Research Article
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Year 2019, Volume: 11 Issue: 2, 20 - 38, 01.07.2019

Abstract

References

  • Amjad, S. (2010). Out-of-school girls: Challenges and policy responses in girls’ education in Tajikistan. www.unicef.org/ceecis/girls_tajik.pdf. Accessed 10/08/2015.
  • Arku, F. S., Angmor, E. N., & Tetteh, I. K. (2014). Girl-child education outcomes: A case study from Ghana. Educational Research Quarterly, 38(1), 3.
  • Beninger, C. (2013). Combating sexual violence in schools in sub-Saharan Africa: Legal strategies under regional and international human rights law. African Human Rights Law Journal, 13, 281-301.
  • Björkman-Nyqvist, M., (2013). Income shocks and gender gaps in education: Evidence from Uganda. Journal of Development Economics, 105, 237-253.
  • Brock, C & Cammish, N. (1997). Factors affecting female participation in education in seven developing countries. Education Research Papers, 9(2),1-96.
  • Chigona, A. & Chetty, R. (2008). Teen mothers and schooling: lacunae and challenges. South African Journal of Education, 28, 261–281.
  • Colclough, C., Rose, P. & Tembon, M. (2000). Gender inequalities in primary schooling: the roles of poverty and adverse cultural practice. International Journal of Educational Development, 20(2000), 5–27.
  • Davison, J. & Kanyuka, M. (1990). An ethnographic study of factors affecting the education of girls in southern Malawi. Zomba: Chancellor College. www. https://searchworks.stanford.edu/view/2459335. Accessed 10/08/2015.
  • De Silva-de-Alwis, R. (2008). Child marriage and the law. New York: UNICEF. www.unicef.org/Leg_Reform_on_Child_Domestic_Labour.pdf. Accessed 10/08/2015.
  • Doyle, C. & Weale, M., (1994). Education, externalities, fertility and economic growth. Education Economics, 2(2), 129-167.
  • Dunga, S.H (2017). A gender and marital status analysis of household income in a low-income township. Studia Universitatis Babeș-Bolyai Oeconomica, 62 (1), 20- 30.
  • Gujrati, D.N. (2004). Basic Econometrics. 4th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.
  • Guijarro, S., Naranjo, J., Padilla, M., Gutiérez, R., Lammers, C. & Blum, R.W., (1999). Family risk factors associated with adolescent pregnancy: study of a group of adolescent girls and their families in Ecuador. Journal of Adolescent Health, 25(2), 166-172.
  • Hyde, K. & Kadzamira. E.C. (1994). GABLE knowledge attitudes and practice pilot survey. Zomba: Centre for Social Research, University of Malawi.
  • Hunt, F. (2008). Dropping out from school: A cross-country review of literature. Consortium for Research on Educational Access, Transitions and Equity.16, 1-67.
  • Jain, L. (2008). Drop out of Girl Child in Schools. 1st ed. New Delhi: Northern Book Publishers.
  • Jain, P., Agarwal, R., Billaiya, R. & Devi, J. (2017). Women education in rural India. International Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 1(1), 21-26
  • Johannes. E. (2010). Women’s education in Sub-Saharan Africa: Obstacles facing women and girls access to education: The case of Kenya. Kenya Studies Review, 1(2), 57-71.
  • Kadzamira, E. & Rose, P. (2003). Can free primary education meet the needs of the poor? evidence from Malawi. International Journal of Educational Development, 23(5), 501-516.
  • Lewin, K.M. (2007). Improving access, equity and transitions in education: creating a research agenda. http://www.create-rpc.org/pdf_documents/PTA1.pdf. Accessed: 2018/07/01.
  • Melguizo, T., Sanchez, F. & Velasco, T., (2016). Credit for low-income students and access to and academic performance in higher education in Colombia: A regression discontinuity approach. World Development, 80, 61-77.
  • Mzuza, K.M., Yudong, Y. & Kapute, F. (2014). Analysis of factors causing poor passing rates and high dropout rates among primary school girls in Malawi. World Journal of Education, 4(1), 48-61.
  • Nekatibeb, T. (2002). Low participation of female students in primary education: A case study of dropouts from the Amhara and Oromia regional states in Ethiopia. UNESCO International Instistute for Capacity Building in Africa. www.unesco.iicba.org. Accessed:2015/08/10
  • NSO (National statistics Office). (2010). Population census report. Zomba: Government Press.
  • NSO (National statistics office). (2012). Integrated Household survey 3: household socio-economic characteristics report. http://www.nsomalawi.mw/storie/economics/ihs/IHPS%202013/Report.pdf. Accessed 10/08/2015.
  • Odaga, A & Heneveld, W. (1995). Girls and Schools in Sub-Saharan Africa: From Analysis to Action.Human Resources Division of the Africa Technical Department. Washington DC: The World Bank.
  • Ombati, V. & Ombati, M. (2012). Gender inequality in education in sub-Saharan Africa. Journal of Women's Entrepreneurship and Education, 3(4), 114-136.
  • Jain, S & Singh, S. (2017). Prerna: engendering empowerment through girl education. International Journal of Educational Management, 31(4), 518-529
  • Prinsloo, S. (2006). Sexual harassment and violence in South African schools. South African Journal of Education. 26(2), 305-318.
  • Raja, B. & Burnett, N. (2004). User fees in primary education. Washington, DC: World Bank. A Case Study of Monduli District. Journal of International Cooperation in Education, 15(3), 21-37.
  • Sekhampu, T. J. (2013). Determination of the factors affecting the food security status of households in Bophelong, South Africa. The International Business & Economics Research Journal 12(5), 543-550.
  • Schultz, T.P. (1989). Returns to Womens Education. Washington DC: The World Bank.
  • Summers, L.H. (1992). Investing in all the people, educating women in developing countries. Paper presented at World Bank.
  • Tembon, M., Diallo, I., Barry D. & Barry, A. (1997). Gender and Primary Schooling in Guinea. IDS Research Report No. 32, Brighton: IDS
  • Tuwor, T. & Sossou, M.A. (2008). Gender discrimination and education in West Africa: strategies for maintaining girls in school. International Journal of Inclusive Education. 12 (4), 363–379.
  • UNESCO (United Nations educational scientific and cultural organizations). (2009). Overcoming inequality why governance matter: gender parity and equity. www.http://en.unesco.org/gem-report/sites/gemreport/files/178418e.pdf. Accessed 2015/08/10.
  • UNFPA (United Nations Population Fund). (2005). Multiple benefits of girl education: The promise of equity. https://www.unfpa.org/pub-pdf/swp05_eng.pdf. Accessed 2015/09/15.
  • UNFPA (United Nations Population Fund). (2013). Adolescent pregnancy. http://www.unfpa.org/publications/adolescent-pregnancy. Accessed: 15/08/2015.
  • UNICEF (United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund). (2010). The situation of women and children. http://www.unicef.org/malawi/children.html. Accessed 30/10/2017.
  • UNICEF (United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund) 2015. Child protection from violence, exploitation and abuse. www.unicef.org/protection.htm. Accessed 10/08/2015.
  • UNICEF (United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund). (2017). Why are girls not in school? https://www.unicef.org/education Accessed 21/08/2018.
  • Winthrop, R. & McGivney, E. (2014). Raising the global ambition of girls education. http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/research/files/papers/2014. Accessed 20/03/2015.
  • World Bank (2012). poverty and equity data portal. www.povertydata.worldbank.org. Accessed 17/09/2016.
  • World Bank, (2013). Benefits of women education. http://web.worldbank.org. Accessed 28/10/2014.

SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS INFLUENCING THE EDUCATION OF THE GIRL CHILD IN ZOMBA, MALAWI

Year 2019, Volume: 11 Issue: 2, 20 - 38, 01.07.2019

Abstract

Dealing with poverty and economic hardships in developing countries has been a
primary theme for many international organisations. There have been calls to
apply greater attention towards girl child education to ensure that future
generations do not experience the traditional gender disparities in which males
have been regarded as better than females in almost all aspects of life. In
developing countries such as Malawi, indications are that girls still lag behind
boys, despite the implementation of several interventions to reverse this trend.
This study examined the socio-economic factors that influence the participation of
the girl child in educational activities in Zomba, Malawi. The focus was mainly
on household and school-related factors such as distance to school and the
availability of resources at school level. The study used descriptive analyses, cross
tabulations and binary logistic regression to examine the gender disparities that
exist between girls and boys in education. The results showed that a higher
percentage of girls, unlike boys, were out of school and that there was a higher
percentage of girls that dropped out of school. In the regression results, distance to
school as well as water points, and a host of other household characteristics
including household income emerged as significant determinants of girls’
education participation.

References

  • Amjad, S. (2010). Out-of-school girls: Challenges and policy responses in girls’ education in Tajikistan. www.unicef.org/ceecis/girls_tajik.pdf. Accessed 10/08/2015.
  • Arku, F. S., Angmor, E. N., & Tetteh, I. K. (2014). Girl-child education outcomes: A case study from Ghana. Educational Research Quarterly, 38(1), 3.
  • Beninger, C. (2013). Combating sexual violence in schools in sub-Saharan Africa: Legal strategies under regional and international human rights law. African Human Rights Law Journal, 13, 281-301.
  • Björkman-Nyqvist, M., (2013). Income shocks and gender gaps in education: Evidence from Uganda. Journal of Development Economics, 105, 237-253.
  • Brock, C & Cammish, N. (1997). Factors affecting female participation in education in seven developing countries. Education Research Papers, 9(2),1-96.
  • Chigona, A. & Chetty, R. (2008). Teen mothers and schooling: lacunae and challenges. South African Journal of Education, 28, 261–281.
  • Colclough, C., Rose, P. & Tembon, M. (2000). Gender inequalities in primary schooling: the roles of poverty and adverse cultural practice. International Journal of Educational Development, 20(2000), 5–27.
  • Davison, J. & Kanyuka, M. (1990). An ethnographic study of factors affecting the education of girls in southern Malawi. Zomba: Chancellor College. www. https://searchworks.stanford.edu/view/2459335. Accessed 10/08/2015.
  • De Silva-de-Alwis, R. (2008). Child marriage and the law. New York: UNICEF. www.unicef.org/Leg_Reform_on_Child_Domestic_Labour.pdf. Accessed 10/08/2015.
  • Doyle, C. & Weale, M., (1994). Education, externalities, fertility and economic growth. Education Economics, 2(2), 129-167.
  • Dunga, S.H (2017). A gender and marital status analysis of household income in a low-income township. Studia Universitatis Babeș-Bolyai Oeconomica, 62 (1), 20- 30.
  • Gujrati, D.N. (2004). Basic Econometrics. 4th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.
  • Guijarro, S., Naranjo, J., Padilla, M., Gutiérez, R., Lammers, C. & Blum, R.W., (1999). Family risk factors associated with adolescent pregnancy: study of a group of adolescent girls and their families in Ecuador. Journal of Adolescent Health, 25(2), 166-172.
  • Hyde, K. & Kadzamira. E.C. (1994). GABLE knowledge attitudes and practice pilot survey. Zomba: Centre for Social Research, University of Malawi.
  • Hunt, F. (2008). Dropping out from school: A cross-country review of literature. Consortium for Research on Educational Access, Transitions and Equity.16, 1-67.
  • Jain, L. (2008). Drop out of Girl Child in Schools. 1st ed. New Delhi: Northern Book Publishers.
  • Jain, P., Agarwal, R., Billaiya, R. & Devi, J. (2017). Women education in rural India. International Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 1(1), 21-26
  • Johannes. E. (2010). Women’s education in Sub-Saharan Africa: Obstacles facing women and girls access to education: The case of Kenya. Kenya Studies Review, 1(2), 57-71.
