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Phytochemical Profile and in vitro and in vivo Anticonvulsant and Antioxidant Activities of Epilobium hirsutum

Year 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, 63 - 76, 13.06.2020
https://doi.org/10.21448/ijsm.669451

Abstract

This study presents the phytochemical profile and in vitro and in vivo anticonvulsant and antioxidant activities of Epilobium hirsutum, which has been traditionally used in the treatment of epilepsy by local people of Turkey. In vitro studies revealed that the extract contained a pronounced amount of phenolics (206.3±0.9 mg Gallic acid Eq/g extract) and exhibited significant levels of antioxidant (FRAP; 6226 µmol Fe2+/g extract, ORAC; 6593 µmol Trolox Eq/g extract, DPPH; IC50:33.8 ug/mL and metal chelation; IC50:114 ug/mL) and anticonvulsant (AChE; IC50:71.2 ug/mL, BChE; IC50:92.5 ug/mL, GABA-T; IC50:94.7 ug/mL) activities. In vivo studies shown that the extract exhibited high anticonvulsant activities. In addition, the extracts regulated the behaviour, locomotion and mental activities of the mice tested. Biochemical evaluation of the brain tissue revealed that the extract inhibited the production of MDA and stimulated the increasing of antioxidant enzyme levels, which suggest the possible antioxidative role of the extract that worked as neuroprotective agents by scarfing the free radicals produced through PTZ seizure inducer and attenuate convulsions. Moreover the extract regulated serum biochemical parameters, total antioxidant, total oxidant, and ischemia-modified albumin levels. Chromatographic studies were revealed that gallic acid principally might be the major contributor of anticonvulsant and antioxidant activities with the additive contributions of fatty acids and mineral compounds. Findings obtained from this study partially justified the traditional use of Epilobium hirsutum in the treatment of epilepsy and suggest potential use of the extract as industrial or pharmaceutical agent.

