Research Article
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The Timing of Vegetative and Generative Development of ‘Memecik’ and ‘Gemlik’ Olive Cultivars

Year 2022, Volume 3, Issue 1, 35 - 41, 28.06.2022

Abstract

The research is carried out to determine the effects of different dates and temperatures on shoot length, fruit weight, oil content %, and maturity index of Gemlik and Memecik olive cultivars. The phenological growth stages of cultivars in ‘yield’ year were also described in the study using the BBCH (Biologische Bundesanstalt, Bundessortenamt, Chemische Industrie) scale. The shoot length observations were made on trees in the ‘on’ and ‘off’ periods between March 15, 2017, and December 29, 2017, every 15 days. It was determined that the shoot elongation of the trees in the ‘off’ period was even longer compared to the trees in the ‘on’ year. While the fruit weight of Gemlik had the highest value (3.775 g) on October 30, it had the highest value (3.330 g) on November 15 in Memecik. While fruit weight increased for 153 days for Gemlik, this period was determined as 122 days for Memecik. The maximum oil contents (%) were determined in Gemlik with 29.071 % on December 30 and in Memecik with 22.180 % on December 15. The maturity index of olive fruits reached its maximum level on December 15 in both varieties. As a result, it has been revealed that there is no serious difference between the phenological stages of the trees in the period of ‘on’ and ‘off’ depending on the periodic fruit yield. Moreover, the shoot development is generally more in the trees with ‘off’in terms of the course of shoot development, and when the pomological analysis regarding the productivity status are examined, there are some serious differences.

