Research Article
PDF EndNote BibTex RIS Cite

The Effectiveness of the Antimic® Biocide against Nosocomial Bacteria Specified by Different Standard Methods

Year 2017, Volume 76, Issue 2, 51 - 56, 27.12.2017
https://doi.org/10.5152/EurJBiol.2017.1709

Abstract

The effectiveness of Antimic® (3-(trimethoxysilyl)-propyl, cocodimethylammonium chloride) against different nosocomial pathogens was evaluated. Despite the fact that Antimic® biocide is a recommended compound for disinfecting areas, there is no published data about the antibacterial activity of this formulation against nosocomial pathogens (Acinetobacter baumanii, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium). The minimum inhibitory/minimum bactericidal effective concentrations for test bacteria were determined. The bactericidal activity of determined dosages was evaluated using the culture-based quantitative suspension test (British Standards BS EN 1276) for 1 and 5-minute contact period, under clean and dirty conditions. Antibacterial activity was also confirmed by fluorescence staining. The biocide was found to be effective at 25 and 50 mg/L concentrations at contact times of 1 and 5 minute, with ≥ 5 log reduction in all bacteria. According to fluorescent microscopic examinations similar bacteria reduction was determined as ≥ 5 log reduction. The results indicated that Antimic® compound meets the requirements of EN 1276 against the tested bacteria. Moreover, Antimic® biocide provide an advantage by not promoting the viable but non culturable state in the tested bacteria and removing the tested bacteria successfully. The results showed that the execution of different microbiological growth and/or antibacterial activity monitoring tests, simultaneously, provide information about the optimum concentration and contact time of a biocide.