  • Kadzamira, E. & Rose, P. (2003). Can free primary education meet the needs of the poor? evidence from Malawi. International Journal of Educational Development, 23(5), 501-516.
  • Lewin, K.M. (2007). Improving access, equity and transitions in education: creating a research agenda. http://www.create-rpc.org/pdf_documents/PTA1.pdf. Accessed: 2018/07/01.
  • Melguizo, T., Sanchez, F. & Velasco, T., (2016). Credit for low-income students and access to and academic performance in higher education in Colombia: A regression discontinuity approach. World Development, 80, 61-77.
  • Mzuza, K.M., Yudong, Y. & Kapute, F. (2014). Analysis of factors causing poor passing rates and high dropout rates among primary school girls in Malawi. World Journal of Education, 4(1), 48-61.
  • Nekatibeb, T. (2002). Low participation of female students in primary education: A case study of dropouts from the Amhara and Oromia regional states in Ethiopia. UNESCO International Instistute for Capacity Building in Africa. www.unesco.iicba.org. Accessed:2015/08/10
  • NSO (National statistics Office). (2010). Population census report. Zomba: Government Press.
  • NSO (National statistics office). (2012). Integrated Household survey 3: household socio-economic characteristics report. http://www.nsomalawi.mw/storie/economics/ihs/IHPS%202013/Report.pdf. Accessed 10/08/2015.
  • Odaga, A & Heneveld, W. (1995). Girls and Schools in Sub-Saharan Africa: From Analysis to Action.Human Resources Division of the Africa Technical Department. Washington DC: The World Bank.
  • Ombati, V. & Ombati, M. (2012). Gender inequality in education in sub-Saharan Africa. Journal of Women's Entrepreneurship and Education, 3(4), 114-136.
  • Jain, S & Singh, S. (2017). Prerna: engendering empowerment through girl education. International Journal of Educational Management, 31(4), 518-529
  • Prinsloo, S. (2006). Sexual harassment and violence in South African schools. South African Journal of Education. 26(2), 305-318.
  • Raja, B. & Burnett, N. (2004). User fees in primary education. Washington, DC: World Bank. A Case Study of Monduli District. Journal of International Cooperation in Education, 15(3), 21-37.
  • Sekhampu, T. J. (2013). Determination of the factors affecting the food security status of households in Bophelong, South Africa. The International Business & Economics Research Journal 12(5), 543-550.
  • Schultz, T.P. (1989). Returns to Womens Education. Washington DC: The World Bank.
  • Summers, L.H. (1992). Investing in all the people, educating women in developing countries. Paper presented at World Bank.
  • Tembon, M., Diallo, I., Barry D. & Barry, A. (1997). Gender and Primary Schooling in Guinea. IDS Research Report No. 32, Brighton: IDS
  • Tuwor, T. & Sossou, M.A. (2008). Gender discrimination and education in West Africa: strategies for maintaining girls in school. International Journal of Inclusive Education. 12 (4), 363–379.
  • UNESCO (United Nations educational scientific and cultural organizations). (2009). Overcoming inequality why governance matter: gender parity and equity. www.http://en.unesco.org/gem-report/sites/gemreport/files/178418e.pdf. Accessed 2015/08/10.
  • UNFPA (United Nations Population Fund). (2005). Multiple benefits of girl education: The promise of equity. https://www.unfpa.org/pub-pdf/swp05_eng.pdf. Accessed 2015/09/15.
  • UNFPA (United Nations Population Fund). (2013). Adolescent pregnancy. http://www.unfpa.org/publications/adolescent-pregnancy. Accessed: 15/08/2015.
  • UNICEF (United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund). (2010). The situation of women and children. http://www.unicef.org/malawi/children.html. Accessed 30/10/2017.
  • UNICEF (United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund) 2015. Child protection from violence, exploitation and abuse. www.unicef.org/protection.htm. Accessed 10/08/2015.
  • UNICEF (United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund). (2017). Why are girls not in school? https://www.unicef.org/education Accessed 21/08/2018.
  • Winthrop, R. & McGivney, E. (2014). Raising the global ambition of girls education. http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/research/files/papers/2014. Accessed 20/03/2015.
  • World Bank (2012). poverty and equity data portal. www.povertydata.worldbank.org. Accessed 17/09/2016.
  • World Bank, (2013). Benefits of women education. http://web.worldbank.org. Accessed 28/10/2014.

