Research Article
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Investigation of the antimicrobial activities of solvent extracts of two endemic species from Turkey: Campanula tomentosa Lam. and Verbascum mykales Bornm.

Year 2021, Volume 51, Issue 3, 348 - 356, 29.12.2021

Abstract

Background and Aims: Campanula tomentosa Lam. and Verbascum mykales Bornm. are endemic species in Turkey. Extracts of these plants contain important natural compounds such as flavonoids, saponins and tannins. This study investigates the antimicrobial effects of leaf extracts of C. tomentosa and V. mykales against some bacteria and yeasts. Materials and Methods: Leaves of plant samples were air-dried and ground into powder. Five solvents (ethyl acetate, methanol, acetone, chloroform, boiled water) were used for extraction. Experiments were conducted using these crude extracts on seventeen bacteria, three yeasts and three microfungi. The agar well diffusion method was used for the antimicrobial activities of the extracts. In addition, minimum inhibitory concentrations, minimum bacteriocidal concentration, minimal fungicidal concentrations were carried out. Results: The ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of C. tomentosa and V. mykales were found to be highly effective against the tested microorganisms. According to the MIC values, the ethyl acetate extracts of C. tomentosa and V. mykales had a strong effect (4-8 μg/mL) against Escherichia coli ATCC 35218, Micrococcus luteus ATCC 9341, Streptococcus pneumonia ATCC 27336, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 35032, Mycobacterium smegmatis ATCC 607, Proteus vulgaris ATCC 33420, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778, and Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633. The ethyl acetate extract of C. tomentosa had a moderate effect (64 μg/mL) against Candida albicans ATCC 10231 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 9763, and the ethyl acetate extract of V. mykales had a moderate effect (64 μg/mL) against Aspergillus flavus ATCC 9807 and Aspergillus niger ATCC 16404. However, the boiled water extract of C. tomentosa and V. mykales had no effect on the tested microorganisms. Conclusion: C. tomentosa and V. mykales used in the study are endemic plants and their antimicrobial activities are being investigated for the first time. The ethyl acetate extract of both plants was found to be most effective against the Gram (+) and Gram (-) bacteria. However, all extracts of both plants were found to have fewer antimicrobial effects against used yeasts and microfungi. This study demonstrates that plant extracts are more effective against prokaryotic microorganisms than eukaryotes.

References

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  • • Ismaiel, A. A., & Tharwat, N. A. (2014). Antifungal activity of silverion on ultra structure and production of aflatoxin B1 and patulin by two mycotoxigenic strains, Aspergillus flavus OC1 and Penicillium vulpinum CM1. Journal de Mycologie Médicale, 24,193-204.
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  • • Kahraman, Ç., Ekizoğlu, M., Kart, D., Akdemir, Z. Ş., & Tatlı, I. I. (2011). Antimicrobial activity of some Verbascum species growing in Turkey. FABAD Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 36, 11-15.
  • • Kahraman, Ç., Tatlı, İ. İ., Kart, D., Ekizoğlu, M., & Akdemir, Z. Ş. (2018). Structure elucidation and antimicrobial activities of secondary metabolites from the flowery parts of Verbascum mucronatum Lam. Turkish Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 15(3), 231-237.
  • • Karalija, E., Parić, A., Dahija, S., Bešta-Gajević, R., & Zeljković, S. Ć. (2018). Phenolic compounds and bioactive properties of Verbascum glabratum subsp. Bosnense (K. Malý) Murb., an endemic plant species. Natural Product Research, 32, 1-5.
  • • Keskin, C. (2018). Medicinal plants and their traditional uses. Journal of Advances in Plant Biology, 1(2), 1-12.
  • • Khafagi, I. K. (2001). Screening in vitro cultures of some Sinai medicinal plants for their antibiotic activity. Journal Microbiology, 34: 613-627.
  • • Küçük, S., Özdemir, F., İşcan, G., & İncesu, Z. (2016). Determination of cytotoxic and anticandidal activities of three Verbascum L. species fromTurkey: V. cheiranthifolium Boiss. var. asperulum (Boiss.) Murb. Monorg. V. pycnostachyum Boiss. & Heldr and V. orgyale Boiss. & Heldr. Turkish Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 13(3), 318-322.
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  • • Nofouzi, K. (2015). Study on the antioxidant activity and in vitro antifungal activity of Verbascum speciosum methanolic extract. Journal of Mycology Research, 2(2), 97-103.
  • • Noori, M., Malayeri, B., Moosaei, M., Pakzad, R., & Piriye, M.H. (2012). Effects of heavy metals on the antibacterial properties of Verbascum speciosum Schard. Revista Científica UDO Agrícola, 12(2), 463-471.
  • • Okoye, E. L., Uba, B. O., Dike, U. C., & Eziefule, C. J. (2020). Growth rate and antifungal activities of acetone extracts of Ocimum gratissimum (ScentLeaf ) and Alliumsativum (Garlic) on cassava and banana peels formulated media. Journal of Advances in Microbiology, 20(4), 19-29.
  • • Oyeka, E. E., Asegbeloyin, J. N., Babahan, I., Eboma, B., Okpareke, O., Lane, J., Ibezim, A, Bıyık, H.H, Törün, B, & Izuogu, D. C. (2018). Synthesis, crystal structure, computation analysis and biological properties of 1-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-3-[2-(2-{2-[3-(4-chlorobenzoyl)- thioureido]-ethoxy} ethoxy) ethyl]-thiourea and its Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes. Journal of Molecular Structure, 1168, 153-164.
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  • • Prakash, V., Rana, S., & Sagar, A. (2016). Studies on antibacterial activity of Verbascum thapsus. Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies, 4(3), 101-103.
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Year 2021, Volume 51, Issue 3, 348 - 356, 29.12.2021