References

  • Alcala, A. R., & Barranco, D. (1992). Prediction of flowering time in olive for the Cordoba olive collection. HortScience, 27, 1205-1207. https://doi.org/10.21273/ HORTSCI.27.11.1205
  • Al-Maaitah, M. I., Al-Absi, K. M., & Al-Rawashdeh, A. (2009). Oil quality and quantity of three olive cultivars as influenced by harvesting date in the middle and southern parts of Jordan. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 11, 266-272.
  • Anonymous. (2010). TS EN ISO 659: Yağlı tohumlar-yağ muhtevasının tayini. Turkish Standards Institute.
  • Barone, E., Gullo, G., Zappia, R., & Inglese, P. (1994). Effect of crop load on fruit ripening and olive oil (Olea europea L.) quality. JournaI of Horticultural Science, 69(1), 67-73. https://doi.org/10.1080/14620316.1994.11515250
  • Bell, A. (1991). Plant form: An illustrated guide to flowering plant morphology. Oxford University Press.
  • Bollard, E. G. (1970). The biochemistry of fruits and their products. Academic Press.
  • Boskou, D. (1996). Olive oil: Chemistry and technology. AOCS Press.
  • Canozer, O. (1991). Standart zeytin çeşitleri kataloğu. T.C. Tarım ve Köyişleri Bakanlığı.
  • Colakoglu, A. (1986), Zeytinin hasadından işleme zamanına kadar geçirdiği safhalar ve zeytinyağı kalitesine etkileri (seminer notları). Zeytincilik Araştırma Enstitüsü.
  • Colakoglu, C. A. (2009). Aydın ilinde zeytin üretimi ile iklim verileri arasındaki ilişkilerin belirlenmesi (Master’s thesis, Adnan Menderes University).
  • Costagli, G., Gucci, R., & Rapoport, H. (2003). Growth and development of fruits of olive ‘Frantoio’ under irrigated and rainfed conditions. Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology, 78, 119-124. https://doi.org/10.1080/ 14620316.2003.11511577
  • Efe, R., Soykan, A., Sönmez, S., & Curebal, İ. (2009). Sıcaklık şartlarının türkiye'de zeytinin (Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea) yetişmesine, fenolojik ve pomolojik özelliklerine etkisi. Ekoloji, 18(70), 17-26.
  • Fornaciari, M., Pieroni, L., Orlandi, F., & Romano, B. (2002). A new approach to consider the pollen variable in forecasting yield models. Economic Botany, 56(1), 66-72. https://doi.org/10.1663/0013-0001(2002)056[0066: ANATCT]2.0.CO;2
  • Galan, C., Garcia-Mozo, H., Carinanos, P., Alcazar, P., & Dominguez-Vilches, E. (2001). The role of temperature in the onset of the Olea europaea L. pollen in southwestern Spain. International Journal of Biometeorology, 45, 8-12. https://doi.org/10.1007/ s004840000081
  • Garcia-Inza, G. P., Castro, D. N., Hall, A. J., & Rousseaux, M. C. (2014). Responses to temperature of fruit dry weight, oil concentration, and oil fatty acid composition in olive (Olea europaea L. var. ‘Arauco’). European Journal of Agronomy, 54, 107-115. https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.eja.2013.12.005
  • Garrido, A., Fernandez-Gonzalez, M., Alvarez-Lopez, S., Gonzalez-Fernandez, E., & Rodriguez-Rajo, F. J. (2020). First phenological and aerobiological assessment of olive orchards at the Northern limit of the Mediterranean bioclimatic area. Aerobiologia, 36, 641-656. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10453-020-09659-3
  • Garrido, A., Fernandez-Gonzalez, M., Vazquez-Ruiz, R. A., Rodriguez-Rajo, F. J., & Aira, M. J. (2021). Reproductive biology of olive trees (arbequina cultivar) at the Northern limit of their distribution areas. Forests, 12, 204. https://doi.org/10.3390/f12020204
  • Gundogdu, M. A., & Seker, M. (2012). Changes of fatty acid compositions of olive oils obtained from some foreign olive, Zeytin Bilimi, 3(1), 19-28.
  • Johnson, R. & Lakso, A. (1986). Carbon balance model of a growing apple shoot. II: Simulated effects of light and temperature on long and short shoots. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 111, 164-169.