Details

Primary Language English
Journal Section Research Article
Authors

Hannah DUNGA This is me

Chengedzai MAFİNİ This is me

Publication Date July 1, 2019
Published in Issue Year 2019 Volume: 11 Issue: 2

Cite

APA DUNGA, H., & MAFİNİ, C. (2019). SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS INFLUENCING THE EDUCATION OF THE GIRL CHILD IN ZOMBA, MALAWI. International Journal of Social Sciences and Humanity Studies, 11(2), 20-38.
AMA DUNGA H, MAFİNİ C. SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS INFLUENCING THE EDUCATION OF THE GIRL CHILD IN ZOMBA, MALAWI. IJ-SSHS. July 2019;11(2):20-38.
Chicago DUNGA, Hannah, and Chengedzai MAFİNİ. “SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS INFLUENCING THE EDUCATION OF THE GIRL CHILD IN ZOMBA, MALAWI”. International Journal of Social Sciences and Humanity Studies 11, no. 2 (July 2019): 20-38.
EndNote DUNGA H, MAFİNİ C (July 1, 2019) SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS INFLUENCING THE EDUCATION OF THE GIRL CHILD IN ZOMBA, MALAWI. International Journal of Social Sciences and Humanity Studies 11 2 20–38.
IEEE H. DUNGA and C. MAFİNİ, “SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS INFLUENCING THE EDUCATION OF THE GIRL CHILD IN ZOMBA, MALAWI”, IJ-SSHS, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 20–38, 2019.
ISNAD DUNGA, Hannah - MAFİNİ, Chengedzai. “SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS INFLUENCING THE EDUCATION OF THE GIRL CHILD IN ZOMBA, MALAWI”. International Journal of Social Sciences and Humanity Studies 11/2 (July 2019), 20-38.
JAMA DUNGA H, MAFİNİ C. SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS INFLUENCING THE EDUCATION OF THE GIRL CHILD IN ZOMBA, MALAWI. IJ-SSHS. 2019;11:20–38.
MLA DUNGA, Hannah and Chengedzai MAFİNİ. “SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS INFLUENCING THE EDUCATION OF THE GIRL CHILD IN ZOMBA, MALAWI”. International Journal of Social Sciences and Humanity Studies, vol. 11, no. 2, 2019, pp. 20-38.
Vancouver DUNGA H, MAFİNİ C. SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS INFLUENCING THE EDUCATION OF THE GIRL CHILD IN ZOMBA, MALAWI. IJ-SSHS. 2019;11(2):20-38.