Research Article
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Pharmacist’s role in pharmacotherapeutic management of Alzheimer’s disease

Year 2017, Volume 47, Issue 1, 1 - 4, 10.10.2017
https://doi.org/10.5152/IstanbulJPharm.2017.001

Abstract

Alzheimer Disease (AD) characterized by the progressive cognitive and functional impairment, is the most common form of dementia affecting people worldwide. In this study, we aimed to investigate the profile of patients with AD, the perception of caregivers about the disease and the role of pharmacist in the pharmacotherapy of AD by implementing a questionnaire for the caregivers of 44 patients with AD. 70% of the evaluated patients with AD is female gender and in 52% of the cases, hypertension co-exists with AD. The combination of memantine/donepezil (34%) was found the most commonly used pharmacological treatment in the patients which was associated with various adverse effects such as headache, insomnia, fatigue, and hallucinations. An average of 70% of the caregivers benefit from the pharmacists in regard to the use of drugs (94%), information about disease and side effects (48%) and drug-drug interactions (42%). Additionally, the 77% of caregivers who benefit from pharmacists were well satisfied with this support. In conclusion, patients with AD and their caregivers need a professional assistance regarding the use of drugs and modalities how to fight with the disease.
Pharmacists play a significant role in both following the pharmacotherapy of AD patients and the education of caregivers. Thus, pharmacist’s role in the management of rational pharmacotherapy should be strengthened by providing a continued educational support.

References

  • Atri A, Shaughnessy LW, Locascio JJ, Growdon JH (2008). Longterm course and effectiveness of combination therapy in Alzheimer disease. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord 22 (3): 209-221. Cummings JL, Cole G (2002). Alzheimer disease. JAMA 287: 2335–2338. Feinberg MV, Michocki RJ (1998). Clinical and regulatory concerns in Alzheimer’s disease management: role of pharmacist. Am J Health Syst Pharm 55 (Suppl 2): 26-31. Gaugler JE, Pot AM, Zarit SH (2007). Long-term adaptation to institutionalization in dementia caregivers. Gerontologist 47 (6): 730-740. Graham WV, Bonito-Oliva A, Sakmar TP (2017). Update on Alzheimer’s Disease Theraphy and Prevention Strategies. Annu Rev Med 68: 413-430. Gurvit H, Emre M, Tinaz S, Bilgic B, Hanagasi H, Sahin H, Gurol E, Kvaloy JT, Harmanci H (2008). The prevalence of dementia in an urban Turkish population. Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen 23 (1): 67-76.Haley WE (1997). The family caregiver’s role in Alzheimer’s Disease. Neurology 48 (Suppl 6): 25-29. Mucke L (2009). Alzheimer’s Disease. Neuroscience 461: 895-897. Novais T, Moutet C, Deplhin-Combe F, Dauphinot V, Colin C, Krolak- Salmon P, Mouchhoux C, the PHARMAID study group (2017). PHARMAID study protocol: Randomized controlled trial to assess the impact of integrated pharmaceutical care at psychosocial intervention on caregiver’s burden in