  • Kaya, H. B., Çetin, Ö., Kaya, H., Şahin, M., Sefer, F., Arsel, H., Özışık, S., & Tanyolaç, B. (2011). Türkiye zeytin çeşitlerinde genetik çeşitliliğin AFLP ve SSR DNA markörleri ile saptanması. Ulusal Zeytin Kongresi. Akhisar.
  • Lauri P. E., & Kelner, J. J. (2001). Shoot type demography and dry matter partitioning: A morphometric approach in apple (Malus x domestica). Canadian Journal of Botany, 79, 1270-1273. https://doi.org/10.1139/b01-113
  • Lauri, P. E. (1992). Données sur le contexte végétatif lié à la floraison chez le cerisier (Prunus avium). Canadian Journal of Botany, 70, 1848-1859. https://doi.org/ 10.1139/b92-229
  • Lauri, P. E., & Terouanne, E. (1991). Éléments pour une approche morphométrique de la croissance végétale et de la floraison: Le cas d’expèces tropicales du modèle de Leeuwenberg. Canadian Journal of Botany, 69, 2095-2112. https://doi.org/10.1139/b91-264
  • Motisi, A. Fontana, G., Zerilli, V., Drago, A., Dimino, G., & Ferrigno, G. (2008). Development of an olive phenological model in relation to air temperature. Acta Horticulturae, 803, 167-174. https://doi.org/10.17660/ ActaHortic.2008.803.21
  • Nergiz, C., & Engez, Y. (2000). Compositional variation of olive fruit during ripening. Food Chemistry, 69, 55-59. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(99)00238-1
  • Orlandi, F., Ruga, L., Romano, B., & Fornaciari, M. (2005b). Oliveflowering as an indicator of local climatic changes. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 81, 169-176. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00704-004-0120-1
  • Osborne, I., Chuine, D., Viner F., & Woodward, I. (2000). Olive phenology as a sensitive indicator of future climatic warming in the Mediterranean. Plant Cell and Environment, 23, 701-710. https://doi.org/10.1046/ j.1365-3040.2000.00584.x
  • Perez-Lopez, D., Ribas, F., Moriana, A., Rapoport, H. F., & De Juan, A. (2008). Influence of temperature on the growth and development of olive (Olea europaea L.) trees. The Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology, 83(2), 171-176, https://doi.org/10.1080/14620316.2008. 11512366
  • Rallo, P., & Rapoport, H. F. (2001). Early growth and development of the olive fruit mesocarp. Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology, 76, 408-412. https://doi.org/10.1080/14620316.2001.11511385
  • Recio, M., Cabezudo, B., Trigo, M. M., & Toro, F. J. (1997). Accumulative air temperature as a predicting parameter for daily airborne olive pollen (Olea europaea L) during the prepeak period in Malaga (Western Mediterranean area). Grana, 36, 44-48. https://doi.org/10.1080/ 00173139709362589
  • Salvador, M. D., Aranda, F., & Fregapane, G. (2001). Influence of fruit ripening on Cornicabra virgin olive oil quality: A study of four successive crop seasons. Food Chemistry, 73, 45-53. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(00)00276-4
  • Sanz-Cortes, F., Martinez-Calvo, J., Badenes, M.L., Bleiholder, H., Hack, H., Llacer, G., & Meier, U. (2002). Phenological growth stages of olive trees (Olea europaea). Annals of Applied Biology, 140(2), 151-157. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7348.2002.tb00167.x
  • Shibasaki, H. (2005). Influence of fruit ripening on chemical properties of "Mission” variety olive oil in Japan. Food Science Technology Research, 11(1), 9-12.
  • Solinas, M. (1990). Olive oil quality and its determining factors. Problems on Olive Oil Quality Congress. Florence.
  • Tombesi, A. (1994). Olive fruit growth and metabolism. Acta Horticulturae, 356, 225-32. https://doi.org/10.17660/ ActaHortic.1994.356.49
  • Trentacoste, E. R., Puertasa, C. M., & Sadrasb, V. O. (2012). Modelling the intraspecific variation in the dynamics of fruit growth, oil and water concentration in olive (Olea europea L.). European Journal of Agronomy, 38, 83-93. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eja.2012.01.001

