Research Article
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The influence of vitamin U supplementation on liver injury of amiodarone-administered rats

Year 2016, Volume 75, Issue 1, 1 - 10, 15.05.2017

Abstract

Amiodarone is a currently used drug with high efficacy for the treatment acute life-threatening arrhythmias. Although the use of this drug is widespread, it is associated with unwanted systemic effects. S-methylmethionine sulphonium, which is a derivative of the methionine amino acid, defined mostly as vitamin U and various beneficial effects of Vit U have been demonstrated. The present study was planned to determine whether the vitamin U exhibits preventive effects on amiodarone-induced liver toxicity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups. Group I; control animals receiving corn oil. Group II; control animals receiving Vit U (50 mg/kg) for 7 days orally. Group III; animals receiving 100 mg/kg amiodarone for 7 days orally. Group IV; animals receiving Vit U orally for 7 days (in the same dose and time) 1 h prior to the administration of amiodarone. Pretreatment with vitamin U particularly decreased degenerative morphological changes such as picnotic nucleus in hepatocytes, sinusoidal dilatation, hyperemia seen in amiodarone treated individuals. On the other hand liver aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase activities were increased, catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase activities were decreased in amiodarone group. Administration of vitamin U reversed these effects in amiodarone group. In conclusion, it might be suggested that pretreatment with vitamin U have protective effects on liver injury induced with amiodarone through decreasing oxidative stress. 