Alzheimer’s Disease or related diseases. Contemp Clin Trials 53: 137-142. Papastavrou E, Kolekerinou A, Papacostas S, Tsangari H, Sourtzi P (2007). Caring for a relative with dementia: Family caregiver burden. J Adv Nurs 58: 446-457. Patwardhan A, Duncan I, Murphy P, Pegus C (2012). The value of pharmacists in health care. Popul Health Manag 15(3): 157-62. Rickles NM, Skelton JB, Davis J, Hopson J (2014). Cognitive memory screening and referral program in community pharmacies in the United States. Int J Clin Pharm 36: 360-367. Schubert CC, Boustani M, Callahan CM, Perkins AJ, Carney CP, Fox C, Unverzagt F, Hui S, Hendrie HC (2006). Comorbidity profile of dementia patients in primary care: are they sicker? J Am Geriatr Soc 54 (1): 104–119. Sevilla C, Jimenez Caballero PE, Alfonso V, Gonzalez-Adalid M (2009). Current treatments of Alzheimer disease: are main caregivers satisfied with the drug treatments received by their patients? Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 28: 196–205. Skelton JB (2008). White paper on expanding the role of pharmacists in caring for individuals with Alzheimer’s disease: APhA Foundation Coordinating Council to Improve Collaboration in Supporting Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease. J Am Pharm Assoc 48 (6): 715-21. Tariot PN, Farlow MR, Grossberg GT, Graham SM, McDonald S, Gergel I (2004). Memantine treatment in patients with moderate to severe Alzheimer disease already receiving donepezil: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 291 (3): 317-324. Tett SE, Higgins GM, Armour CL (1993). Impact of pharmacist interventions on medication management in elderly: a review of literature. Ann Pharmacother 27: 80-86 [CrossRef ]Turkish Ministy of Health, Statistics, Analysis And Reporting Department Report Bulletin. World Alzheimer’s Awareness Day 21 September 2015 (2015). Issue 11. http://www.tkhk.gov.tr/Dosya lar/98f8dcd91e514090804776447e9a3d3c.pdf Verez Cotelo N, Andres Rodriguez NF, Fornos Perez JA, Andres Iglesias JC, Rios Lago M (2015). Burden and associated pathologies in family caregivers of Alzheimer’s disease in patients in Spain. Pharmacy Practice 13 (2): 521-527. Watanabe N, Yamamura K, Suzuki Y, Umegaki H, Shigeno K, Matsushita R, Sai Y, Miyamoto K, Yamada K (2012). Pharmacist-based Donepezil Outpatient Consultation service to improve medication persistence. Patient Prefer Adherence 6: 605-611. Wiens C (2003). The Challenges of Medication Management in Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease. The Canadian Alzheimer Disease Review 16-19. Yıkılkan H, Aypak C, Görpelioğlu S (2014). Depression, anxiety and quality of life in caregivers of long-term home care patients. Arc of Psychiatr Nurs 28: 193-196. Zerafa N, Scerri C (2016). Knowledge and pharmacological management of Alzheimer’s disease by managing community pharmacist: a nationwide study. Int J Clin Pharm 38: 1416-1424. Zheng WH, Bastianetto S, Mennicken F, Ma E, Kar S (2002). Amyloid beta peptide induces tau phosphorylation and loss of cholinergic neurons in rat primary septal cultures. Neuroscience 115: 201–211.

