Research Article
PDF EndNote BibTex RIS Cite

Alleviation of the Germination Inhibitory Effect of Salt Stress in Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Seeds by Serotonin

Year 2021, Volume 2, Issue 2, 48 - 54, 31.12.2021


Salinity stress is one of the important factors affecting all growth processes, from seed germination to seedling development, plant growth, yield and quality. In this study, the effects of serotonin treatments on the germination of pepper seeds (Capsicum annum L.) under salt stress were investigated. Different doses of salt (0, 75 and 150 mM NaCl) and serotonin (S0:0 µM, S1:5 µM, S2:10 µM, S3:15 µM, S4: 20 µM) were used. The applied seeds were placed between the papers in petri dishes, watered with the prepared salt solutions and left to germinate at 25 °C. In the study, parameters related to germination percentage, germination speed, mean germination time, daily mean germination time, peak value and germination value were investigated. As a result of the research, it was determined that the germination of pepper seeds decreased in parallel with increasing salt concentrations, and this negative effect of salt stress decreased with serotonin applications. Although it changes depending on the serotonin doses, it has been observed that significant effects occur on the measured germination parameters, and the best germination was observed at S1 and S2 doses. It is thought that the application of serotonin will have positive effects on the germination of pepper seeds under salt stress, and these effects may also occur during the plant growth period.


  • Abbasi, B. H., Younas, M., Anjum, S., Ahmad, N., Ali, M., Fazal, H., & Hano, C. (2020). Serotonin in plant signalling and communication. In F. Baluška, S. Mukherjee & A. Ramakrishna (Eds.), Neurotransmitters in plant signaling and communication (pp. 75-92). Springer.
  • Aloui, H., Souguir, M., Latique, S., & Hannachi, C. (2014). Germination and growth in control and primed seeds of pepper as affected by salt stress. Cercetari Agronomice în Moldova, 47(3), 83-95.
  • Aminifard, M. H., & Bayat, H. (2020). Evaluation of seed germination and seedling growth characteristics of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) under salinity and drought treatment. Iranian Journal of Seed Research, 6(2), 137-149.
  • Czabator, F.J. (1962). Germination value: An index combining speed and completeness of pine seed germination. Forest Science, 8, 386-395.
  • Ellis, R. H., & Roberts, E.H. (1981). The quantification of ageing and survival in orthodox seeds. Seed Science and Technology, 9, 373-409.
  • Erland, L. A. E., & Saxena, P. K. (2017). Beyond a neurotransmitter: The role of serotonin in plants. Neurotransmitter, 4, e1538.
  • Erland, L. A., Turi, C. E., & Saxena, P. K. (2016). Serotonin: An ancient molecule and an important regulator of plant processes. Biotechnology Advances, 34(8), 1347-1361.
  • Gairola, K.C., Nautiyal, A.R., & Dwivedi, A.K. (2011). Effect of temperatures and germination media on seed germination of Jatropha curcas Linn. Advances in Bioresearch, 2(2), 66-71.
  • He, H., Lei, Y., Yi, Z., Raza, A., Zeng, L., Yan, L., Xiaoyu, D., Yong, C., & Xiling, Z. (2021). Study on the mechanism of exogenous serotonin improving cold tolerance of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) seedlings. Plant Growth Regulation, 94(2), 161-170.
  • Ibrahimova, U., Kumari, P., Yadav, S., Rastogi, A., Antala, M., Suleymanova, Z., & Brestic, M. (2021). Progress in understanding salt stress response in plants using biotechnological tools. Journal of Biotechnology, 329, 180-191.
  • ISTA. (1996). International Rules for Seed Testing. Seed Science and Technology, 24, ISSN: 0251-0952.
  • James, R. A., Blake, C., Byrt, C. S., & Munns, R. (2011). Major genes for Na+ exclusion, Nax1 and Nax2 (wheat HKT1; 4 and HKT1; 5), decrease Na+ accumulation in bread wheat leaves under saline and waterlogged conditions. Journal of Experimental Botany, 62(8), 2939-2947.
  • Kumar, G., Saad, K. R., Arya, M., Puthusseri, B., Mahadevappa, P., Shetty, N. P., & Giridhar, P. (2021). The Synergistic role of serotonin and melatonin during temperature stress in promoting cell division, ethylene and isoflavones biosynthesis in Glycine max. Current Plant Biology, 26, 100206.
  • Liu, Y., Ding, X., Lv, Y., Cheng, Y., Li, C., Yan, L., Tian, S., & Zou, X. (2021). Exogenous serotonin improves salt tolerance in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) seedlings. Agronomy, 11(2), 400.
  • Mukherjee, S., David, A., Yadav, S., Baluška, F., & Bhatla, S. C. (2014). Salt stress‐induced seedling growth inhibition coincides with differential distribution of serotonin and melatonin in sunflower seedling roots and cotyledons. Physiologia Plantarum, 152(4), 714-728.
  • Parida, A. K., & Das, A. B. (2005). Salt tolerance and salinity effects on plant: A review. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 60, 324–349.
  • Parihar, P., Singh, S., Singh, R., Singh, V. P., & Prasad, S. M. (2015). Effect of salinity stress on plants and its tolerance strategies: A review. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 22(6), 4056-4075.
  • Roychoudhury, A. (2021). Multifaceted roles of serotonin in plants. Young Scientist-Tomorrow’s Science Begins Today, 5(1), ISSN: 2581-4737.
  • Singh, J., Sastry, E. D., & Singh, V. (2012). Effect of salinity on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) during seed germination stage. Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants, 18(1), 45-50.
  • SPSS Inc. (2010). SPSS® 18.0 Base User’s Guide. Prentice Hall.
  • Yilmaz, K., Akinci, I. E., & Akinci, S. (2004). Effect of salt stress on growth and Na, K contents of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in germination and seedling stages. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 7(4), 606-610.


Primary Language English
Subjects Agriculture, Multidisciplinary
Journal Section Research Articles

Oguzhan ARAZ This is me

Ertan YİLDİRİM This is me (Primary Author)

Melek EKİNCİ This is me

Publication Date December 31, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 2, Issue 2


APA Araz, O. , Yildirim, E. & Ekinci, M. (2021). Alleviation of the Germination Inhibitory Effect of Salt Stress in Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Seeds by Serotonin . Journal of Agricultural Production , 2 (2) , 48-54 . Retrieved from