References

  • Granica, S., Piwowarski, J.P., Czerwińska, M.E., Kiss, A.K. (2014). Phytochemistry, pharmacology and traditional uses of different Epilobium species (Onagraceae): A review. J Ethnopharmacol, 156, 316-346.
  • Barakat, H. H., Hussein, S. A., Marzouk, M.S., Merfort, I., Linscheid, M., Nawwar, M.A. (1997). Polyphenolic metabolites of Epilobium hirsutum. Phytochemistry, 46(5), 935-941.
  • Stolarczyk, M., Piwowarski, J.P., Granica, S., Stefańska, J., Naruszewicz, M., Kiss, A.K. (2013). Extracts from Epilobium sp. herbs, their components and gut microbiota metabolites of Epilobium ellagitannins, urolithins, inhibit hormone‐dependent prostate cancer cells‐(LNCaP) proliferation and PSA secretion. Phytother Res, 27(12), 1842-1848.
  • Agnieszka, G., Mariola, D., Anna, P., Piotr, K., Natalia, W., Aneta, S., Marcin, O., Bogna, O., Zdzisława, Ł., Aurelia, P., Magdalena, M., Łukasz, M.P., Karolina, W. (2018). Qualitative and quantitative analyses of bioactive compounds from ex vitro Chamaenerion angustifolium (L.) (Epilobium augustifolium) herb in different harvest times. Ind Crop Prod, 123, 208-220.
  • Bejenaru, L.E., Olah, N., Mogosanu, G.D., Bejenaru, C., Neamtu, J., Popescu, H. (2009). Researches upon the free amino acids serine and threonine in five Epilobium species (Onagraceae). Farmacia, 57(4), 485-491.
  • Bajer, T., Šilha, D., Ventura, K., Bajerová, P. (2017). Composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil, distilled aromatic water and herbal infusion from Epilobium parviflorum Schreb. Ind Crop Prod, 100, 95-105.
  • Kujawski, R., Mrozikiewicz, P.M., Bogacz, A., Cichocka, J., Mikołajczak, P.Ł., Czerny, B., Bobkiewicz-Kozłowska, T., Grześkowiak, E. (2010). Influence of standardized extract of Epilobium angustifolium on estrogen receptor α and β expression in in vivo model. Ginekol Pol, 81(8).
  • Kiss, A. K., Bazylko, A., Filipek, A., Granica, S., Jaszewska, E., Kiarszys, U., Kośmider, A., Piwowarski, J. (2011). Oenothein B's contribution to the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of Epilobium sp. Phytomedicine, 18(7), 557-560.
  • Ştef, D.S., Gergen, I., Traşcă, T.I., Monica Hărmănescu, Ş.L., Ramona, B., Hegheduş, M. (2009). Total antioxidant and radical scavenging capacities for different medicinal herbs. Rom. Biotechnol Lett, 14(5), 4705-4710.
  • Dicu, T., Postescu, I. D., Tatomir, C., Tamas, M., Dinu, A., Cosma, C. (2010). A novel method to calculate the antioxidant parameters of the redox reaction between polyphenolic compounds and the stable DPPH radical. Ital J Food Sci, 22(3), 330.
  • Allahverdiyev, O., Dzhafar, S., Berköz, M., Yıldırım, M. (2018). Advances in current medication and new therapeutic approaches in epilepsy. East. J. Med. 23(1), 48-59.
  • Devinsky, O., Roberta, C.M., Helen, C., Javier, F.R., Jacqueline, F., Charlotte, H., Russell, K., Vincenzo, D.M., Didier, J.A., George, N.W., Jose, M.O., Philip, R., Brian, R., Elizabeth, T., Benjamin, W., Daniel, F. (2014). Cannabidiol: pharmacology and potential therapeutic role in epilepsy and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Epilepsia, 55, 791-802.
  • Dalar, A., Konczak, I. (2013). Phenolic contents, antioxidant capacities and inhibitory activities against key metabolic syndrome relevant enzymes of herbal teas from Eastern Anatolia. Ind Crop Prod, 44, 383-390.
  • Aktumsek, A., Zengin, G., Guler, G. O., Cakmak, Y. S., Duran, A. (2013). Antioxidant potentials and anticholinesterase activities of methanolic and aqueous extracts of three endemic Centaurea L. species. Food Chem Toxicol, 55, 290-296.
  • Awad, R., Ahmed, F., Bourbonnais-Spear, N., Mullally, M., Ta, C.A., Tang, A., Merali, Z., Maquin, P., Caal, F., Cal, V., Poveda, L., Vindas, P.S., Trudeau, V.L., Arnason, J.T. (2009). Ethnopharmacology of Q’eqchi’ Maya antiepileptic and anxiolytic plants: Effects on the GABAergic system. J. Ethnopharmacol., 125, 257-264.
  • Bhosle, V. (2013). Anticonvulsant and antioxidant activity of aqueous leaves extract of Desmodium triflorum in mice against pentylenetetrazole and maximal electroshock induced convulsion. Braz. J. Pharmacogn., 23, 692-698.
  • Pahuja, M., Mehla, J., Reeta, K.H., Tripathi, M., Gupta, Y.K. (2013). Effect of Anacyclus pyrethrum on Pentylenetetrazole-Induced Kindling, Spatial Memory, Oxidative Stress and Rho-Kinase II Expression in Mice. Neurochem Res, 38, 547-556.
  • Vitali, R.F., Fonte, G., Saija, A., Tita, B. (2006). Inhibition of intestinal motility and secretion by extracts of Epilobium in mice. J. Ethnopharmacol., 107, 342-348.
  • Correia, O.C., Vasconcelos, O.C., Grigoletto, J., Rodrwigo, R.L., Rafael, F.V., Beck, G. A., Lopes, S.T., Rodrigo, R.L., Beck, G.C., Schiefelbein, S.N., Flávia, F.A., Menezes, A.I.R., Schneider, O.M. (2016). Anticonvulsant activity of β-caryophyllene against pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures. Epilepsy Behav., 56, 26-31.
  • Garbhapu, A., Yalavarthi P., Koganti, P. (2011). Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Indigofera tinctoria on Chemically-Induced. Iran J Basic Med Sci, 14, 318-326.
  • Ilhan, A., Gurel, A., Armutcu, F., Kamisli, S., Iraz, M. (2005). Antiepileptogenic and antioxidant effects of Nigella sativa oil against pentylenetetrazol-induced kindling in mice. Neuropharmacol, 49, 456-464.
  • Dogan, A., Celik I., Kaya, M.S. (2015). Antidiabetic properties of lyophilized extract of acorn (Quercus brantii Lindl.) on experimentally STZ-induced diabetic rats. J. Ethnopharmacol, 176, 243–251.
  • Uzun, Y., Dalar, A., Konczak, I. (2017). Sempervivum davisii: phytochemical composition, antioxidant and lipase-inhibitory activities. Pharm Biol, 55(1), 532-540.
  • Patwardhan, B. (2005). Ethnopharmacology and drug discovery. J. Ethnopharmacol, 100, 50-52.
  • Ilhan, A., Iraz, M., Kamisli, S., Yigitoglu, R. (2006). Pentylenetetrazol-induced kindling seizure attenuated by Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb761) in mice. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry, 30, 1504-1510.
  • Coelho, V.R., Vieira, C.G., de Souza, L.P., Moysés, F., Basso, C., Papke, D.K.M., Picada, J.N., Pereira, P. (2015). Antiepileptogenic, antioxidant and genotoxic evaluation of rosmarinic acid and its metabolite caffeic acid in mice. Life Sci., 122, 65-71.
  • Gul, Z., Demircan, C., Bagdas, D., Buyukuysal, R.L. (2016). Protective effects of chlorogenic acid and its metabolites on hydrogen peroxide-induced alterations in rat brain slices: a comparative study with resveratrol. Neurochem Res., 41(8), 2075-2085.
  • Pemninati, S. (2015). Effect of gallic acid on antioxidative enzymes in depression. Indian J. Psychiat., 57, 125.
  • Huang, H.L., Lin, C.C., Jeng, K.C.G., Yao, P.W., Chuang, L.T., Kuo, S.L., Hou, C.W. (2012). Fresh green tea and gallic acid ameliorate oxidative stress in kainic acid-induced status epilepticus. J. Agric. Food Chem., 60(9), 2328-2336.
  • Tejada, S., Martorell, M., Capó, X., Tur, J.A., Pons, A., Sureda, A. (2016). Omega-3 fatty acids in the management of epilepsy. Curr. Top Med. Chem., 16(17), 1897-1905.
  • Sancheti, J., Shaikh, M. F., Akhade, M., Shaikh, F. A., Sathaye, S. (2013). Nutritional therapy for epilepsy. J. Pharm Bio. Sci., 4, 149-156.
  • Gonzalez-Reyes, R.E., Gutierrez-Alvarez, A.M., Moreno, C.B. (2007). Manganese and epilepsy: a systematic review of the literature. Brain Res Rev., 53(2), 332-336.
  • Yuen, A.W., Sander, J.W. (2012). Can magnesium supplementation reduce seizures in people with epilepsy? A hypothesis. Epilepsy Res, 100(1-2), 152-156.
  • Moreno, C.B., Gutierrez-Alvarez, A.M., Gonzalez-Reyes, R.E. (2006). Zinc and epilepsy: is there a causal relation between them? Rev Neurol, 42(12), 754-759.

