Review
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Year 2019, Volume 3, Issue 2, 40 - 51, 01.12.2019

Abstract

References

  • Anandharajan, R., Pathmanathan, K., Shankernarayanan, N. P., Vishwakarma, R. A., Balakrishnan, A. (2005). Upregulation of GLUT-4 and PPARγ by an isoflavone from Pterocarpus marsupium on L6 myotubes: A possible mechanism of action. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 97, 253-260.
  • Burke, J. P., Williams, K., Narayan, K. M. V., Leibson, C., Hafener, S. M., Stern, M. P. (2003). A population perspective on diabetes prevention: whom should we target for preventing weight gain? Diabetes Care, 26, 1999-2004.
  • Chakravarthy, B. K., Gupta, S., Gode, K. D. (1982). Functional beta cell regeneration in the islet of pancreas in alloxan induced diabetic rats by (-)-epicatechin. Life Sciences, 31, 2693-2697.
  • Chakravarthy, B. K., Saroj, G., Gambhir, S. S., Gode, K. D. (1980). Pancreatic beta cell regeneration–A novel anti-diabetic mechanism of Pterocarpus marsupium roxb. Indian Journal of Pharmacology, 12, 123-127.
  • Dateo Jr, G. P., Long Jr, L. (1973). Gymnemic acid, the anti-saccharine principle of Gymnema sylvestre. Studies on the isolation and heterogeneity of gymnemic acid A1. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 21 (5), 899-903.
  • Foster, S., (2002). Gymnema sylvestre in Alternative Medicine Reviews Monographs. Thorne Research Inc, 205-207.
  • Gaster, M., Nehlin, J. O., Minet, A. D. (2012). Impaired TCA cycle flux in mitochondria in skeletal muscle from type 2 diabetic subjects: Marker or maker of the diabetic phenotype? Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry, 118, 156-189.
  • Gayathri, M., Kannabiran, K. (2010). Studies on the ameliorative potential of aqueous extract of bark of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb in streptozotocin- induced diabetic rats. Journal of Natural Remedies, 10, 36-43.
  • Gurav, S., Gulkari, V., Duragkar, N., Patil, A. (2007). Systemic review: Pharmacognosy, phytochemistry, pharmacology and clinical applications of Gymnema sylvestre R Br. Pharmacognosy Review, 1, 338-343.
  • Jarald, E., Joshi, S. B., Jain, D. C. (2008). Diabetes and herbal medicines. Iranian Journal of Pharmacolgy and Therapy, 7, 97-106.
  • Khan, V., Najmi, A. K., Akhtar, M., Aqil, M., Mujeeb, M., Pillai, K. K. (2012). A pharmacological appraisal of medicinal plants with antidiabetic potential. Journal of Pharmacy and Bioallied Sciences, 4, 27-42.
  • Khramov, V. A., Spasov, A. A., Samokhina, M. P. (2008). Chemical composition of dry extracts of Gymnema sylvestre leaves. Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal, 42, 30-32.
  • Manohar, S. H., Naik, P. M., Praveen, N., Murthy, H. N. (2009). Distribution of gymnemic acid in various organs of Gymnema sylvestre. Journal of Forestry Research, 20, 268-70.
  • Maurya, R., Ray, A. B. (1984). Constituents of Pterocarpus marsupium. Journal of Natural Product, 47, 179-181.
  • Mishra, A., Srivastava, R., Srivastava, S. P., Gautam, S., Tamrakar, A. K., Maurya, R. (2013). Antidiabetic activity of heart wood of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. and analysis of phytoconstituents. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 51, 363-374.
  • Mohankumar, S. K., O'Shea, T., McFarlane, J. R. (2012). In-sulinotrophic and insulin-like effects of a high molecular weight aqueous extract of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. hardwood. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 141, 72-79.
  • Potawale, S. E., Shinde, V. M., Anandi, L., Borade, S., Dhalawat, H., Deshmukh, R. S. (2008). Gymnema sylvestre: a comprehensive review. Pharmacologyonline, 2, 144-157.
  • Sinsheimer, J. E., Rao, G. S., McIlhenny, H. M. (1970). Constituents from Gymnema sylvestre leaves. V: isolation and preliminary characterization of the gymnemic acids. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 59 (5), 622-628.
  • Sujin, R. M., Subin, R. M., Mahesh, R., Mary, R. V. J. (2008). Antidiabetic effects of Gymnema sylvestre (Asclepiadaceae) powder in the stomach of rats. Ethnobotanical Leaflets, 1, 158-67.
  • Tiwari, P., Mishra, B. N., Sangwan, N. S. (2014). Phytochemical and Pharmacological Properties of Gymnema sylvestre: An Important Medicinal Plant. Biomedical Research Institute.
  • Yoshikawa, K., Amimoto, K., Arihara, S., Matsuura, K. (1989). Gymnemic acid V, VI and VII from gur-ma, the leaves of Gymnema sylvestre R.Br. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 37, 852-854.
  • Yoshikawa, K., Amimoto, K., Arihara, S., Matsuura, K. (1989). Structure studies of new anti-sweet constituents from Gymnema sylvestre. Tetrahedron Letters, 30, 1103-1106. Vasi, S., Austin, A. (2009). Effect of herbal hypoglycemic on oxidative stress and antioxi¬dant status in diabetic rats. The Open Diabetes Journal, 18, 48-52.