References

  • 1. WHO, Prevention of Hospital-Acquired Infections: a Practical Guide, 2nd edition, document WHO/CDS/CSR/EPH/2002/12, Geneva: World Health Organization. 2002; 1-64. 2. Danasekaran GMR, Annadurai K. Prevention of healthcare-associated infections: protecting patients, saving lives. Int J Com Med Public Health 2014; 1(1): 67-8. 3. WHO, The burden of health care-associated infection worldwide, 2016 [Online] Available from: http://www.who.int/gpsc/country_work/burden_hcai/en/ 4. Meyer B, Cookson B. Does microbial resistance or adaptation to biocides create a hazard in infection prevention and control? J Hosp Infect 2010; 76(3): 200-5. 5. Khan HA, Ahmad A, Mehboob R. Nosocomial infections and their control strategies. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2015; 5(7): 509-14. 6. Horan TC, Andrus M, Dudeck MA. CDC/NHSN surveillance definition of health care-associated infection and criteria for specific types of infections in the acute care setting. Am J Infect Control 2008; 36(5): 309-32. 7. Dancer SJ. How do we assess hospital cleaning? A proposal for microbiological standards for surface hygiene in hospitals. J Hosp Infect 2004; 56(1): 10-5. 8. Carling PC, Parry MM, Rupp ME, Po JL, Dick B, Von Beheren S. Improving cleaning of the environment surrounding patients in 36 acute care hospitals. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2008; 29(11): 1035-41. 9. Oule´MK, Azinwi R, Bernier AM, Kablan T, Maupertuis AM, Mauler S, et al. Polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride-based disinfectant: a novel tool to fight meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and nosocomial infections. J Med Microbiol 2008; 57: 1523-8. 10. Maillard JY. Bacterial resistance to biocides in the healthcare environment: should it be of genuine concern? J Hosp Infect 2007; 65(S2): 60-72. 11. Taralp A, Menceloglu Y, Simsek, E, Acatay K. WO 2011132020 A1, Preparation of substantially quaternized ammonium organosilane composition and self-stabilizing aqueous solution thereof; 2011. 12. USEPA/OPP; Trimethoxysilyl Quaternary Ammonium Chloride Preliminary Workplan. Regristration Review. EPA-HQ-OPP-2013-0095. March 4, 2016; Available from: https://iaspub.epa.gov/apex/pesticides/f?p=chemicalsearch:1 13. Sanli-Yurudu NO, Kimiran-Erdem A, Cotuk A. Studies on the efficacy of chloramine t trihydrate (N-chloro-p-toluene sulfonamide) against planktonic and sessile populations of different Legionella pneumophila strains. Int J Hyg Environ Health 2007; 210(2): 147-53. 14. CLSI Methods for dilution antimicrobial susceptibility tests for bacteria that grow aerobically; approved standard-Ninth Edition. CLSI document M07-A9. Wayne, PA: Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute; 2012. 15. European Committee for standardization European standard BS EN 1276: Chemical disinfectants and antiseptics-Quantitative suspension test for evaluation of bactericidal activity of chemical disinfectants and antiseptics used in food, industrial, domestic and institutional areas. Test method and requirements (phase 2, step 1); 2009. 16. Rodriguez GG, Phipps D, Ishiguro K and Ridgway HF. Use of a fluorescent redox probe for direct visualization of actively respiring bacteria. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 1992; 58: 1801-08. 17. Sanli-Yurudu NO. Study of biofilm associated bacteria on polyvinyl chloride, stainless steel and glass surfaces in a model cooling tower system with different microbiological methods. IUFS Journal of Biology 2012; 71(1): 63-76. 18. Inweregbu K, Dave J, Pittard A. Nosocomial infections. Continuing Education in Anaesthesia Crit Care Pain 2005; 5(1): 14-7. 19. Revelas A. Healthcare–associated infections: A public health problem. Niger Med J 2012; 53(2): 59-64. 20. Yüceer S, Guler Demir S. Prevention of nosocomial infections in intensive care unit and nursing practices. Dicle Med J 2009; 36(3): 226-32. 21. Bereket W, Hemalatha K, Getenet, B, Wondwossen T, Solomon A, Zeynudin A, et al. Update on bacterial nosocomial infections. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2012; 16(8): 1039-44. 22. Kölgelier S, Kucuk A, Demir NA, Ozcimen S, Demir LS. Nosocomial Infections in Intensive Care Units: Etiology and Predisposing Factors. Kafkas J Med Sci 2012; 2(1): 1-5. 23. Dancer SJ, The role of environmental cleaning in the control of hospital-acquired infection. J Hosp Infect 2009; 73(4): 378-85. 24. Abreu AC, Tavares RR, Borges A, Mergulhão F, Simões M. Current and emergent strategies for disinfection of hospital environments. J Antimicrob Chemoter 2013; 68(12): 2718-32. 25. El-Mahmood AM, Doughari JH, Bacteriological examination of some diluted disinfectants routinely used in the Specialist Hospital Yola. Nigeria Afr J Pharm Pharmacol 2009; 3(5): 185-90. 26. Harbarth S, Tuan Soh S, Horner C, Wilcox MH. Is reduced susceptibility to disinfectants and antiseptics a risk in healthcare settings? A point/ counterpoint review. J Hosp Infext 2014; 87(4): 194-202. 27. Oliver JD. The viable but nonculturable state in bacteria. J Microbiol 2005; 43: 93-100. 28. Dogruoz-Gungor N, Sanli-Yurudu NO. Evaluation of bacterial resistance to Chloramine T and effects on rifampicin susceptibility as a consequence of biocide usage in Cooling System Biofilm, Méndez-Vilas A. (Editor) The Battle Against Microbial Pathogens: Basic Science, Technological Advances and Educational Programs” (Microbiology Book Series, number #5), Chapter 10, Formatex Research Center, Badajoz, Spain, 2015; pp. 923-929, ISBN-13 Vol. 2: 978-84-942134-7-2.

Year 2017, Volume 76, Issue 2, 51 - 56, 27.12.2017
https://doi.org/10.5152/EurJBiol.2017.1709