References

  • Aebi H. (1984) Catalase in vitro. Methods in Enzymology, 105: 121-26. Agoston M., Orsi F., Fehér E., Hagymási K., Orosz Z., Blázovics A., Fehér J. and Vereckei A. (2003) Silymarin and vitamin E reduce amiodarone-induced lysosomal phospholipidosis in rats. Toxicology, 190(3):231-41. Berson A., De Beco V., Lettéron P., Robin M.A., Moreau C., El Kahwaji J., Verthier N., Feldmann G., Fromenty B. and Pessayre D. (1998) Steatohepatitis-inducing drugs cause mitochondrial dysfunction and lipid peroxidation in rat hepatocytes. Gastroenterology, 114(4):764-74. Borlak J., Chougule A. and Singh P.K. (2014) How useful are clinical liver function tests in in vitro human hepatotoxicity assays? Toxicology In Vitro, 28: 784-95. Brien J.F., Jimmo S., Brennan F.J., Ford S.E. and Armstrong P.W. (1987) Distribution of amiodarone and its metabolite, desethylamiodarone, in human tissues. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology. 65(3):360-4. Chang C.C., Petrelli M., Tomashefski J.F. Jr and McCullough A.J. (1999) Severe intrahepatic cholestasis caused by amiodarone toxicity after withdrawal of the drug: a case report and review of the literature. Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, 123(3):251-6. Durukan A.B., Erdem B., Durukan E., Sevim H., Karaduman T., Gurbuz H.A., Gurpinar A. and Yorgancioglu C. (2012) May toxicity of amiodarone be prevented by antioxidants? A cell-culture study. Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery, 7:61: 1-5. Fromenty B., Fisch C., Berson A., Letteron P., Larrey D. and Pessayre D. (1990a) Dual effect of amiodarone on mitochondrial respiration. Initial protonophoric uncoupling effect followed by inhibition of the respiratory chain at the levels of complex I and complex II. The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 255(3):1377-84. Fromenty B., Fisch C., Labbe G., Degott C., 8 Sancar Baş et al. / IUFS Journal of Biology 2016, 75(1): 1-10 disease mechanisms. Redox Biology, 1: 244-57. Kannan R., Sarma J.S.M., Guha M., Swaminathan N. and Venkataraman K. (1990) Role of vitamin E in amiodarone- induced phospholipidosis in rats. FASEB Journal, 4, 1127A. Kaufmann P., Török M., Hanni A., Roberts P., Gasser R. and Krahenbuhl S. (2005) Mechanisms of benzarone and benzbromarone-induced hepatic toxicity. Hepatology, 41: 925-35. Kim W.S., Yang Y.J., Min H.G., Song M.G., Lee J.S., Park K.Y., Kim J.J., Sung J.H., Choi J.S. and Cha H.J. (2010) Accelerated wound healing by S-methylmethioninesulfonium: evidence of dermal broblast activation via the ERK1/2 pathway. Pharmacology, 85(2):68-76. Kopinski J.S., Fogarty R. and McVeigh J. (2007) Effect of s-methylmethioninesulphonium chloride on oesophagogastric ulcers in pigs. Australian Veterinary Journal, 85(9):362-7. Lee N.Y., Park K.Y., Min H.J., Song K.Y., Lim Y.Y., Park J., Kim B.J. and Kim M.N. (2012) Inhibitory effect of vitamin U (S-methylmethioninesulfonium chloride) on differentiation in 3T3-L1 pre-adipocyte cell lines. Annals of Dermatology. 24(1):39-44. Lewis J.H., Ranard R.C., Caruso A., Jackson L.K., Mullick F., Ishak K.G., Seeff L.B. and Zimmerman H.J. (1989) Amiodarone hepatotoxicity: prevalence and clinicopathologic correlations among 104 patients. Hepatology, 9(5):679-85. Lowry O.H., Rosebrough H.J., Farr A.L. and Randall R.J. (1951) Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 193: 265-75. Merz T. and Fuller S.H. (2007) Elevated serum transaminase levels resulting from the concomitant use of rosuvastatin and amiodarone. American Journal of Health System Pharmacology, 64: 1818-21. Mylroie A.A., Collins H., Umbles C. and Kyle J. (1986) Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity and other parameters of copper status in rats ingesting lead acetate. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 82: 512-20. Ng X.R.,Wee L.Y. and Chadachan V. (2012) Acute amiodarone syndrome after a single intravenous amiodarone bolus. Singapore Medical Journal, 53: e225-e227. Ouazzani-Chahdi A., Elimadi A., Chabli A., Spénard J., Colin P. and Haddad P.S. (2007) Combining ursodeoxycholic acid or its NO-releasing derivative NCX- 1000 with lipophilic antioxidants better protects mouse hepatocytes against amiodarone toxicity. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 85(2):233-42. Ozer J., Ratner M., Shaw M., Bailey W. and Schomaker S. (2008) The current state of serum biomarkers of hepatoxicity. Toxicology, 245: 194-205. Pandit A., Sachdeva T. and Bafna P. (2012) Drug-induced hepatotoxicity: A review. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, 2(5): 233-43. Poucell S., Ireton J., Valencia-Mayoral P., Downar E., Larratt L., Patterson J., Blendis L. and Phillips M.J. (1984) Amiodarone- associated phospholipidosis and brosis of the liver. Light, immunohistochemical, and electron microscopic studies. Gastroenterology, 86:926-36. Rabkin S.W. (2006) Effect of amiodarone on phospholipid content and composition in heart, lung, kidney and skeletal muscle: relationship to alteration of thyroid function. Pharmacology, 76(3):129-35. Racz I., Paldi E., Szalai G., Janda T., Pal M. and Lasztitiy D. (2008) S-methylmethionine reduces cell membrane damage in higher plants exposed to low-temperature stress. Journal of Plant Phsiology, 165: 1483- 1490. Rätz Bravo A.E., Drewe J., Schlienger R.G., Krähenbühl S., Pargger H. and Ummenhofer W. (2005) Hepatotoxicity during rapid intravenous loading with amiodarone: Description of three cases and review of the literature. Critical Care Medicine, 33(1):128-34. Sancar Baş et al. / IUFS Journal of Biology 2016, 75(1): 1-10 9 Reasor M.J., McCloud C.M., Beard T.L., Ebert D.C., Kacew S., Gardner M.F., Aldem K.A. and Hostetler K.Y. (1996) Comparative evaluation of amiodarone-induced phospholipids and drug accumulation in Fischer-344 and Sprague-Dawley rats. Toxicology, 106: 139-47. Reitman S. and Frankel S. (1957) A colorimetric method for the determination of serum glutamic oxalacetic and glutamic pyruvic transaminases. American Journal of Clinical Pathology, 28: 56-63. Roche-Vitec (1990) Vitamin U. Pig News and Information, 11:329-30. Rotmensch H.H., Belhassen B., Swanson B.N., Shoshani D., Spielman S.R., Greenspon A.J., Greenspan A.M., Vlasses P.H. and Horowitz L.N. (1984) Steady-state serum amiodarone concentrations: relationships with antiarrhythmic ef cacy and toxicity. Annals of Internal Medicine, 101(4):462- 9. Sakka S.G. (2007) Assessing liver function. Current Opinion in Critical Care, 13: 207-14. Salim A.S. (1993a) Sulfhydryl-containing agents in the treatment of gastric bleeding induced by nonsteroidal anti- in ammatory drugs. Canadian Journal of Surgery, 36: 53–8. Salim A.S. (1993b) Sulphydryl-containing agents and the prevention of duodenal ulcer relapse. Pharmacology, 46: 281–88. Serviddio G., Bellanti F., Giudetti A.M., Gnoni G.V., Capitanio N., Tamborra R., Romano A.D., Quinto M., Blonda M., Vendemiale G. and Altomare E. (2011) Mitochondrial oxidative stress and respiratory chain dysfunction account for liver toxicity during amiodarone but not dronedarone administration. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 51(12):2234-42. Shayeganpour A., El-Kadi A.O. and Brocks D.R. (2006) Determination of the enzyme(s) involved in the metabolism of amiodarone in liver and intestine of the rat: the contribution of cytochrome P450 3A isoforms. Drug Metabolism and Disposition, 34(1):43-50. Singh D., Cho W.C. and Upadhyay G. (2016) Drug-induced liver toxicity and prevention by herbal antioxidants: An overview. Frontiers in Physiology. 6:363. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2015.00363. Sokmen B.B., Tunali S. and Yanardag R. (2012) Effects of vitamin U (S-methyl methionine sulphoniumchloride) on valproic acid- induced liver injury in rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 50: 3562-6. Spaniol M., Bracher R., Ha H.R., Follath F., Krähenbühl S. (2001) Toxicity of amiodarone and amiodarone analogues on isolated rat liver mitochondria. Journal of Hepatology, 35(5):628-36. Stoliarov G.V. and Mys’ko G.V. (1981) Treatment of depressive conditions with S-methylmethionine (vitamin U). Zhurnal Nevropatologii I PsikhiatriiImeni S.S. Korsakova, 81(8):1209-12. Urazaeva L.G. (1976) Anti-in ammatory effect of methylmethioninesulfonium chloride (vitamin U). Farmakologiia I Toksikologiia, 39(3):316-9. Vassallo P. and Trohman R.G. (2007). Prescribing amiodarone: an evidence- based review of clinical indications. Journal of the American Medical Association, 298(11):1312-22. Vereckei A., Blazovics A., Gyorgy I., Feher E., Toth M., Szenasi G., Zsinka A., Foldiak G., Feher J. (1993) The role of free radicals in the pathogenesis of amiodarone toxicity. Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology, 4(2):161-77. Vijayavel K., Anbuselvam C. and Ashokkumar B. (2013) Protective effect of Coleusaromaticus Benth (Lamiaceae) against napthalene-induced hepatotoxicity. Biomedical and Environmental Sciences, 26: 295-302. Vitins A.P., Kienhuis A.S., Speksnijder E.N., Roodbergen M., Luijten M. and van der Ven L.T. (2014) Mechanisms of amiodarone and valproic acid-induced liver steatosis in the mouse in vivo act as a template for other hepatotoxicity models. Archives of Toxicology, 88(8):1573-88. 10 Sancar Baş et al. / IUFS Journal of Biology 2016, 75(1): 1-10 Waldhauser K.M., Török M., Ha H.R., Thomet U., Konrad D., Brecht K., Follath F. and Krähenbühl S. (2006) Hepatocellular toxicity and pharmacological effect of amiodarone and amiodarone derivatives. The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 319 (3):1413- 23. Walter K. andSchutt C. (1974) Acid and alkaline phosphatase in serum (two-point methods). In: Bergmeyer H.U. (eds) Methods of Enzymatic Analysis, Verlag Chemie Weinheim. Academic Press Inc., New York, USA, 856. Watanabe T., Ohara S., Ichikawa T., Saigenji K. and Hotta K. (1996) Mechanisms for cytoprotection by vitamin U from ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage in rats. Digestive Diseases and Sciences. 41(1):49-54. Wendel A. (1981) Glutathione peroxidase. Methods in Enzymology, 77: 325-33. Zahno A., Brecht K., Morand R., Maseneni S. and Toeroek M., Lindinger P.W., Kraehenbuehl S. (2011) The role of CYP3A4 in amiodarone-associated toxicity on HepG2 cells. Biochemical Pharmacology, 81, 432–41.