A Review of Anti-diabetic Activity of Gymnema sylvestre and Pterocarpus marsupium: Special Emphasis on its Combination in 4DM

Year 2019, Volume 3, Issue 2, 40 - 51, 01.12.2019

Abstract

Gymnema sylvestre is a significant herb in traditional system of medicine and as well as in Ayurveda. The triterpene saponins which includes gymnemic acids, gymnosaponins and a polypeptide gurmarin are the main bioactive principle of Gymnema sylvestre and these phytoconstituents are mainly responsible for its antidiabetic property; Gymnema sylvestre also exhibits a wide range of therapeutic actions like anti-inflammatory, anti-hypercholesteromia, cardioprotective activity etc. It also is used in arthritis, diuretic, anemia, osteoporosis, asthma, indigestion etc. Pterocarpus marsupium is also a medicinal plant which is well known for its anti-diabetic property and other various therapeutic usages. This is a woody tree, mainly the heart wood contains the bioactive principle pterostilbene, (-) epicatechin, pterosupin, marsupin, tannins etc. which are responsible for its anti-diabetic activity. 4DM is a combination of Gymnema sylvestre and Pterocarpus marsupium - a product of Biotex Life Solutions (India). The preparation is equally proportionate, i.e. in a 1:1 ratio. Gymnema sylvestre and Pterocarpus marsupium extraction has been done in a specific standardized condition to obtain 25% Gymnemic acid and 5% Pterostilbene respectively.