Year 2017, Volume 47, Issue 1, 1 - 4, 10.10.2017
https://doi.org/10.5152/IstanbulJPharm.2017.001

Abstract

References

  • Atri A, Shaughnessy LW, Locascio JJ, Growdon JH (2008). Longterm course and effectiveness of combination therapy in Alzheimer disease. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord 22 (3): 209-221. Cummings JL, Cole G (2002). Alzheimer disease. JAMA 287: 2335–2338. Feinberg MV, Michocki RJ (1998). Clinical and regulatory concerns in Alzheimer’s disease management: role of pharmacist. Am J Health Syst Pharm 55 (Suppl 2): 26-31. Gaugler JE, Pot AM, Zarit SH (2007). Long-term adaptation to institutionalization in dementia caregivers. Gerontologist 47 (6): 730-740. Graham WV, Bonito-Oliva A, Sakmar TP (2017). Update on Alzheimer’s Disease Theraphy and Prevention Strategies. Annu Rev Med 68: 413-430. Gurvit H, Emre M, Tinaz S, Bilgic B, Hanagasi H, Sahin H, Gurol E, Kvaloy JT, Harmanci H (2008). The prevalence of dementia in an urban Turkish population. Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen 23 (1): 67-76.Haley WE (1997). The family caregiver’s role in Alzheimer’s Disease. Neurology 48 (Suppl 6): 25-29. Mucke L (2009). Alzheimer’s Disease. Neuroscience 461: 895-897. Novais T, Moutet C, Deplhin-Combe F, Dauphinot V, Colin C, Krolak- Salmon P, Mouchhoux C, the PHARMAID study group (2017). PHARMAID study protocol: Randomized controlled trial to assess the impact of integrated pharmaceutical care at psychosocial intervention on caregiver’s burden in Alzheimer’s Disease or related diseases. Contemp Clin Trials 53: 137-142. Papastavrou E, Kolekerinou A, Papacostas S, Tsangari H, Sourtzi P (2007). Caring for a relative with dementia: Family caregiver burden. J Adv Nurs 58: 446-457. Patwardhan A, Duncan I, Murphy P, Pegus C (2012). The value of pharmacists in health care. Popul Health Manag 15(3): 157-62. Rickles NM, Skelton JB, Davis J, Hopson J (2014). Cognitive memory screening and referral program in community pharmacies in the United States. Int J Clin Pharm 36: 360-367. Schubert CC, Boustani M, Callahan CM, Perkins AJ, Carney CP, Fox C, Unverzagt F, Hui S, Hendrie HC (2006). Comorbidity profile of dementia patients in primary care: are they sicker? J Am Geriatr Soc 54 (1): 104–119. Sevilla C, Jimenez Caballero PE, Alfonso V, Gonzalez-Adalid M (2009). Current treatments of Alzheimer disease: are main caregivers satisfied with the drug treatments received by their patients? Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 28: 196–205. Skelton JB (2008). White paper on expanding the role of pharmacists in caring for individuals with Alzheimer’s disease: APhA Foundation Coordinating Council to Improve Collaboration in Supporting Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease. J Am Pharm Assoc 48 (6): 715-21. Tariot PN, Farlow MR, Grossberg GT, Graham SM, McDonald S, Gergel I (2004). Memantine treatment in patients with moderate to severe Alzheimer disease already receiving donepezil: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 291 (3): 317-324. Tett SE, Higgins GM, Armour CL (1993). Impact of pharmacist interventions on medication management in elderly: a review of literature. Ann Pharmacother 27: 80-86 [CrossRef ]Turkish Ministy of Health, Statistics, Analysis And Reporting Department Report Bulletin. World Alzheimer’s Awareness Day 21 September 2015 (2015). Issue 11. http://www.tkhk.gov.tr/Dosya lar/98f8dcd91e514090804776447e9a3d3c.pdf Verez Cotelo N, Andres Rodriguez NF, Fornos Perez JA, Andres Iglesias JC, Rios Lago M (2015). Burden and associated pathologies in family caregivers of Alzheimer’s disease in patients in Spain. Pharmacy Practice 13 (2): 521-527. Watanabe N, Yamamura K, Suzuki Y, Umegaki H, Shigeno K, Matsushita R, Sai Y, Miyamoto K, Yamada K (2012). Pharmacist-based Donepezil Outpatient Consultation service to improve medication persistence. Patient Prefer Adherence 6: 605-611. Wiens C (2003). The Challenges of Medication Management in Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease. The Canadian Alzheimer Disease Review 16-19. Yıkılkan H, Aypak C, Görpelioğlu S (2014). Depression, anxiety and quality of life in caregivers of long-term home care patients. Arc of Psychiatr Nurs 28: 193-196. Zerafa N, Scerri C (2016). Knowledge and pharmacological management of Alzheimer’s disease by managing community pharmacist: a nationwide study. Int J Clin Pharm 38: 1416-1424. Zheng WH, Bastianetto S, Mennicken F, Ma E, Kar S (2002). Amyloid beta peptide induces tau phosphorylation and loss of cholinergic neurons in rat primary septal cultures. Neuroscience 115: 201–211.

Details

Subjects Pharmacology and Pharmacy
Journal Section Original Article
Authors

Nihan Çarçak Yılmaz>
Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, İstanbul University, 34116, İstanbul, Turkey
Türkiye


Merve Altuntaş This is me
Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, İstanbul University, 34116, İstanbul, Turkey


Y. Kübra Akyel This is me
Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, İstanbul University, 34116, İstanbul, Turkey


B. Sönmez Uydeş Doğan This is me
Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, İstanbul University, 34116, İstanbul, Turkey

Publication Date October 10, 2017
Application Date October 10, 2017
Acceptance Date March 28, 2017
Published in Issue Year 2017, Volume 47, Issue 1

