Tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) is the second most-consumed non-alcoholic beverage in the world after water. The health-beneficial properties of tea, known to contain more than 4000 bioactive substances, of which about one-third consist of polyphenols, are increasingly well understood. The medicinal properties of the tea plant have been proven by laboratory and clinical studies to have an anti-cancer effect, benefits for dental health, protect against Alzheimer with anti-paralytic, anti-diabetic, and antiparkinson properties, and its use against skin diseases. However, it is known that the tea plant, which requires plenty of fertilizer, can cause excessive pollution of the groundwater when chemical fertilizers are washed away with precipitation in the areas where it is grown. In order to eliminate this negative situation, studies regarding organic and microbial fertilizers that are more environmentally friendly and do not harm the soil and human health that could be substituted for chemical fertilizers as much as possible or mitigate their use and enable to grow products of adequate amount and quality should be accelerated. The aim of this review is to bring together scientific information about the characteristics and health effects of tea and organic tea cultivation.