Phytochemical Profile and in vitro and in vivo Anticonvulsant and Antioxidant Activities of Epilobium hirsutum

Year 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, 63 - 76, 13.06.2020
https://doi.org/10.21448/ijsm.669451

Abstract

This study presents the phytochemical profile and in vitro and in vivo anticonvulsant and antioxidant activities of Epilobium hirsutum, which has been traditionally used in the treatment of epilepsy by local people of Turkey. In vitro studies revealed that the extract contained a pronounced amount of phenolics (206.3±0.9 mg Gallic acid Eq/g extract) and exhibited significant levels of antioxidant (FRAP; 6226 µmol Fe2+/g extract, ORAC; 6593 µmol Trolox Eq/g extract, DPPH; IC50:33.8 ug/mL and metal chelation; IC50:114 ug/mL) and anticonvulsant (AChE; IC50:71.2 ug/mL, BChE; IC50:92.5 ug/mL, GABA-T; IC50:94.7 ug/mL) activities. In vivo studies shown that the extract exhibited high anticonvulsant activities. In addition, the extracts regulated the behaviour, locomotion and mental activities of the mice tested. Biochemical evaluation of the brain tissue revealed that the extract inhibited the production of MDA and stimulated the increasing of antioxidant enzyme levels, which suggest the possible antioxidative role of the extract that worked as neuroprotective agents by scarfing the free radicals produced through PTZ seizure inducer and attenuate convulsions. Moreover the extract regulated serum biochemical parameters, total antioxidant, total oxidant, and ischemia-modified albumin levels. Chromatographic studies were revealed that gallic acid principally might be the major contributor of anticonvulsant and antioxidant activities with the additive contributions of fatty acids and mineral compounds. Findings obtained from this study partially justified the traditional use of Epilobium hirsutum in the treatment of epilepsy and suggest potential use of the extract as industrial or pharmaceutical agent.