Abstract

References

  • 1. WHO, Prevention of Hospital-Acquired Infections: a Practical Guide, 2nd edition, document WHO/CDS/CSR/EPH/2002/12, Geneva: World Health Organization. 2002; 1-64. 2. Danasekaran GMR, Annadurai K. Prevention of healthcare-associated infections: protecting patients, saving lives. Int J Com Med Public Health 2014; 1(1): 67-8. 3. WHO, The burden of health care-associated infection worldwide, 2016 [Online] Available from: http://www.who.int/gpsc/country_work/burden_hcai/en/ 4. Meyer B, Cookson B. Does microbial resistance or adaptation to biocides create a hazard in infection prevention and control? J Hosp Infect 2010; 76(3): 200-5. 5. Khan HA, Ahmad A, Mehboob R. Nosocomial infections and their control strategies. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2015; 5(7): 509-14. 6. Horan TC, Andrus M, Dudeck MA. CDC/NHSN surveillance definition of health care-associated infection and criteria for specific types of infections in the acute care setting. Am J Infect Control 2008; 36(5): 309-32. 7. Dancer SJ. How do we assess hospital cleaning? A proposal for microbiological standards for surface hygiene in hospitals. J Hosp Infect 2004; 56(1): 10-5. 8. Carling PC, Parry MM, Rupp ME, Po JL, Dick B, Von Beheren S. Improving cleaning of the environment surrounding patients in 36 acute care hospitals. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2008; 29(11): 1035-41. 9. Oule´MK, Azinwi R, Bernier AM, Kablan T, Maupertuis AM, Mauler S, et al. Polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride-based disinfectant: a novel tool to fight meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and nosocomial infections. J Med Microbiol 2008; 57: 1523-8. 10. Maillard JY. Bacterial resistance to biocides in the healthcare environment: should it be of genuine concern? J Hosp Infect 2007; 65(S2): 60-72. 11. Taralp A, Menceloglu Y, Simsek, E, Acatay K. WO 2011132020 A1, Preparation of substantially quaternized ammonium organosilane composition and self-stabilizing aqueous solution thereof; 2011. 12. USEPA/OPP; Trimethoxysilyl Quaternary Ammonium Chloride Preliminary Workplan. Regristration Review. EPA-HQ-OPP-2013-0095. March 4, 2016; Available from: https://iaspub.epa.gov/apex/pesticides/f?p=chemicalsearch:1 13. Sanli-Yurudu NO, Kimiran-Erdem A, Cotuk A. Studies on the efficacy of chloramine t trihydrate (N-chloro-p-toluene sulfonamide) against planktonic and sessile populations of different Legionella pneumophila strains. Int J Hyg Environ Health 2007; 210(2): 147-53. 14. CLSI Methods for dilution antimicrobial susceptibility tests for bacteria that grow aerobically; approved standard-Ninth Edition. CLSI document M07-A9. Wayne, PA: Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute; 2012. 15. European Committee for standardization European standard BS EN 1276: Chemical disinfectants and antiseptics-Quantitative suspension test for evaluation of bactericidal activity of chemical disinfectants and antiseptics used in food, industrial, domestic and institutional areas. Test method and requirements (phase 2, step 1); 2009. 16. Rodriguez GG, Phipps D, Ishiguro K and Ridgway HF. Use of a fluorescent redox probe for direct visualization of actively respiring bacteria. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 1992; 58: 1801-08. 17. Sanli-Yurudu NO. Study of biofilm associated bacteria on polyvinyl chloride, stainless steel and glass surfaces in a model cooling tower system with different microbiological methods. IUFS Journal of Biology 2012; 71(1): 63-76. 18. Inweregbu K, Dave J, Pittard A. Nosocomial infections. Continuing Education in Anaesthesia Crit Care Pain 2005; 5(1): 14-7. 19. Revelas A. Healthcare–associated infections: A public health problem. Niger Med J 2012; 53(2): 59-64. 20. Yüceer S, Guler Demir S. Prevention of nosocomial infections in intensive care unit and nursing practices. Dicle Med J 2009; 36(3): 226-32. 21. Bereket W, Hemalatha K, Getenet, B, Wondwossen T, Solomon A, Zeynudin A, et al. Update on bacterial nosocomial infections. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2012; 16(8): 1039-44. 22. Kölgelier S, Kucuk A, Demir NA, Ozcimen S, Demir LS. Nosocomial Infections in Intensive Care Units: Etiology and Predisposing Factors. Kafkas J Med Sci 2012; 2(1): 1-5. 23. Dancer SJ, The role of environmental cleaning in the control of hospital-acquired infection. J Hosp Infect 2009; 73(4): 378-85. 24. Abreu AC, Tavares RR, Borges A, Mergulhão F, Simões M. Current and emergent strategies for disinfection of hospital environments. J Antimicrob Chemoter 2013; 68(12): 2718-32. 25. El-Mahmood AM, Doughari JH, Bacteriological examination of some diluted disinfectants routinely used in the Specialist Hospital Yola. Nigeria Afr J Pharm Pharmacol 2009; 3(5): 185-90. 26. Harbarth S, Tuan Soh S, Horner C, Wilcox MH. Is reduced susceptibility to disinfectants and antiseptics a risk in healthcare settings? A point/ counterpoint review. J Hosp Infext 2014; 87(4): 194-202. 27. Oliver JD. The viable but nonculturable state in bacteria. J Microbiol 2005; 43: 93-100. 28. Dogruoz-Gungor N, Sanli-Yurudu NO. Evaluation of bacterial resistance to Chloramine T and effects on rifampicin susceptibility as a consequence of biocide usage in Cooling System Biofilm, Méndez-Vilas A. (Editor) The Battle Against Microbial Pathogens: Basic Science, Technological Advances and Educational Programs” (Microbiology Book Series, number #5), Chapter 10, Formatex Research Center, Badajoz, Spain, 2015; pp. 923-929, ISBN-13 Vol. 2: 978-84-942134-7-2.