References

  • Anandharajan, R., Pathmanathan, K., Shankernarayanan, N. P., Vishwakarma, R. A., Balakrishnan, A. (2005). Upregulation of GLUT-4 and PPARγ by an isoflavone from Pterocarpus marsupium on L6 myotubes: A possible mechanism of action. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 97, 253-260.
  • Burke, J. P., Williams, K., Narayan, K. M. V., Leibson, C., Hafener, S. M., Stern, M. P. (2003). A population perspective on diabetes prevention: whom should we target for preventing weight gain? Diabetes Care, 26, 1999-2004.
  • Chakravarthy, B. K., Gupta, S., Gode, K. D. (1982). Functional beta cell regeneration in the islet of pancreas in alloxan induced diabetic rats by (-)-epicatechin. Life Sciences, 31, 2693-2697.
  • Chakravarthy, B. K., Saroj, G., Gambhir, S. S., Gode, K. D. (1980). Pancreatic beta cell regeneration–A novel anti-diabetic mechanism of Pterocarpus marsupium roxb. Indian Journal of Pharmacology, 12, 123-127.
  • Dateo Jr, G. P., Long Jr, L. (1973). Gymnemic acid, the anti-saccharine principle of Gymnema sylvestre. Studies on the isolation and heterogeneity of gymnemic acid A1. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 21 (5), 899-903.
  • Foster, S., (2002). Gymnema sylvestre in Alternative Medicine Reviews Monographs. Thorne Research Inc, 205-207.
  • Gaster, M., Nehlin, J. O., Minet, A. D. (2012). Impaired TCA cycle flux in mitochondria in skeletal muscle from type 2 diabetic subjects: Marker or maker of the diabetic phenotype? Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry, 118, 156-189.
  • Gayathri, M., Kannabiran, K. (2010). Studies on the ameliorative potential of aqueous extract of bark of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb in streptozotocin- induced diabetic rats. Journal of Natural Remedies, 10, 36-43.
  • Gurav, S., Gulkari, V., Duragkar, N., Patil, A. (2007). Systemic review: Pharmacognosy, phytochemistry, pharmacology and clinical applications of Gymnema sylvestre R Br. Pharmacognosy Review, 1, 338-343.
  • Jarald, E., Joshi, S. B., Jain, D. C. (2008). Diabetes and herbal medicines. Iranian Journal of Pharmacolgy and Therapy, 7, 97-106.
  • Khan, V., Najmi, A. K., Akhtar, M., Aqil, M., Mujeeb, M., Pillai, K. K. (2012). A pharmacological appraisal of medicinal plants with antidiabetic potential. Journal of Pharmacy and Bioallied Sciences, 4, 27-42.
  • Khramov, V. A., Spasov, A. A., Samokhina, M. P. (2008). Chemical composition of dry extracts of Gymnema sylvestre leaves. Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal, 42, 30-32.
  • Manohar, S. H., Naik, P. M., Praveen, N., Murthy, H. N. (2009). Distribution of gymnemic acid in various organs of Gymnema sylvestre. Journal of Forestry Research, 20, 268-70.
  • Maurya, R., Ray, A. B. (1984). Constituents of Pterocarpus marsupium. Journal of Natural Product, 47, 179-181.
  • Mishra, A., Srivastava, R., Srivastava, S. P., Gautam, S., Tamrakar, A. K., Maurya, R. (2013). Antidiabetic activity of heart wood of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. and analysis of phytoconstituents. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 51, 363-374.
  • Mohankumar, S. K., O'Shea, T., McFarlane, J. R. (2012). In-sulinotrophic and insulin-like effects of a high molecular weight aqueous extract of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. hardwood. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 141, 72-79.
  • Potawale, S. E., Shinde, V. M., Anandi, L., Borade, S., Dhalawat, H., Deshmukh, R. S. (2008). Gymnema sylvestre: a comprehensive review. Pharmacologyonline, 2, 144-157.
  • Sinsheimer, J. E., Rao, G. S., McIlhenny, H. M. (1970). Constituents from Gymnema sylvestre leaves. V: isolation and preliminary characterization of the gymnemic acids. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 59 (5), 622-628.
  • Sujin, R. M., Subin, R. M., Mahesh, R., Mary, R. V. J. (2008). Antidiabetic effects of Gymnema sylvestre (Asclepiadaceae) powder in the stomach of rats. Ethnobotanical Leaflets, 1, 158-67.
  • Tiwari, P., Mishra, B. N., Sangwan, N. S. (2014). Phytochemical and Pharmacological Properties of Gymnema sylvestre: An Important Medicinal Plant. Biomedical Research Institute.
  • Yoshikawa, K., Amimoto, K., Arihara, S., Matsuura, K. (1989). Gymnemic acid V, VI and VII from gur-ma, the leaves of Gymnema sylvestre R.Br. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 37, 852-854.
  • Yoshikawa, K., Amimoto, K., Arihara, S., Matsuura, K. (1989). Structure studies of new anti-sweet constituents from Gymnema sylvestre. Tetrahedron Letters, 30, 1103-1106. Vasi, S., Austin, A. (2009). Effect of herbal hypoglycemic on oxidative stress and antioxi¬dant status in diabetic rats. The Open Diabetes Journal, 18, 48-52.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Pharmacology and Pharmacy
Journal Section Review article
Authors

Aminul ISLAM> (Primary Author)

0000-0003-2977-2234
India


Leroy REBELLO This is me

0000-0002-1570-3417
India


Sreesudha CHEPYALA This is me
Biotex Life Solutions Private Limited
0000-0002-6317-760X
India

Publication Date December 1, 2019
Application Date April 27, 2019
Acceptance Date May 25, 2019
Published in Issue Year 2019, Volume 3, Issue 2

Cite

APA Islam, A. , Rebello, L. & Chepyala, S. (2019). A Review of Anti-diabetic Activity of Gymnema sylvestre and Pterocarpus marsupium: Special Emphasis on its Combination in 4DM . International Journal of Nature and Life Sciences , 3 (2) , 40-51 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/ijnls/issue/45384/558447