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Animal-assisted interventions: Social work practice for older adults with dementia

Year 2019, Volume 2, Issue 1, 1 - 11, 31.07.2019
https://doi.org/10.5505/jaltc.2019.21939

Abstract

Many older persons experience neurocognitive impairments as they age, experiencing cognitive and behavioral symptoms which may cause serious disruptions and lead to residential placements. As there is no cure, these care facilities strive to manage symptoms and provide comfortable and supportive care. Numerous therapeutic approaches have been used to manage cognitive and behavioral disturbances in older persons with dementia with mixed success. Animal-assisted interventions (AAI) are emerging as an innovative therapeutic modality which holds benefit for minimizing distressing behaviors experienced by older persons. Human-animal contact has been shown to positively benefit the quality of life of older adults. Specific research on the use of AAI in social work practice is limited. An exhaustive review of the literature was conducted to summarize relevant research, identify the practice of AAI, and determine implications for social work practitioners who work to enhance the lives of older adults in various settings. This unique article integrates these benefits as they relate to older people with dementia and aims to provide concrete strategies for implementation of animal-assisted interventions.

Key Practitioners Message

  • Animal-assisted interventions (AAI) shows promise as a therapeutic modality for social workers
  • Social workers can utilize AAI to assist in addressing cognitive, social and behavioral issues with older adults
  • AAI can be beneficial to social workers at the micro and meso levels
  • Integration of AAI into existing treatment plans may decrease agitation, depression, and isolation among older adults with dementia