Abstract

References

  • • Abdallah, L., & Omar, G. (2019). Antibacterial effect of some wild medicinal plants in Paletsine against multi drug resistant Escherichia coli clinical isolate. Brazilian Journal of Biological Sciences, 6(12), 103-113.
  • • Alhage, J., Elbitar, H., Taha, S., & Benvegnu, T. (2018). Invitro assessment of antioxidant, antimicrobial, cytotoxic, antiinflammatory and antidiabetic activities of Campanula retrorsa crude extracts. Pharmacognosy Research, 10, 39-403.
  • • Amirnia, R., Khoshnoud, H., Alahyary, P., Ghiyasi, M., Tajbakhsh, M., & Valizadegan, O. (2011). Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 20(3a), 690-693.
  • • Baytop, T. (1999). Türkiye’de bitkiler ile tedavi, geçmişte ve bugün. Nobel Tıp Kitabevleri, II. Baskı, (pp. 480), İstanbul, Türkiye.
  • • Balouiri, M., Sadiki, M., & Ibnsouda, S. K. (2016). Methods for in vitro evaluating antimicrobial activity: A review. Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis, 6(2), 71-79.
  • • Benli, M., Bingol, U., Geven, F., Guney, K., & Yigit, N. (2008). An investigation on the antimicrobial activity of some endemic plant species from Turkey. African Journal of Biotechnology, 7(1), 1-5.
  • • Bıyık, H. H., Onur, M., Törün, B., & Çoban, E. P. (2018). Antibacterial and anticandidal effects of the leaf extracts of Persea americana Mill. Annals of Phytomedicine, 7(2), 88-93.
  • • Borchardt, J. R., Wyse, D. L., Sheaffer, C. C., Kauppi, K. L., Fulcher, R. G., Ehlke, N. J., Biesboer, D. D., & Bey, R. F. (2008). Antimicrobial activity of native and naturalized plants of Minnesota and Wisconsin. Journal of Medicinal Plant Research, 2(5), 98-110.
  • • Buruk, K., Sokmen, A., Aydin, F., & Erturk, M. (2006). Antimicrobial activity of some endemic plants growing in the Eastern Black Sea Region, Turkey. Fitoterapia, 77: 388-391.
  • • Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. (2004). Method for antifungal disk diffusion susceptibility testing of yeasts, approved guideline. CLSI document M44-A. Wayne, PA, USA.
  • • Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. (2009). M07–A8: Methods for dilution antimicrobial susceptibility testing for bacteria that grow aerobically: Approved Standard (8thed). (pp. 1-65). CLSI, Wayne, PA, USA.
  • • Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. (2013). Performance standards for antimicrobial disk and dilution susceptibility tests for bacteria isolated from animals; approved standard. CLSI document VET01–A4(4thed). CLSI, Wayne, PA, USA.
  • • Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. (2015). M02-A12: Performance standards for antimicrobial disk susceptibility tests: Approved standard. (12thed). (pp. 1-73). CLSI, Wayne, PA, USA.
  • • Collins, C. H., Lyne, P. M., Grange, J. M., & Falkinham, J. O. (2004). Collins and Lyne’s microbiological methods (8thed). (pp. 456). London: Butterworths.
  • • Coşkun, M. I., Gemici, M., &Yildirim, H. (2017). A study on endogenous hormone levels and phenolic profiles in embryogenic and non- embryogenic calli of endemic plant Campanula tomentosa L. Asian Journal of Biology, 4(2), 1-7.
  • • Çoban, E. P., Bıyık, H. H., Törün, B., & Yaman, F. (2017). Evaluation the antimicrobial effects of Pistacia terebinthus L. and Papaver rhoeas L. extracts against some pathogen microorganisms. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, 51(3), 377-380.