Year 2016, Volume 75, Issue 1, 1 - 10, 15.05.2017

Abstract

References

  • Aebi H. (1984) Catalase in vitro. Methods in Enzymology, 105: 121-26. Agoston M., Orsi F., Fehér E., Hagymási K., Orosz Z., Blázovics A., Fehér J. and Vereckei A. (2003) Silymarin and vitamin E reduce amiodarone-induced lysosomal phospholipidosis in rats. Toxicology, 190(3):231-41. Berson A., De Beco V., Lettéron P., Robin M.A., Moreau C., El Kahwaji J., Verthier N., Feldmann G., Fromenty B. and Pessayre D. (1998) Steatohepatitis-inducing drugs cause mitochondrial dysfunction and lipid peroxidation in rat hepatocytes. Gastroenterology, 114(4):764-74. Borlak J., Chougule A. and Singh P.K. (2014) How useful are clinical liver function tests in in vitro human hepatotoxicity assays? Toxicology In Vitro, 28: 784-95. Brien J.F., Jimmo S., Brennan F.J., Ford S.E. and Armstrong P.W. (1987) Distribution of amiodarone and its metabolite, desethylamiodarone, in human tissues. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology. 65(3):360-4. Chang C.C., Petrelli M., Tomashefski J.F. Jr and McCullough A.J. (1999) Severe intrahepatic cholestasis caused by amiodarone toxicity after withdrawal of the drug: a case report and review of the literature. Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, 123(3):251-6. Durukan A.B., Erdem B., Durukan E., Sevim H., Karaduman T., Gurbuz H.A., Gurpinar A. and Yorgancioglu C. (2012) May toxicity of amiodarone be prevented by antioxidants? A cell-culture study. Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery, 7:61: 1-5. Fromenty B., Fisch C., Berson A., Letteron P., Larrey D. and Pessayre D. (1990a) Dual effect of amiodarone on mitochondrial respiration. Initial protonophoric uncoupling effect followed by inhibition of the respiratory chain at the levels of complex I and complex II. The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 255(3):1377-84. Fromenty B., Fisch C., Labbe G., Degott C., 8 Sancar Baş et al. / IUFS Journal of Biology 2016, 75(1): 1-10 disease mechanisms. Redox Biology, 1: 244-57. Kannan R., Sarma J.S.M., Guha M., Swaminathan N. and Venkataraman K. (1990) Role of vitamin E in amiodarone- induced phospholipidosis in rats. FASEB Journal, 4, 1127A. Kaufmann P., Török M., Hanni A., Roberts P., Gasser R. and Krahenbuhl S. (2005) Mechanisms of benzarone and benzbromarone-induced hepatic toxicity. Hepatology, 41: 925-35. Kim W.S., Yang Y.J., Min H.G., Song M.G., Lee J.S., Park K.Y., Kim J.J., Sung J.H., Choi J.S. and Cha H.J. (2010) Accelerated wound healing by S-methylmethioninesulfonium: evidence of dermal broblast activation via the ERK1/2 pathway. Pharmacology, 85(2):68-76. Kopinski J.S., Fogarty R. and McVeigh J. (2007) Effect of s-methylmethioninesulphonium chloride on oesophagogastric ulcers in pigs. Australian Veterinary Journal, 85(9):362-7. Lee N.Y., Park K.Y., Min H.J., Song K.Y., Lim Y.Y., Park J., Kim B.J. and Kim M.N. (2012) Inhibitory effect of vitamin U (S-methylmethioninesulfonium chloride) on differentiation in 3T3-L1 pre-adipocyte cell lines. Annals of Dermatology. 24(1):39-44. Lewis J.H., Ranard R.C., Caruso A., Jackson L.K., Mullick F., Ishak K.G., Seeff L.B. and Zimmerman H.J. (1989) Amiodarone hepatotoxicity: prevalence and clinicopathologic correlations among 104 patients. Hepatology, 9(5):679-85. Lowry O.H., Rosebrough H.J., Farr A.L. and Randall R.J. (1951) Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 193: 265-75. Merz T. and Fuller S.H. (2007) Elevated serum transaminase levels resulting from the concomitant use of rosuvastatin and amiodarone. American Journal of Health System Pharmacology, 64: 1818-21. Mylroie A.A., Collins H., Umbles C. and Kyle J. (1986) Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity and other parameters of copper status in rats ingesting lead acetate. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 82: 512-20. Ng X.R.,Wee L.Y. and Chadachan V. (2012) Acute amiodarone syndrome after a single intravenous amiodarone bolus. Singapore Medical Journal, 53: e225-e227. Ouazzani-Chahdi A., Elimadi A., Chabli A., Spénard J., Colin P. and Haddad P.S. (2007) Combining ursodeoxycholic acid or its NO-releasing derivative NCX- 1000 with lipophilic antioxidants better protects mouse hepatocytes against amiodarone toxicity. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 85(2):233-42. Ozer J., Ratner M., Shaw M., Bailey W. and Schomaker S. (2008) The current state of serum biomarkers of hepatoxicity. Toxicology, 245: 194-205. Pandit A., Sachdeva T. and Bafna P. (2012) Drug-induced hepatotoxicity: A review. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, 2(5): 233-43. Poucell S., Ireton J., Valencia-Mayoral P., Downar E., Larratt L., Patterson J., Blendis L. and Phillips M.J. (1984) Amiodarone- associated phospholipidosis and brosis of the liver. Light, immunohistochemical, and electron microscopic studies. Gastroenterology, 86:926-36. Rabkin S.W. (2006) Effect of amiodarone on phospholipid content and composition in heart, lung, kidney and skeletal muscle: relationship to alteration of thyroid function. Pharmacology, 76(3):129-35. Racz I., Paldi E., Szalai G., Janda T., Pal M. and Lasztitiy D. (2008) S-methylmethionine reduces cell membrane damage in higher plants exposed to low-temperature stress. Journal of Plant Phsiology, 165: 1483- 1490. Rätz Bravo A.E., Drewe J., Schlienger R.G., Krähenbühl S., Pargger H. and Ummenhofer W. (2005) Hepatotoxicity during rapid intravenous loading with amiodarone: Description of three cases and review of the literature. Critical Care Medicine, 33(1):128-34. Sancar Baş et al. / IUFS Journal of Biology 2016, 75(1): 1-10 9 Reasor M.J., McCloud C.M., Beard T.L., Ebert D.C., Kacew S., Gardner M.F., Aldem K.A. and Hostetler K.Y. (1996) Comparative evaluation of amiodarone-induced phospholipids and drug accumulation in Fischer-344 and Sprague-Dawley rats. Toxicology, 106: 139-47. Reitman S. and Frankel S. (1957) A colorimetric method for the determination of serum glutamic oxalacetic and glutamic pyruvic transaminases. American Journal of Clinical Pathology, 28: 56-63. Roche-Vitec (1990) Vitamin U. Pig News and Information, 11:329-30. Rotmensch H.H., Belhassen B., Swanson B.N., Shoshani D., Spielman S.R., Greenspon A.J., Greenspan A.M., Vlasses P.H. and Horowitz L.N. (1984) Steady-state serum amiodarone concentrations: relationships with antiarrhythmic ef cacy and toxicity. Annals of Internal Medicine, 101(4):462- 9. Sakka S.G. (2007) Assessing liver function. Current Opinion in Critical Care, 13: 207-14. Salim A.S. (1993a) Sulfhydryl-containing agents in the treatment of gastric bleeding induced by nonsteroidal anti- in ammatory drugs. Canadian Journal of Surgery, 36: 53–8. Salim A.S. (1993b) Sulphydryl-containing agents and the prevention of duodenal ulcer relapse. Pharmacology, 46: 281–88. Serviddio G., Bellanti F., Giudetti A.M., Gnoni G.V., Capitanio N., Tamborra R., Romano A.D., Quinto M., Blonda M., Vendemiale G. and Altomare E. (2011) Mitochondrial oxidative stress and respiratory chain dysfunction account for liver toxicity during amiodarone but not dronedarone administration. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 51(12):2234-42. Shayeganpour A., El-Kadi A.O. and Brocks D.R. (2006) Determination of the enzyme(s) involved in the metabolism of amiodarone in liver and intestine of the rat: the contribution of cytochrome P450 3A isoforms. Drug Metabolism and Disposition, 34(1):43-50. Singh D., Cho W.C. and Upadhyay G. (2016) Drug-induced liver toxicity and prevention by herbal antioxidants: An overview. Frontiers in Physiology. 6:363. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2015.00363. Sokmen B.B., Tunali S. and Yanardag R. (2012) Effects of vitamin U (S-methyl methionine sulphoniumchloride) on valproic acid- induced liver injury in rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 50: 3562-6. Spaniol M., Bracher R., Ha H.R., Follath F., Krähenbühl S. (2001) Toxicity of amiodarone and amiodarone analogues on isolated rat liver mitochondria. Journal of Hepatology, 35(5):628-36. Stoliarov G.V. and Mys’ko G.V. (1981) Treatment of depressive conditions with S-methylmethionine (vitamin U). Zhurnal Nevropatologii I PsikhiatriiImeni S.S. Korsakova, 81(8):1209-12. Urazaeva L.G. (1976) Anti-in ammatory effect of methylmethioninesulfonium chloride (vitamin U). Farmakologiia I Toksikologiia, 39(3):316-9. Vassallo P. and Trohman R.G. (2007). Prescribing amiodarone: an evidence- based review of clinical indications. Journal of the American Medical Association, 298(11):1312-22. Vereckei A., Blazovics A., Gyorgy I., Feher E., Toth M., Szenasi G., Zsinka A., Foldiak G., Feher J. (1993) The role of free radicals in the pathogenesis of amiodarone toxicity. Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology, 4(2):161-77. Vijayavel K., Anbuselvam C. and Ashokkumar B. (2013) Protective effect of Coleusaromaticus Benth (Lamiaceae) against napthalene-induced hepatotoxicity. Biomedical and Environmental Sciences, 26: 295-302. Vitins A.P., Kienhuis A.S., Speksnijder E.N., Roodbergen M., Luijten M. and van der Ven L.T. (2014) Mechanisms of amiodarone and valproic acid-induced liver steatosis in the mouse in vivo act as a template for other hepatotoxicity models. Archives of Toxicology, 88(8):1573-88. 10 Sancar Baş et al. / IUFS Journal of Biology 2016, 75(1): 1-10 Waldhauser K.M., Török M., Ha H.R., Thomet U., Konrad D., Brecht K., Follath F. and Krähenbühl S. (2006) Hepatocellular toxicity and pharmacological effect of amiodarone and amiodarone derivatives. The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 319 (3):1413- 23. Walter K. andSchutt C. (1974) Acid and alkaline phosphatase in serum (two-point methods). In: Bergmeyer H.U. (eds) Methods of Enzymatic Analysis, Verlag Chemie Weinheim. Academic Press Inc., New York, USA, 856. Watanabe T., Ohara S., Ichikawa T., Saigenji K. and Hotta K. (1996) Mechanisms for cytoprotection by vitamin U from ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage in rats. Digestive Diseases and Sciences. 41(1):49-54. Wendel A. (1981) Glutathione peroxidase. Methods in Enzymology, 77: 325-33. Zahno A., Brecht K., Morand R., Maseneni S. and Toeroek M., Lindinger P.W., Kraehenbuehl S. (2011) The role of CYP3A4 in amiodarone-associated toxicity on HepG2 cells. Biochemical Pharmacology, 81, 432–41.