References

  • Almeida, O. P., Hicker, L, & Rees, M. (2014). Depression, dementia and cognition in older people. Maturitas, 79(2), 133-135.
  • Alzheimer’s Association (2017). 2016 Alzheimer’s disease facts and figures. Retrieved from https://www.alz.org/facts/
  • APA (American Psychiatric Association) (2013). Desk Reference to the Diagnostic Criteria from DSM-5. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association.
  • APPA (American Pet Products Association, Inc) (2017). 2015-2016 APPA National Pet Owners Survey Statistics: Pet Ownership and Annual Expenses. Retrieved from https://www.americanpetproducts.org
  • ASPE (The Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation) (2015). NationalAlzheimer's project act (NAPA): National plans to address Alzheimer's disease. Retrieved from: https://aspe.hhs.gov/national-plans-address-alzheimers-disease.
  • Beheshtifar, M., & Omidvar, A. R. (2013). Causes to create job burnout in organizations. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 3(6), 107-113.
  • Bernabei, V., De Ronchi, D., La Ferla, T., Moretti, F., Tonelli, L., Ferrari, B., Forlani, M., & Atti, A. R. (2008). Animal-assisted interventions for elderly patients affected by dementia or psychiatric disorders: A review. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 47(6), 762-773. 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2012.12.014
  • Berry, A., Borgi, M., Terranova, L., Chiarotti, F., Alleva, E., & Cirulli, F. (2012). Developing effective animal-assisted intervention programs involving visiting dogs for institutionalized geriatric patients: A pilot study. Psychogeriatrics, 12(3), 143-150. 10.1111/j.1479-8301.2011.00393.x
  • Blank, B. T. (2015). Animal-assisted therapy, veterinary social work, and social work with people and pets in crisis. The New Social Worker. Retrieved from http://www.socialworker.com/feature-articles/practice/animal-assisted-therapy-veterinary-social work
  • Buettner, L. L., Fitzsimmons, S. & Barba, B. (2011). Animal-assisted therapy for clients with dementia: Nurses’ role. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 37, 5, 10 – 14. 10.3928/00989134-20110329-05
  • Bunn, F., Burn, A., Goodman, C., Rait, G., Norton, S., Robinson, L., & Brayne, C. (2014). Comorbidity and dementia: A scoping review of the literature. BMC Medicine, 12(1), 1-28. 10.1186/s12916-014-0192-4
  • Calvo, P., Fortuny, J. R., Guzman, S., Macias, C., Bowen, J., Garcia, M. L., Orejas, O…Fatjo, J. (2016). Animal-Assisted Therapy (AAT) program as a useful adjunct to conventional psychosocial rehabilitation for patients with schizophrenia: Results of a small-scale randomized controlled trial. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 631-645. 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00631
  • Chandler, C. K. (2005). Animal-assisted therapy in counseling. NY: Routledge.
  • Cherniack, E. P. & Cherniack, A. R. (2014). The benefit of pets and animal-assisted therapy to the health of older individuals. Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research, 1-9. 10.1155/2014/623203
  • Chu, C., Liu, C., Sun, C., & Lin, J. (2009). The effects of animal-assisted activity on inpatients with schizophrenia. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing, 47(12), 42-48. 10.3928/02793695-20091103-96
  • Cohen-Mansfield, J., & Golander, H. (2012). Analysis of caregiver perceptions of “hallucinations” in people with dementia in institutional settings. American Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease and Other Dementias, 27(4), 243-249. 10.1177/1533317512446475
  • Fine, A. H. (2015). Handbook on animal-assisted therapy: Foundations and guidelines for animal-assisted interventions, 4th edition. U.S.: Academic Press.
  • Grover, S. (2010). 101 Creative Ideas for Animal-Assisted Therapy: Interventions for AAT Teams and Working Professionals. U.S.: Motivational Press.
  • HOPE AACR (Animal-Assisted Crisis Response) (2019). Comfort in times of crises: Frequently asked questions. Retrieved from http://hopeaacr.org/frequently-asked-questions/
  • Jourdain, G., & Chenevert, D. (2010). Job demands-resources, burnout and intention to leave the nursing profession: A questionnaire survey. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 47(6), 709-722. 10.1016/j./ijnurstu.2009.11.007
  • Katsinas, R. P. (2000). The use and implications of a canine companion in a therapeutic day program for nursing home residents with dementia. Activities, Adoption and Aging, 25, 1, 30. 10.1300/J016v25n01_02
  • Kawamura, N., Niiyama, M., & Niiyama, H. (2009). Animal-assisted activity: Experiences of institutionalized Japanese older adults. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing, 47(1), 41-47. 10.3928/02793695-20090101-08
  • Kay, S. R., Opler, L. A., Fiszbein, A., & Ramirez, P. (2000). PANSS: Positive & Negative Syndrome Scale. NY: Multi-health systems, Inc.