Cite

Bibtex @research article { iujp342635, journal = {İstanbul Journal of Pharmacy}, eissn = {2587-2087}, address = {İstanbul Üniversitesi Eczacılık Fakültesi Farmasötik Botanik AD}, publisher = {Istanbul University}, year = {2017}, volume = {47}, number = {1}, pages = {1 - 4}, doi = {10.5152/IstanbulJPharm.2017.001}, title = {Pharmacist’s role in pharmacotherapeutic management of Alzheimer’s disease}, key = {cite}, author = {Çarçak Yılmaz, Nihan and Altuntaş, Merve and Akyel, Y. Kübra and Uydeş Doğan, B. Sönmez} }
APA Çarçak Yılmaz, N. , Altuntaş, M. , Akyel, Y. K. & Uydeş Doğan, B. S. (2017). Pharmacist’s role in pharmacotherapeutic management of Alzheimer’s disease . İstanbul Journal of Pharmacy , 47 (1) , 1-4 . DOI: 10.5152/IstanbulJPharm.2017.001
MLA Çarçak Yılmaz, N. , Altuntaş, M. , Akyel, Y. K. , Uydeş Doğan, B. S. "Pharmacist’s role in pharmacotherapeutic management of Alzheimer’s disease" . İstanbul Journal of Pharmacy 47 (2017 ): 1-4 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/iujp/issue/30716/342635>
Chicago Çarçak Yılmaz, N. , Altuntaş, M. , Akyel, Y. K. , Uydeş Doğan, B. S. "Pharmacist’s role in pharmacotherapeutic management of Alzheimer’s disease". İstanbul Journal of Pharmacy 47 (2017 ): 1-4
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Pharmacist’s role in pharmacotherapeutic management of Alzheimer’s disease AU - NihanÇarçak Yılmaz, MerveAltuntaş, Y. KübraAkyel, B. SönmezUydeş Doğan Y1 - 2017 PY - 2017 N1 - doi: 10.5152/IstanbulJPharm.2017.001 DO - 10.5152/IstanbulJPharm.2017.001 T2 - İstanbul Journal of Pharmacy JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 1 EP - 4 VL - 47 IS - 1 SN - -2587-2087 M3 - doi: 10.5152/IstanbulJPharm.2017.001 UR - https://doi.org/10.5152/IstanbulJPharm.2017.001 Y2 - 2017 ER -
EndNote %0 İstanbul Journal of Pharmacy Pharmacist’s role in pharmacotherapeutic management of Alzheimer’s disease %A Nihan Çarçak Yılmaz , Merve Altuntaş , Y. Kübra Akyel , B. Sönmez Uydeş Doğan %T Pharmacist’s role in pharmacotherapeutic management of Alzheimer’s disease %D 2017 %J İstanbul Journal of Pharmacy %P -2587-2087 %V 47 %N 1 %R doi: 10.5152/IstanbulJPharm.2017.001 %U 10.5152/IstanbulJPharm.2017.001
ISNAD Çarçak Yılmaz, Nihan , Altuntaş, Merve , Akyel, Y. Kübra , Uydeş Doğan, B. Sönmez . "Pharmacist’s role in pharmacotherapeutic management of Alzheimer’s disease". İstanbul Journal of Pharmacy 47 / 1 (October 2017): 1-4 . https://doi.org/10.5152/IstanbulJPharm.2017.001
AMA Çarçak Yılmaz N. , Altuntaş M. , Akyel Y. K. , Uydeş Doğan B. S. Pharmacist’s role in pharmacotherapeutic management of Alzheimer’s disease. iujp. 2017; 47(1): 1-4.
Vancouver Çarçak Yılmaz N. , Altuntaş M. , Akyel Y. K. , Uydeş Doğan B. S. Pharmacist’s role in pharmacotherapeutic management of Alzheimer’s disease. İstanbul Journal of Pharmacy. 2017; 47(1): 1-4.
IEEE N. Çarçak Yılmaz , M. Altuntaş , Y. K. Akyel and B. S. Uydeş Doğan , "Pharmacist’s role in pharmacotherapeutic management of Alzheimer’s disease", İstanbul Journal of Pharmacy, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 1-4, Oct. 2017, doi:10.5152/IstanbulJPharm.2017.001