  • • Çoban, E. P., Erçin, Z., Törün, B., & Bıyık, H. H. (2018). Antimicrobial effects of the stem extracts of Apium graveolens Mill. Annals of Phytomedicine, 7(2), 70-75.
  • • Dar, R. A., Shahnawaz, M., & Qazi, P. H. (2016). General overview of medicinal plants: A review. Journal of Phytopharmacy, 6(6), 349-351. • Dulger, B., Kirmizi, S., Arslan, H., Güleryüz, G. (2002). Antimicrobial activity of three endemic Verbascum species. Pharmaceutical Biology, 40(8): 587-589.
  • • Dulger, B., & Dulger, G. (2018). Antibacterial activity of Verbascum antinori. Konuralp Tıp Dergisi, 10(3), 395-398.
  • • Dülger, B., & Hacıoğlu, N. (2008). Antimicrobial activity of some endemic Verbascum and Scrophularia species from Turkey. Asian Journal of Chemistry, 20(5), 3779-3785. • EUCAST (2019). Disk diffusion method for antimicrobial susceptibility testing (Version 7.0).
  • • Fares, S. S. F. (2018). Antimicrobial activities and phytochemical analysis of Verbascum fruticulosum (Master DegreeThesis). An- Najah National University Faculty of Graduate Studies.
  • • Faydaoğlu, E., & Sürücüoğlu, M. S. (2011). Geçmişten günümüze tıbbi ve aromatik bitkilerin kullanılması ve ekonomik önemi. Kastamonu Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi, 11(1), 52-67.
  • • Faydaoğlu, E., & Sürücüoğlu, M. S. (2013). Tıbbi ve aromatik bitkilerin antimikrobiyal, antioksidan aktiviteleri ve kullanım olanakları. Erzincan Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi, 6(2), 233-265.
  • • Göse, M. & Hacıoğlu Doğru (2021). Bioactive compounds, antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of two Verbascum species. KSU Journal of Agriculture and Nature, 24(3): 479-487.
  • • Guarino, C. (2002). Antimicrobial activity of Verbascum macrurum Ten. (Scrophulariaceae). Bollettino Chimico Farmaceutico, 141(3), 238-242.
  • • Herkul, M.M, & Köroğlu, A. (2019). A review on the ethnobotanical use, chemical content and biological activity of the Campanulaceae family. Türk Farmakope Dergisi, 4(3), 70–84.
  • • Ismaiel, A. A., & Tharwat, N. A. (2014). Antifungal activity of silverion on ultra structure and production of aflatoxin B1 and patulin by two mycotoxigenic strains, Aspergillus flavus OC1 and Penicillium vulpinum CM1. Journal de Mycologie Médicale, 24,193-204.
  • • Jorgensen, J. H., & Ferraro, M. J. (2009). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing: a review of general principles and contemporary practices. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 49, 1749-1755.
  • • Kahraman, Ç., Ekizoğlu, M., Kart, D., Akdemir, Z. Ş., & Tatlı, I. I. (2011). Antimicrobial activity of some Verbascum species growing in Turkey. FABAD Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 36, 11-15.
  • • Kahraman, Ç., Tatlı, İ. İ., Kart, D., Ekizoğlu, M., & Akdemir, Z. Ş. (2018). Structure elucidation and antimicrobial activities of secondary metabolites from the flowery parts of Verbascum mucronatum Lam. Turkish Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 15(3), 231-237.
  • • Karalija, E., Parić, A., Dahija, S., Bešta-Gajević, R., & Zeljković, S. Ć. (2018). Phenolic compounds and bioactive properties of Verbascum glabratum subsp. Bosnense (K. Malý) Murb., an endemic plant species. Natural Product Research, 32, 1-5.