Details

Subjects Science
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Serap Sancar Baş This is me

Publication Date May 15, 2017
Submission Date May 3, 2017
Acceptance Date
Published in Issue Year 2016, Volume 75, Issue 1

Cite

Bibtex @research article { iufsjb310331, journal = {European Journal of Biology}, issn = {2602-2575}, eissn = {2618-6144}, address = {}, publisher = {Istanbul University}, year = {2017}, volume = {75}, number = {1}, pages = {1 - 10}, title = {The influence of vitamin U supplementation on liver injury of amiodarone-administered rats}, key = {cite}, author = {Sancar Baş, Serap} }
APA Sancar Baş, S. (2017). The influence of vitamin U supplementation on liver injury of amiodarone-administered rats . European Journal of Biology , 75 (1) , 1-10 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/iufsjb/issue/29257/310331
MLA Sancar Baş, S. "The influence of vitamin U supplementation on liver injury of amiodarone-administered rats" . European Journal of Biology 75 (2017 ): 1-10 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/iufsjb/issue/29257/310331>
Chicago Sancar Baş, S. "The influence of vitamin U supplementation on liver injury of amiodarone-administered rats". European Journal of Biology 75 (2017 ): 1-10
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - The influence of vitamin U supplementation on liver injury of amiodarone-administered rats AU - SerapSancar Baş Y1 - 2017 PY - 2017 N1 - DO - T2 - European Journal of Biology JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 1 EP - 10 VL - 75 IS - 1 SN - 2602-2575-2618-6144 M3 - UR - Y2 - 2023 ER -
EndNote %0 European Journal of Biology The influence of vitamin U supplementation on liver injury of amiodarone-administered rats %A Serap Sancar Baş %T The influence of vitamin U supplementation on liver injury of amiodarone-administered rats %D 2017 %J European Journal of Biology %P 2602-2575-2618-6144 %V 75 %N 1 %R %U
ISNAD Sancar Baş, Serap . "The influence of vitamin U supplementation on liver injury of amiodarone-administered rats". European Journal of Biology 75 / 1 (May 2017): 1-10 .
AMA Sancar Baş S. The influence of vitamin U supplementation on liver injury of amiodarone-administered rats. Eur J Biol. 2017; 75(1): 1-10.
Vancouver Sancar Baş S. The influence of vitamin U supplementation on liver injury of amiodarone-administered rats. European Journal of Biology. 2017; 75(1): 1-10.
IEEE S. Sancar Baş , "The influence of vitamin U supplementation on liver injury of amiodarone-administered rats", European Journal of Biology, vol. 75, no. 1, pp. 1-10, May. 2017