  • Kyomen, H. H., & Whitfield, T. H. (2008, July). Agitation in older adults: Understanding its causes and treatment. Psychiatric Times, 25(8), 52.
  • Laun, L. (2003). Benefits of pet therapy in dementia. Journal for the Home Care and Hospice Professional, 21(1), 49 – 52.
  • LeRoux, M. C., & Kemp, R. (2009). Effect of a companion dog on depression and anxiety levels of elderly residents in a long-term care facility. Psychogeriatrics, 9(1), 23-26. 10.1111/j.1479-8301.2009.00268.x
  • Majić, T., Gutzmann, H., Heinz, A., Lang, U. E., & Rapp, M. A. (2013). Animal-assisted therapy and agitation and depression in nursing home residents with dementia: A matched case-control trial. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 21, 11, 1052-1059. 10.1016/j.jagp.2013.03.004
  • Marx, M. S., Cohen-Mansfield, J., Regier, N. G., Dakheel – ali, J., Srihari, A., & Thein, K. (2010). The impact of different dog-related stimuli on engagement of persons with dementia. American Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease & other Dementias, 25,1, 45. 10.1177/1533317508326976
  • McCabe, B. W., Baun, M. M., Speich, D., & Agrawal, S. (2002). Resident dog in the Alzheimer’s special care unit. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 24(6), 684-696. 10.1177/019394502320555421
  • Menna, L. F., Santaniello, A., Gerardi, F., DiMaggio, A., & Milan, G. (2016). Evaluation of the efficacy of animal-assisted therapy based on the reality orientation therapy protocol in Alzheimer’s disease patients: A pilot study. Psychogeriatrics, 16(4), 240-246. 10.1111/psyg.12145
  • Moretti, F., DeRonchi, D., Bernabei, V., Marchetti, L., Ferrari, B., Forlani, C.,…&Atti, A. R. (2011). Pet therapy in elderly patients with mental illness. Psychogeriatrics, 11(2), 125-129. 10.1111/j.1479-8301.2010.00329.x
  • Mossello, E., Ridolfi, A. & Mello, A. M. (2011). Animal-assisted activity and emotional status of patients with Alzheimer’s disease in a day care. International Psychogeriatrics, 23, 899 – 905. 10.1017/s1041610211000226
  • Motomura, N., Yagi, T., & Ohyama, H. (2004). Animal-assisted therapy for people with dementia. Psychogeriatrics, 4, 40-42. 10.1111/j.1479-8301.2004.00062.x
  • Olsen, C., Pedersen, I., Bergland, A., Enders-Slegens, M., Patil, G., Ihleback, C., …& Ihleback, C. (2016). Effect of animal-assisted interventions on depression, agitation and quality of life in nursing home residents suffering from cognitive impairment or dementia: A cluster randomized controlled trial. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 31(12), 1312-1321. 10.1002/gps.4436
  • Perkins, J., Bartlett, H., Travers, C., & Rand, J. (2008). Dog-assisted therapy for older people with dementia: A review. Australasian Journal on Ageing, 27(4), 177-182. 10.1111/j.1741-6612.2008.00317.x
  • Pet Partners (2019). About: How our program is different. Retrieved from https://petpartners.org/about-us/our-programs-different/
  • Pet Partners (2019). Learn: Terminology. Retrieved from https://petpartners.org/learn/terminology/
  • Pope, W. S., Hunt, C. & Ellison, K. (2016). Animal-assisted therapy for elderly residents of a skilled nursing facility. Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, 6, 9, 56 – 62. 10.5430/jnep.v6n9p56
  • Richards, M., & Brayne, C. (2010). What do we mean by Alzheimer’s disease? British Medical Journal, 34(7778), 865-867. 10.1136/bmj.c4670
  • Skoog, I. (2000). Vascular aspects in Alzheimer’s disease. Journal of Neural Supplement, 59, 37-43. 10.1007/978-3-7091-6781-6_6
  • Tedeschi, P. (2015). Methods for forensic animal maltreatment evaluations. In L. Levitt, G. Patronek, & T. Grisso (Eds.) Animal Maltreatment: Forensic Mental Health Issues and Evaluations. New York: Oxford University Press, 309-331.
  • Travers, C., Perkins, J., Rand, J., Bartlett, H., & Morton, J. (2013). An evaluation of dog-assisted therapy for residents of aged care facilities with dementia. Anthrozoos, 26(2), 231-225. 10.2752/175303713X13636846944169
  • Villalta-Gil, V., Roca, M., Domenec, E., Escanilla, A., Asensio, M. R., Esteban, M. E., Ochoa, S…Schi-Can group (2009). Dog-assisted therapy in the treatment of chronic schizophrenia inpatients. Anthrozoos, 22(2), 149-159. 10.2752/175303709X434176
  • Webber, L. (2017). Prescribing in the elderly. InnovAid, 10(2), 96-104. 10.1177/1755738016683727
  • Williams, E. & Jenkins, R. (2008). Dog visitation therapy in dementia care: A literature review. Nursing Older People, 20, 8, 31 – 35. 10.7748/nop2008.10.20.8.31.c68-8
  • Winkle, M. Y. (2013). Professional Applications of Animal-Assisted Interventions: Blue Dog Book, 2nd ed. NM: Dogwood Therapy Services.
  • Woodhouse, K. (2013). Treating older people. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 69, S53-S57. 10.1007/s00228-013-1489-5