Details

Subjects Science
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

N. Ozlem SANLİ> (Primary Author)
Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, Section of Fundamental and Industrial Microbiology, Istanbul, Turkey


Yusuf MENCELOGLU This is me
Sabanci University, Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Istanbul, Turkey; Nano Technological Products Research-Development Chemical Industry, Istanbul, Turkey


Seval BAL This is me
Istanbul University, Institute of Science, Istanbul, Turkey

Publication Date December 27, 2017
Application Date December 12, 2017
Acceptance Date
Published in Issue Year 2017, Volume 76, Issue 2

Cite

Bibtex @research article { iufsjb381700, journal = {European Journal of Biology}, issn = {2602-2575}, eissn = {2618-6144}, address = {}, publisher = {Istanbul University}, year = {2017}, volume = {76}, number = {2}, pages = {51 - 56}, doi = {10.5152/EurJBiol.2017.1709}, title = {The Effectiveness of the Antimic® Biocide against Nosocomial Bacteria Specified by Different Standard Methods}, key = {cite}, author = {Sanli, N. Ozlem and Menceloglu, Yusuf and Bal, Seval} }
APA Sanli, N. O. , Menceloglu, Y. & Bal, S. (2017). The Effectiveness of the Antimic® Biocide against Nosocomial Bacteria Specified by Different Standard Methods . European Journal of Biology , 76 (2) , 51-56 . DOI: 10.5152/EurJBiol.2017.1709
MLA Sanli, N. O. , Menceloglu, Y. , Bal, S. "The Effectiveness of the Antimic® Biocide against Nosocomial Bacteria Specified by Different Standard Methods" . European Journal of Biology 76 (2017 ): 51-56 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/iufsjb/issue/34550/381700>
Chicago Sanli, N. O. , Menceloglu, Y. , Bal, S. "The Effectiveness of the Antimic® Biocide against Nosocomial Bacteria Specified by Different Standard Methods". European Journal of Biology 76 (2017 ): 51-56
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - The Effectiveness of the Antimic® Biocide against Nosocomial Bacteria Specified by Different Standard Methods AU - N. OzlemSanli, YusufMenceloglu, SevalBal Y1 - 2017 PY - 2017 N1 - doi: 10.5152/EurJBiol.2017.1709 DO - 10.5152/EurJBiol.2017.1709 T2 - European Journal of Biology JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 51 EP - 56 VL - 76 IS - 2 SN - 2602-2575-2618-6144 M3 - doi: 10.5152/EurJBiol.2017.1709 UR - https://doi.org/10.5152/EurJBiol.2017.1709 Y2 - 2022 ER -
EndNote %0 European Journal of Biology The Effectiveness of the Antimic® Biocide against Nosocomial Bacteria Specified by Different Standard Methods %A N. Ozlem Sanli , Yusuf Menceloglu , Seval Bal %T The Effectiveness of the Antimic® Biocide against Nosocomial Bacteria Specified by Different Standard Methods %D 2017 %J European Journal of Biology %P 2602-2575-2618-6144 %V 76 %N 2 %R doi: 10.5152/EurJBiol.2017.1709 %U 10.5152/EurJBiol.2017.1709
ISNAD Sanli, N. Ozlem , Menceloglu, Yusuf , Bal, Seval . "The Effectiveness of the Antimic® Biocide against Nosocomial Bacteria Specified by Different Standard Methods". European Journal of Biology 76 / 2 (December 2017): 51-56 . https://doi.org/10.5152/EurJBiol.2017.1709
AMA Sanli N. O. , Menceloglu Y. , Bal S. The Effectiveness of the Antimic® Biocide against Nosocomial Bacteria Specified by Different Standard Methods. Eur J Biol. 2017; 76(2): 51-56.
Vancouver Sanli N. O. , Menceloglu Y. , Bal S. The Effectiveness of the Antimic® Biocide against Nosocomial Bacteria Specified by Different Standard Methods. European Journal of Biology. 2017; 76(2): 51-56.
IEEE N. O. Sanli , Y. Menceloglu and S. Bal , "The Effectiveness of the Antimic® Biocide against Nosocomial Bacteria Specified by Different Standard Methods", European Journal of Biology, vol. 76, no. 2, pp. 51-56, Dec. 2017, doi:10.5152/EurJBiol.2017.1709