References

  • Granica, S., Piwowarski, J.P., Czerwińska, M.E., Kiss, A.K. (2014). Phytochemistry, pharmacology and traditional uses of different Epilobium species (Onagraceae): A review. J Ethnopharmacol, 156, 316-346.
  • Barakat, H. H., Hussein, S. A., Marzouk, M.S., Merfort, I., Linscheid, M., Nawwar, M.A. (1997). Polyphenolic metabolites of Epilobium hirsutum. Phytochemistry, 46(5), 935-941.
  • Stolarczyk, M., Piwowarski, J.P., Granica, S., Stefańska, J., Naruszewicz, M., Kiss, A.K. (2013). Extracts from Epilobium sp. herbs, their components and gut microbiota metabolites of Epilobium ellagitannins, urolithins, inhibit hormone‐dependent prostate cancer cells‐(LNCaP) proliferation and PSA secretion. Phytother Res, 27(12), 1842-1848.
  • Agnieszka, G., Mariola, D., Anna, P., Piotr, K., Natalia, W., Aneta, S., Marcin, O., Bogna, O., Zdzisława, Ł., Aurelia, P., Magdalena, M., Łukasz, M.P., Karolina, W. (2018). Qualitative and quantitative analyses of bioactive compounds from ex vitro Chamaenerion angustifolium (L.) (Epilobium augustifolium) herb in different harvest times. Ind Crop Prod, 123, 208-220.
  • Bejenaru, L.E., Olah, N., Mogosanu, G.D., Bejenaru, C., Neamtu, J., Popescu, H. (2009). Researches upon the free amino acids serine and threonine in five Epilobium species (Onagraceae). Farmacia, 57(4), 485-491.
  • Bajer, T., Šilha, D., Ventura, K., Bajerová, P. (2017). Composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil, distilled aromatic water and herbal infusion from Epilobium parviflorum Schreb. Ind Crop Prod, 100, 95-105.
  • Kujawski, R., Mrozikiewicz, P.M., Bogacz, A., Cichocka, J., Mikołajczak, P.Ł., Czerny, B., Bobkiewicz-Kozłowska, T., Grześkowiak, E. (2010). Influence of standardized extract of Epilobium angustifolium on estrogen receptor α and β expression in in vivo model. Ginekol Pol, 81(8).
  • Kiss, A. K., Bazylko, A., Filipek, A., Granica, S., Jaszewska, E., Kiarszys, U., Kośmider, A., Piwowarski, J. (2011). Oenothein B's contribution to the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of Epilobium sp. Phytomedicine, 18(7), 557-560.
  • Ştef, D.S., Gergen, I., Traşcă, T.I., Monica Hărmănescu, Ş.L., Ramona, B., Hegheduş, M. (2009). Total antioxidant and radical scavenging capacities for different medicinal herbs. Rom. Biotechnol Lett, 14(5), 4705-4710.
  • Dicu, T., Postescu, I. D., Tatomir, C., Tamas, M., Dinu, A., Cosma, C. (2010). A novel method to calculate the antioxidant parameters of the redox reaction between polyphenolic compounds and the stable DPPH radical. Ital J Food Sci, 22(3), 330.
  • Allahverdiyev, O., Dzhafar, S., Berköz, M., Yıldırım, M. (2018). Advances in current medication and new therapeutic approaches in epilepsy. East. J. Med. 23(1), 48-59.
  • Devinsky, O., Roberta, C.M., Helen, C., Javier, F.R., Jacqueline, F., Charlotte, H., Russell, K., Vincenzo, D.M., Didier, J.A., George, N.W., Jose, M.O., Philip, R., Brian, R., Elizabeth, T., Benjamin, W., Daniel, F. (2014). Cannabidiol: pharmacology and potential therapeutic role in epilepsy and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Epilepsia, 55, 791-802.
  • Dalar, A., Konczak, I. (2013). Phenolic contents, antioxidant capacities and inhibitory activities against key metabolic syndrome relevant enzymes of herbal teas from Eastern Anatolia. Ind Crop Prod, 44, 383-390.
  • Aktumsek, A., Zengin, G., Guler, G. O., Cakmak, Y. S., Duran, A. (2013). Antioxidant potentials and anticholinesterase activities of methanolic and aqueous extracts of three endemic Centaurea L. species. Food Chem Toxicol, 55, 290-296.
  • Awad, R., Ahmed, F., Bourbonnais-Spear, N., Mullally, M., Ta, C.A., Tang, A., Merali, Z., Maquin, P., Caal, F., Cal, V., Poveda, L., Vindas, P.S., Trudeau, V.L., Arnason, J.T. (2009). Ethnopharmacology of Q’eqchi’ Maya antiepileptic and anxiolytic plants: Effects on the GABAergic system. J. Ethnopharmacol., 125, 257-264.