Year 2019, Volume 2, Issue 1, 1 - 11, 31.07.2019
https://doi.org/10.5505/jaltc.2019.21939

Abstract

References

  • Almeida, O. P., Hicker, L, & Rees, M. (2014). Depression, dementia and cognition in older people. Maturitas, 79(2), 133-135.
  • Alzheimer’s Association (2017). 2016 Alzheimer’s disease facts and figures. Retrieved from https://www.alz.org/facts/
  • APA (American Psychiatric Association) (2013). Desk Reference to the Diagnostic Criteria from DSM-5. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association.
  • APPA (American Pet Products Association, Inc) (2017). 2015-2016 APPA National Pet Owners Survey Statistics: Pet Ownership and Annual Expenses. Retrieved from https://www.americanpetproducts.org
  • ASPE (The Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation) (2015). NationalAlzheimer's project act (NAPA): National plans to address Alzheimer's disease. Retrieved from: https://aspe.hhs.gov/national-plans-address-alzheimers-disease.
  • Beheshtifar, M., & Omidvar, A. R. (2013). Causes to create job burnout in organizations. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 3(6), 107-113.
  • Bernabei, V., De Ronchi, D., La Ferla, T., Moretti, F., Tonelli, L., Ferrari, B., Forlani, M., & Atti, A. R. (2008). Animal-assisted interventions for elderly patients affected by dementia or psychiatric disorders: A review. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 47(6), 762-773. 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2012.12.014
  • Berry, A., Borgi, M., Terranova, L., Chiarotti, F., Alleva, E., & Cirulli, F. (2012). Developing effective animal-assisted intervention programs involving visiting dogs for institutionalized geriatric patients: A pilot study. Psychogeriatrics, 12(3), 143-150. 10.1111/j.1479-8301.2011.00393.x
  • Blank, B. T. (2015). Animal-assisted therapy, veterinary social work, and social work with people and pets in crisis. The New Social Worker. Retrieved from http://www.socialworker.com/feature-articles/practice/animal-assisted-therapy-veterinary-social work
  • Buettner, L. L., Fitzsimmons, S. & Barba, B. (2011). Animal-assisted therapy for clients with dementia: Nurses’ role. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 37, 5, 10 – 14. 10.3928/00989134-20110329-05
  • Bunn, F., Burn, A., Goodman, C., Rait, G., Norton, S., Robinson, L., & Brayne, C. (2014). Comorbidity and dementia: A scoping review of the literature. BMC Medicine, 12(1), 1-28. 10.1186/s12916-014-0192-4
  • Calvo, P., Fortuny, J. R., Guzman, S., Macias, C., Bowen, J., Garcia, M. L., Orejas, O…Fatjo, J. (2016). Animal-Assisted Therapy (AAT) program as a useful adjunct to conventional psychosocial rehabilitation for patients with schizophrenia: Results of a small-scale randomized controlled trial. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 631-645. 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00631
  • Chandler, C. K. (2005). Animal-assisted therapy in counseling. NY: Routledge.
  • Cherniack, E. P. & Cherniack, A. R. (2014). The benefit of pets and animal-assisted therapy to the health of older individuals. Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research, 1-9. 10.1155/2014/623203
  • Chu, C., Liu, C., Sun, C., & Lin, J. (2009). The effects of animal-assisted activity on inpatients with schizophrenia. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing, 47(12), 42-48. 10.3928/02793695-20091103-96
  • Cohen-Mansfield, J., & Golander, H. (2012). Analysis of caregiver perceptions of “hallucinations” in people with dementia in institutional settings. American Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease and Other Dementias, 27(4), 243-249. 10.1177/1533317512446475
  • Fine, A. H. (2015). Handbook on animal-assisted therapy: Foundations and guidelines for animal-assisted interventions, 4th edition. U.S.: Academic Press.
  • Grover, S. (2010). 101 Creative Ideas for Animal-Assisted Therapy: Interventions for AAT Teams and Working Professionals. U.S.: Motivational Press.
  • HOPE AACR (Animal-Assisted Crisis Response) (2019). Comfort in times of crises: Frequently asked questions. Retrieved from http://hopeaacr.org/frequently-asked-questions/
  • Jourdain, G., & Chenevert, D. (2010). Job demands-resources, burnout and intention to leave the nursing profession: A questionnaire survey. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 47(6), 709-722. 10.1016/j./ijnurstu.2009.11.007
  • Katsinas, R. P. (2000). The use and implications of a canine companion in a therapeutic day program for nursing home residents with dementia. Activities, Adoption and Aging, 25, 1, 30. 10.1300/J016v25n01_02
  • Kawamura, N., Niiyama, M., & Niiyama, H. (2009). Animal-assisted activity: Experiences of institutionalized Japanese older adults. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing, 47(1), 41-47. 10.3928/02793695-20090101-08