  • • Keskin, C. (2018). Medicinal plants and their traditional uses. Journal of Advances in Plant Biology, 1(2), 1-12.
  • • Khafagi, I. K. (2001). Screening in vitro cultures of some Sinai medicinal plants for their antibiotic activity. Journal Microbiology, 34: 613-627.
  • • Küçük, S., Özdemir, F., İşcan, G., & İncesu, Z. (2016). Determination of cytotoxic and anticandidal activities of three Verbascum L. species fromTurkey: V. cheiranthifolium Boiss. var. asperulum (Boiss.) Murb. Monorg. V. pycnostachyum Boiss. & Heldr and V. orgyale Boiss. & Heldr. Turkish Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 13(3), 318-322.
  • • Moosavi, S. R., Ardekani, M. R. S., Vazirian, M., & Lamardi, S. N. S. (2018). Campanula latifola, giant bellflower; ethno-botany, phytochemical and antioxidant evaluation. Traditional and Integrative Medicine, 3(3), 113-119.
  • • Muhammad, A., Shandana, A., Khushboo, S., & Rahila, A. (2019). Review on antibacterial activity of Himalayan medicinal plants traditionally used to treat pneumonia and tuberculosis. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 71, 1599-1625.
  • • Nofouzi, K., Mahmudi, R., Tahapour, K., Amini, E., & Yousefi, K. (2016). Verbascum speciosum methanolic extract: Phytochemical components and antibacterial properties. Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants, 19(2), 499-505.
  • • Nofouzi, K. (2015). Study on the antioxidant activity and in vitro antifungal activity of Verbascum speciosum methanolic extract. Journal of Mycology Research, 2(2), 97-103.
  • • Noori, M., Malayeri, B., Moosaei, M., Pakzad, R., & Piriye, M.H. (2012). Effects of heavy metals on the antibacterial properties of Verbascum speciosum Schard. Revista Científica UDO Agrícola, 12(2), 463-471.
  • • Okoye, E. L., Uba, B. O., Dike, U. C., & Eziefule, C. J. (2020). Growth rate and antifungal activities of acetone extracts of Ocimum gratissimum (ScentLeaf ) and Alliumsativum (Garlic) on cassava and banana peels formulated media. Journal of Advances in Microbiology, 20(4), 19-29.
  • • Oyeka, E. E., Asegbeloyin, J. N., Babahan, I., Eboma, B., Okpareke, O., Lane, J., Ibezim, A, Bıyık, H.H, Törün, B, & Izuogu, D. C. (2018). Synthesis, crystal structure, computation analysis and biological properties of 1-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-3-[2-(2-{2-[3-(4-chlorobenzoyl)- thioureido]-ethoxy} ethoxy) ethyl]-thiourea and its Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes. Journal of Molecular Structure, 1168, 153-164.
  • • Ozhatay, N., Kultur, Ş., & Aslan, Ş. (2009). Check-list of additional taxa to the supplement Flora of Turkey IV. Turkish Journal of Botany, 33, 191-226.
  • • Politeo, O., Skocibusic, M., Burcu, F., Maravic, A., Carev, I., Ruscic, M., & Milos, M. (2013). Campanula portenschlagiana Roem.et Schult.: Chemical and antimicrobial activities. Chemistry and Biodiversity, 10: 1072-1080.
  • • Prakash, V., Rana, S., & Sagar, A. (2016). Studies on antibacterial activity of Verbascum thapsus. Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies, 4(3), 101-103.
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Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Pharmacology and Pharmacy
Journal Section Original Article
Authors