  • Bhosle, V. (2013). Anticonvulsant and antioxidant activity of aqueous leaves extract of Desmodium triflorum in mice against pentylenetetrazole and maximal electroshock induced convulsion. Braz. J. Pharmacogn., 23, 692-698.
  • Pahuja, M., Mehla, J., Reeta, K.H., Tripathi, M., Gupta, Y.K. (2013). Effect of Anacyclus pyrethrum on Pentylenetetrazole-Induced Kindling, Spatial Memory, Oxidative Stress and Rho-Kinase II Expression in Mice. Neurochem Res, 38, 547-556.
  • Vitali, R.F., Fonte, G., Saija, A., Tita, B. (2006). Inhibition of intestinal motility and secretion by extracts of Epilobium in mice. J. Ethnopharmacol., 107, 342-348.
  • Correia, O.C., Vasconcelos, O.C., Grigoletto, J., Rodrwigo, R.L., Rafael, F.V., Beck, G. A., Lopes, S.T., Rodrigo, R.L., Beck, G.C., Schiefelbein, S.N., Flávia, F.A., Menezes, A.I.R., Schneider, O.M. (2016). Anticonvulsant activity of β-caryophyllene against pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures. Epilepsy Behav., 56, 26-31.
  • Garbhapu, A., Yalavarthi P., Koganti, P. (2011). Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Indigofera tinctoria on Chemically-Induced. Iran J Basic Med Sci, 14, 318-326.
  • Ilhan, A., Gurel, A., Armutcu, F., Kamisli, S., Iraz, M. (2005). Antiepileptogenic and antioxidant effects of Nigella sativa oil against pentylenetetrazol-induced kindling in mice. Neuropharmacol, 49, 456-464.
  • Dogan, A., Celik I., Kaya, M.S. (2015). Antidiabetic properties of lyophilized extract of acorn (Quercus brantii Lindl.) on experimentally STZ-induced diabetic rats. J. Ethnopharmacol, 176, 243–251.
  • Uzun, Y., Dalar, A., Konczak, I. (2017). Sempervivum davisii: phytochemical composition, antioxidant and lipase-inhibitory activities. Pharm Biol, 55(1), 532-540.
  • Patwardhan, B. (2005). Ethnopharmacology and drug discovery. J. Ethnopharmacol, 100, 50-52.
  • Ilhan, A., Iraz, M., Kamisli, S., Yigitoglu, R. (2006). Pentylenetetrazol-induced kindling seizure attenuated by Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb761) in mice. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry, 30, 1504-1510.
  • Coelho, V.R., Vieira, C.G., de Souza, L.P., Moysés, F., Basso, C., Papke, D.K.M., Picada, J.N., Pereira, P. (2015). Antiepileptogenic, antioxidant and genotoxic evaluation of rosmarinic acid and its metabolite caffeic acid in mice. Life Sci., 122, 65-71.
  • Gul, Z., Demircan, C., Bagdas, D., Buyukuysal, R.L. (2016). Protective effects of chlorogenic acid and its metabolites on hydrogen peroxide-induced alterations in rat brain slices: a comparative study with resveratrol. Neurochem Res., 41(8), 2075-2085.
  • Pemninati, S. (2015). Effect of gallic acid on antioxidative enzymes in depression. Indian J. Psychiat., 57, 125.
  • Huang, H.L., Lin, C.C., Jeng, K.C.G., Yao, P.W., Chuang, L.T., Kuo, S.L., Hou, C.W. (2012). Fresh green tea and gallic acid ameliorate oxidative stress in kainic acid-induced status epilepticus. J. Agric. Food Chem., 60(9), 2328-2336.
  • Tejada, S., Martorell, M., Capó, X., Tur, J.A., Pons, A., Sureda, A. (2016). Omega-3 fatty acids in the management of epilepsy. Curr. Top Med. Chem., 16(17), 1897-1905.
  • Sancheti, J., Shaikh, M. F., Akhade, M., Shaikh, F. A., Sathaye, S. (2013). Nutritional therapy for epilepsy. J. Pharm Bio. Sci., 4, 149-156.
  • Gonzalez-Reyes, R.E., Gutierrez-Alvarez, A.M., Moreno, C.B. (2007). Manganese and epilepsy: a systematic review of the literature. Brain Res Rev., 53(2), 332-336.
  • Yuen, A.W., Sander, J.W. (2012). Can magnesium supplementation reduce seizures in people with epilepsy? A hypothesis. Epilepsy Res, 100(1-2), 152-156.
  • Moreno, C.B., Gutierrez-Alvarez, A.M., Gonzalez-Reyes, R.E. (2006). Zinc and epilepsy: is there a causal relation between them? Rev Neurol, 42(12), 754-759.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Biology
Published Date June
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Sara DZHAFAR
VAN YÜZÜNCÜ YIL ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-2522-4209
Türkiye