  • Kay, S. R., Opler, L. A., Fiszbein, A., & Ramirez, P. (2000). PANSS: Positive & Negative Syndrome Scale. NY: Multi-health systems, Inc.
  • Kyomen, H. H., & Whitfield, T. H. (2008, July). Agitation in older adults: Understanding its causes and treatment. Psychiatric Times, 25(8), 52.
  • Laun, L. (2003). Benefits of pet therapy in dementia. Journal for the Home Care and Hospice Professional, 21(1), 49 – 52.
  • LeRoux, M. C., & Kemp, R. (2009). Effect of a companion dog on depression and anxiety levels of elderly residents in a long-term care facility. Psychogeriatrics, 9(1), 23-26. 10.1111/j.1479-8301.2009.00268.x
  • Majić, T., Gutzmann, H., Heinz, A., Lang, U. E., & Rapp, M. A. (2013). Animal-assisted therapy and agitation and depression in nursing home residents with dementia: A matched case-control trial. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 21, 11, 1052-1059. 10.1016/j.jagp.2013.03.004
  • Marx, M. S., Cohen-Mansfield, J., Regier, N. G., Dakheel – ali, J., Srihari, A., & Thein, K. (2010). The impact of different dog-related stimuli on engagement of persons with dementia. American Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease & other Dementias, 25,1, 45. 10.1177/1533317508326976
  • McCabe, B. W., Baun, M. M., Speich, D., & Agrawal, S. (2002). Resident dog in the Alzheimer’s special care unit. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 24(6), 684-696. 10.1177/019394502320555421
  • Menna, L. F., Santaniello, A., Gerardi, F., DiMaggio, A., & Milan, G. (2016). Evaluation of the efficacy of animal-assisted therapy based on the reality orientation therapy protocol in Alzheimer’s disease patients: A pilot study. Psychogeriatrics, 16(4), 240-246. 10.1111/psyg.12145
  • Moretti, F., DeRonchi, D., Bernabei, V., Marchetti, L., Ferrari, B., Forlani, C.,…&Atti, A. R. (2011). Pet therapy in elderly patients with mental illness. Psychogeriatrics, 11(2), 125-129. 10.1111/j.1479-8301.2010.00329.x
  • Mossello, E., Ridolfi, A. & Mello, A. M. (2011). Animal-assisted activity and emotional status of patients with Alzheimer’s disease in a day care. International Psychogeriatrics, 23, 899 – 905. 10.1017/s1041610211000226
  • Motomura, N., Yagi, T., & Ohyama, H. (2004). Animal-assisted therapy for people with dementia. Psychogeriatrics, 4, 40-42. 10.1111/j.1479-8301.2004.00062.x
  • Olsen, C., Pedersen, I., Bergland, A., Enders-Slegens, M., Patil, G., Ihleback, C., …& Ihleback, C. (2016). Effect of animal-assisted interventions on depression, agitation and quality of life in nursing home residents suffering from cognitive impairment or dementia: A cluster randomized controlled trial. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 31(12), 1312-1321. 10.1002/gps.4436
  • Perkins, J., Bartlett, H., Travers, C., & Rand, J. (2008). Dog-assisted therapy for older people with dementia: A review. Australasian Journal on Ageing, 27(4), 177-182. 10.1111/j.1741-6612.2008.00317.x
  • Pet Partners (2019). About: How our program is different. Retrieved from https://petpartners.org/about-us/our-programs-different/
  • Pet Partners (2019). Learn: Terminology. Retrieved from https://petpartners.org/learn/terminology/
  • Pope, W. S., Hunt, C. & Ellison, K. (2016). Animal-assisted therapy for elderly residents of a skilled nursing facility. Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, 6, 9, 56 – 62. 10.5430/jnep.v6n9p56
  • Richards, M., & Brayne, C. (2010). What do we mean by Alzheimer’s disease? British Medical Journal, 34(7778), 865-867. 10.1136/bmj.c4670
  • Skoog, I. (2000). Vascular aspects in Alzheimer’s disease. Journal of Neural Supplement, 59, 37-43. 10.1007/978-3-7091-6781-6_6
  • Tedeschi, P. (2015). Methods for forensic animal maltreatment evaluations. In L. Levitt, G. Patronek, & T. Grisso (Eds.) Animal Maltreatment: Forensic Mental Health Issues and Evaluations. New York: Oxford University Press, 309-331.
  • Travers, C., Perkins, J., Rand, J., Bartlett, H., & Morton, J. (2013). An evaluation of dog-assisted therapy for residents of aged care facilities with dementia. Anthrozoos, 26(2), 231-225. 10.2752/175303713X13636846944169
  • Villalta-Gil, V., Roca, M., Domenec, E., Escanilla, A., Asensio, M. R., Esteban, M. E., Ochoa, S…Schi-Can group (2009). Dog-assisted therapy in the treatment of chronic schizophrenia inpatients. Anthrozoos, 22(2), 149-159. 10.2752/175303709X434176
  • Webber, L. (2017). Prescribing in the elderly. InnovAid, 10(2), 96-104. 10.1177/1755738016683727
  • Williams, E. & Jenkins, R. (2008). Dog visitation therapy in dementia care: A literature review. Nursing Older People, 20, 8, 31 – 35. 10.7748/nop2008.10.20.8.31.c68-8
  • Winkle, M. Y. (2013). Professional Applications of Animal-Assisted Interventions: Blue Dog Book, 2nd ed. NM: Dogwood Therapy Services.
  • Woodhouse, K. (2013). Treating older people. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 69, S53-S57. 10.1007/s00228-013-1489-5

