFB decreases and acidic oceans would result in significant decreases in ocean sound absorption. In the recent years, the acoustic environment of oceans has reacted to transformations in both natural and anthropogenic impacts. Greenhouse gases concentrations, especially CO2 , rises in atmosphere due to industrial revolution. CO2 dissolved in the seawaters deposited in two major forms (carbonate and bicarbonate), which both lead to decrease pH of surface waters. Over the last 400 million years, pH of oceans has been stable around 8.2 globally. Latest investigations suggest that global pH is around 8.1 globally and various general oceanic circulation models (GOCM) calculate that, emissions could reduce ocean pH by a degree between 0.4 units (according to moderate approach) and 0.7 units (according to an aggressive one) by the end of this century. This article discusses the CO2 considerations both in the atmosphere and hydrosphere which are directly related with seawater pH and oceans noise levels.

Ocean Acidification (OAc), pH, CO2, sound propagation
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Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Author: Cem Gazioğlu
Institution: Istanbul University, Institute of Marine Sciences and Management, Department of Marine Environment, BERKARDA Remote Sensing and GIS Laboratory, İstanbul, Turkey
Country: Turkey


Author: A. Edip Müftüoğlu
Institution: Istanbul University, Institute of Marine Sciences and Management, Department of Marine Environment, BERKARDA Remote Sensing and GIS Laboratory, İstanbul, Turkey
Country: Turkey


Author: Volkan Demir
Institution: Istanbul University, Institute of Marine Sciences and Management, Department of Marine Environment, BERKARDA Remote Sensing and GIS Laboratory, İstanbul, Turkey
Country: Turkey


Author: Abdullah Aksu
Institution: Istanbul University, Institute of Marine Sciences and Management, Department of Chemical Oceanography, İstanbul, Turkey
Country: Turkey


Author: Volkan Okutan
Institution: Istanbul University, Institute of Marine Sciences and Management, Department of Marine Environment, BERKARDA Remote Sensing and GIS Laboratory, İstanbul, Turkey
Country: Turkey


Dates

Publication Date : August 3, 2015

Bibtex @research article { ijegeo303538, journal = {International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics}, issn = {}, eissn = {2148-9173}, address = {}, publisher = {Cem GAZİOĞLU}, year = {2015}, volume = {2}, pages = {16 - 26}, doi = {10.30897/ijegeo.303538}, title = {Connection between Ocean Acidification and Sound Propagation}, key = {cite}, author = {Gazioğlu, Cem and Müftüoğlu, A. Edip and Demir, Volkan and Aksu, Abdullah and Okutan, Volkan} }
APA Gazioğlu, C , Müftüoğlu, A , Demir, V , Aksu, A , Okutan, V . (2015). Connection between Ocean Acidification and Sound Propagation . International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics , 2 (2) , 16-26 . DOI: 10.30897/ijegeo.303538
MLA Gazioğlu, C , Müftüoğlu, A , Demir, V , Aksu, A , Okutan, V . "Connection between Ocean Acidification and Sound Propagation" . International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics 2 (2015 ): 16-26 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/ijegeo/issue/28165/303538>
Chicago Gazioğlu, C , Müftüoğlu, A , Demir, V , Aksu, A , Okutan, V . "Connection between Ocean Acidification and Sound Propagation". International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics 2 (2015 ): 16-26
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Connection between Ocean Acidification and Sound Propagation AU - Cem Gazioğlu , A. Edip Müftüoğlu , Volkan Demir , Abdullah Aksu , Volkan Okutan Y1 - 2015 PY - 2015 N1 - doi: 10.30897/ijegeo.303538 DO - 10.30897/ijegeo.303538 T2 - International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 16 EP - 26 VL - 2 IS - 2 SN - -2148-9173 M3 - doi: 10.30897/ijegeo.303538 UR - https://doi.org/10.30897/ijegeo.303538 Y2 - 2015 ER -
EndNote %0 International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics Connection between Ocean Acidification and Sound Propagation %A Cem Gazioğlu , A. Edip Müftüoğlu , Volkan Demir , Abdullah Aksu , Volkan Okutan %T Connection between Ocean Acidification and Sound Propagation %D 2015 %J International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics %P -2148-9173 %V 2 %N 2 %R doi: 10.30897/ijegeo.303538 %U 10.30897/ijegeo.303538
ISNAD Gazioğlu, Cem , Müftüoğlu, A. Edip , Demir, Volkan , Aksu, Abdullah , Okutan, Volkan . "Connection between Ocean Acidification and Sound Propagation". International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics 2 / 2 (August 2015): 16-26 . https://doi.org/10.30897/ijegeo.303538
AMA Gazioğlu C , Müftüoğlu A , Demir V , Aksu A , Okutan V . Connection between Ocean Acidification and Sound Propagation. International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics. 2015; 2(2): 16-26.
Vancouver Gazioğlu C , Müftüoğlu A , Demir V , Aksu A , Okutan V . Connection between Ocean Acidification and Sound Propagation. International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics. 2015; 2(2): 16-26.
IEEE C. Gazioğlu , A. Müftüoğlu , V. Demir , A. Aksu and V. Okutan , "Connection between Ocean Acidification and Sound Propagation", International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 16-26, Aug. 2015, doi:10.30897/ijegeo.303538