Abdullah DALAR
VAN YÜZÜNCÜ YIL ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-0080-2519
Türkiye


Muzaffer MÜKEMRE
HAKKARI UNIVERSITY
0000-0001-6154-6603
Türkiye


Suat EKİN
VAN YÜZÜNCÜ YIL ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-6502-5028
Türkiye


Damla YILDIZ
VAN YÜZÜNCÜ YIL ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-9489-3860
Türkiye


Oruc YUNUSOĞLU (Primary Author)
VAN YÜZÜNCÜ YIL ÜNİVERSİTESİ, TIP FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0003-1075-9574
Türkiye

Supporting Institution Van Yuzuncu Yil University
Project Number TYL-2017-5873
Thanks Van Yuzuncu Yil University Scientific Research Projects Council
Publication Date June 13, 2020
Published in Issue Year 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2

Cite

APA Dzhafar, S. , Dalar, A. , Mükemre, M. , Ekin, S. , Yıldız, D. & Yunusoğlu, O. (2020). Phytochemical Profile and in vitro and in vivo Anticonvulsant and Antioxidant Activities of Epilobium hirsutum . International Journal of Secondary Metabolite , 7 (2) , 63-76 . DOI: 10.21448/ijsm.669451

International Journal of Secondary Metabolite (IJSM)

ISSN-e: 2148-6905