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Humanities, Multidisciplinary
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Yvonne EATON-STULL This is me (Primary Author)
Slippery Rock University of Pennsylvania
0000-0003-2280-9284
United States


Adelle WILLIAMS This is me
Slippery Rock University of Pennsylvania
0000-0001-7294-7592
United States

Publication Date July 31, 2019
Published in Issue Year 2019, Volume 2, Issue 1

Cite

Bibtex @other { jaltc559931, journal = {Journal of Aging and Long-Term Care}, issn = {2619-9017}, eissn = {2618-6535}, address = {Emre SENOL-DURAK, Department of Psychology, Abant Izzet Baysal University, 14280, Centrum/Bolu, Turkey}, publisher = {Ulusal Sosyal ve Uygulamalı Gerontoloji Derneği}, year = {2019}, volume = {2}, pages = {1 - 11}, doi = {10.5505/jaltc.2019.21939}, title = {Animal-assisted interventions: Social work practice for older adults with dementia}, key = {cite}, author = {Eaton-stull, Yvonne and Wıllıams, Adelle} }
APA Eaton-stull, Y. & Wıllıams, A. (2019). Animal-assisted interventions: Social work practice for older adults with dementia . Journal of Aging and Long-Term Care , 2 (1) , 1-11 . DOI: 10.5505/jaltc.2019.21939
MLA Eaton-stull, Y. , Wıllıams, A. "Animal-assisted interventions: Social work practice for older adults with dementia" . Journal of Aging and Long-Term Care 2 (2019 ): 1-11 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/jaltc/issue/52332/559931>
Chicago Eaton-stull, Y. , Wıllıams, A. "Animal-assisted interventions: Social work practice for older adults with dementia". Journal of Aging and Long-Term Care 2 (2019 ): 1-11
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Animal-assisted interventions: Social work practice for older adults with dementia AU - Yvonne Eaton-stull , Adelle Wıllıams Y1 - 2019 PY - 2019 N1 - doi: 10.5505/jaltc.2019.21939 DO - 10.5505/jaltc.2019.21939 T2 - Journal of Aging and Long-Term Care JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 1 EP - 11 VL - 2 IS - 1 SN - 2619-9017-2618-6535 M3 - doi: 10.5505/jaltc.2019.21939 UR - https://doi.org/10.5505/jaltc.2019.21939 Y2 - 2019 ER -
EndNote %0 Journal of Aging and Long-Term Care Animal-assisted interventions: Social work practice for older adults with dementia %A Yvonne Eaton-stull , Adelle Wıllıams %T Animal-assisted interventions: Social work practice for older adults with dementia %D 2019 %J Journal of Aging and Long-Term Care %P 2619-9017-2618-6535 %V 2 %N 1 %R doi: 10.5505/jaltc.2019.21939 %U 10.5505/jaltc.2019.21939
ISNAD Eaton-stull, Yvonne , Wıllıams, Adelle . "Animal-assisted interventions: Social work practice for older adults with dementia". Journal of Aging and Long-Term Care 2 / 1 (July 2019): 1-11 . https://doi.org/10.5505/jaltc.2019.21939
AMA Eaton-stull Y. , Wıllıams A. Animal-assisted interventions: Social work practice for older adults with dementia. J AGING LONG TERM CARE. 2019; 2(1): 1-11.
Vancouver Eaton-stull Y. , Wıllıams A. Animal-assisted interventions: Social work practice for older adults with dementia. Journal of Aging and Long-Term Care. 2019; 2(1): 1-11.
IEEE Y. Eaton-stull and A. Wıllıams , "Animal-assisted interventions: Social work practice for older adults with dementia", Journal of Aging and Long-Term Care, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 1-11, Jul. 2019, doi:10.5505/jaltc.2019.21939