Esin POYRAZOĞLU> (Primary Author)
AYDIN ADNAN MENDERES ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-3921-5362
Türkiye


Esra BARIŞIK This is me
Adnan Menderes Üniversitesi Hastanesi
0000-0002-2883-8986
Türkiye

Supporting Institution This study was funded by Scientific Research Projects Coordination Unit of Aydin Adnan Menderes University
Project Number FEF–17039
Thanks This work was carried out by Aydin Adnan Menderes University Biology Department, Microbiology Laboratory. We thank Assoc. Prof. Dr. Özkan EREN for tlıe support provided to us in the collection and identification of plants.
Publication Date December 29, 2021
Application Date November 4, 2020
Acceptance Date September 16, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 51, Issue 3

Cite

Bibtex @research article { iujp821070, journal = {İstanbul Journal of Pharmacy}, eissn = {2587-2087}, address = {İstanbul Üniversitesi Eczacılık Fakültesi Farmasötik Botanik AD}, publisher = {Istanbul University}, year = {2021}, volume = {51}, number = {3}, pages = {348 - 356}, title = {Investigation of the antimicrobial activities of solvent extracts of two endemic species from Turkey: Campanula tomentosa Lam. and Verbascum mykales Bornm.}, key = {cite}, author = {Poyrazoğlu, Esin and Barışık, Esra} }
APA Poyrazoğlu, E. & Barışık, E. (2021). Investigation of the antimicrobial activities of solvent extracts of two endemic species from Turkey: Campanula tomentosa Lam. and Verbascum mykales Bornm. . İstanbul Journal of Pharmacy , 51 (3) , 348-356 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/iujp/issue/65698/821070
MLA Poyrazoğlu, E. , Barışık, E. "Investigation of the antimicrobial activities of solvent extracts of two endemic species from Turkey: Campanula tomentosa Lam. and Verbascum mykales Bornm." . İstanbul Journal of Pharmacy 51 (2021 ): 348-356 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/iujp/issue/65698/821070>
Chicago Poyrazoğlu, E. , Barışık, E. "Investigation of the antimicrobial activities of solvent extracts of two endemic species from Turkey: Campanula tomentosa Lam. and Verbascum mykales Bornm.". İstanbul Journal of Pharmacy 51 (2021 ): 348-356
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Investigation of the antimicrobial activities of solvent extracts of two endemic species from Turkey: Campanula tomentosa Lam. and Verbascum mykales Bornm. AU - EsinPoyrazoğlu, EsraBarışık Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - DO - T2 - İstanbul Journal of Pharmacy JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 348 EP - 356 VL - 51 IS - 3 SN - -2587-2087 M3 - UR - Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 İstanbul Journal of Pharmacy Investigation of the antimicrobial activities of solvent extracts of two endemic species from Turkey: Campanula tomentosa Lam. and Verbascum mykales Bornm. %A Esin Poyrazoğlu , Esra Barışık %T Investigation of the antimicrobial activities of solvent extracts of two endemic species from Turkey: Campanula tomentosa Lam. and Verbascum mykales Bornm. %D 2021 %J İstanbul Journal of Pharmacy %P -2587-2087 %V 51 %N 3 %R %U
ISNAD Poyrazoğlu, Esin , Barışık, Esra . "Investigation of the antimicrobial activities of solvent extracts of two endemic species from Turkey: Campanula tomentosa Lam. and Verbascum mykales Bornm.". İstanbul Journal of Pharmacy 51 / 3 (December 2021): 348-356 .
AMA Poyrazoğlu E. , Barışık E. Investigation of the antimicrobial activities of solvent extracts of two endemic species from Turkey: Campanula tomentosa Lam. and Verbascum mykales Bornm.. iujp. 2021; 51(3): 348-356.
Vancouver Poyrazoğlu E. , Barışık E. Investigation of the antimicrobial activities of solvent extracts of two endemic species from Turkey: Campanula tomentosa Lam. and Verbascum mykales Bornm.. İstanbul Journal of Pharmacy. 2021; 51(3): 348-356.
IEEE E. Poyrazoğlu and E. Barışık , "Investigation of the antimicrobial activities of solvent extracts of two endemic species from Turkey: Campanula tomentosa Lam. and Verbascum mykales Bornm.", İstanbul Journal of Pharmacy, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 348-356, Dec. 2021