Year 2022, Volume 3, Issue 1, 35 - 41, 28.06.2022

Abstract

References

  • Alcala, A. R., & Barranco, D. (1992). Prediction of flowering time in olive for the Cordoba olive collection. HortScience, 27, 1205-1207. https://doi.org/10.21273/ HORTSCI.27.11.1205
  • Al-Maaitah, M. I., Al-Absi, K. M., & Al-Rawashdeh, A. (2009). Oil quality and quantity of three olive cultivars as influenced by harvesting date in the middle and southern parts of Jordan. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 11, 266-272.
  • Anonymous. (2010). TS EN ISO 659: Yağlı tohumlar-yağ muhtevasının tayini. Turkish Standards Institute.
  • Barone, E., Gullo, G., Zappia, R., & Inglese, P. (1994). Effect of crop load on fruit ripening and olive oil (Olea europea L.) quality. JournaI of Horticultural Science, 69(1), 67-73. https://doi.org/10.1080/14620316.1994.11515250
  • Bell, A. (1991). Plant form: An illustrated guide to flowering plant morphology. Oxford University Press.
  • Bollard, E. G. (1970). The biochemistry of fruits and their products. Academic Press.
  • Boskou, D. (1996). Olive oil: Chemistry and technology. AOCS Press.
  • Canozer, O. (1991). Standart zeytin çeşitleri kataloğu. T.C. Tarım ve Köyişleri Bakanlığı.
  • Colakoglu, A. (1986), Zeytinin hasadından işleme zamanına kadar geçirdiği safhalar ve zeytinyağı kalitesine etkileri (seminer notları). Zeytincilik Araştırma Enstitüsü.
  • Colakoglu, C. A. (2009). Aydın ilinde zeytin üretimi ile iklim verileri arasındaki ilişkilerin belirlenmesi (Master’s thesis, Adnan Menderes University).
  • Costagli, G., Gucci, R., & Rapoport, H. (2003). Growth and development of fruits of olive ‘Frantoio’ under irrigated and rainfed conditions. Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology, 78, 119-124. https://doi.org/10.1080/ 14620316.2003.11511577
  • Efe, R., Soykan, A., Sönmez, S., & Curebal, İ. (2009). Sıcaklık şartlarının türkiye'de zeytinin (Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea) yetişmesine, fenolojik ve pomolojik özelliklerine etkisi. Ekoloji, 18(70), 17-26.
  • Fornaciari, M., Pieroni, L., Orlandi, F., & Romano, B. (2002). A new approach to consider the pollen variable in forecasting yield models. Economic Botany, 56(1), 66-72. https://doi.org/10.1663/0013-0001(2002)056[0066: ANATCT]2.0.CO;2
  • Galan, C., Garcia-Mozo, H., Carinanos, P., Alcazar, P., & Dominguez-Vilches, E. (2001). The role of temperature in the onset of the Olea europaea L. pollen in southwestern Spain. International Journal of Biometeorology, 45, 8-12. https://doi.org/10.1007/ s004840000081
  • Garcia-Inza, G. P., Castro, D. N., Hall, A. J., & Rousseaux, M. C. (2014). Responses to temperature of fruit dry weight, oil concentration, and oil fatty acid composition in olive (Olea europaea L. var. ‘Arauco’). European Journal of Agronomy, 54, 107-115. https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.eja.2013.12.005
  • Garrido, A., Fernandez-Gonzalez, M., Alvarez-Lopez, S., Gonzalez-Fernandez, E., & Rodriguez-Rajo, F. J. (2020). First phenological and aerobiological assessment of olive orchards at the Northern limit of the Mediterranean bioclimatic area. Aerobiologia, 36, 641-656. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10453-020-09659-3
  • Garrido, A., Fernandez-Gonzalez, M., Vazquez-Ruiz, R. A., Rodriguez-Rajo, F. J., & Aira, M. J. (2021). Reproductive biology of olive trees (arbequina cultivar) at the Northern limit of their distribution areas. Forests, 12, 204. https://doi.org/10.3390/f12020204
  • Gundogdu, M. A., & Seker, M. (2012). Changes of fatty acid compositions of olive oils obtained from some foreign olive, Zeytin Bilimi, 3(1), 19-28.
  • Johnson, R. & Lakso, A. (1986). Carbon balance model of a growing apple shoot. II: Simulated effects of light and temperature on long and short shoots. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 111, 164-169.
  • Kaya, H. B., Çetin, Ö., Kaya, H., Şahin, M., Sefer, F., Arsel, H., Özışık, S., & Tanyolaç, B. (2011). Türkiye zeytin çeşitlerinde genetik çeşitliliğin AFLP ve SSR DNA markörleri ile saptanması. Ulusal Zeytin Kongresi. Akhisar.
  • Lauri P. E., & Kelner, J. J. (2001). Shoot type demography and dry matter partitioning: A morphometric approach in apple (Malus x domestica). Canadian Journal of Botany, 79, 1270-1273. https://doi.org/10.1139/b01-113
  • Lauri, P. E. (1992). Données sur le contexte végétatif lié à la floraison chez le cerisier (Prunus avium). Canadian Journal of Botany, 70, 1848-1859. https://doi.org/ 10.1139/b92-229
  • Lauri, P. E., & Terouanne, E. (1991). Éléments pour une approche morphométrique de la croissance végétale et de la floraison: Le cas d’expèces tropicales du modèle de Leeuwenberg. Canadian Journal of Botany, 69, 2095-2112. https://doi.org/10.1139/b91-264
  • Motisi, A. Fontana, G., Zerilli, V., Drago, A., Dimino, G., & Ferrigno, G. (2008). Development of an olive phenological model in relation to air temperature. Acta Horticulturae, 803, 167-174. https://doi.org/10.17660/ ActaHortic.2008.803.21
  • Nergiz, C., & Engez, Y. (2000). Compositional variation of olive fruit during ripening. Food Chemistry, 69, 55-59. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(99)00238-1
  • Orlandi, F., Ruga, L., Romano, B., & Fornaciari, M. (2005b). Oliveflowering as an indicator of local climatic changes. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 81, 169-176. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00704-004-0120-1
  • Osborne, I., Chuine, D., Viner F., & Woodward, I. (2000). Olive phenology as a sensitive indicator of future climatic warming in the Mediterranean. Plant Cell and Environment, 23, 701-710. https://doi.org/10.1046/ j.1365-3040.2000.00584.x
  • Perez-Lopez, D., Ribas, F., Moriana, A., Rapoport, H. F., & De Juan, A. (2008). Influence of temperature on the growth and development of olive (Olea europaea L.) trees. The Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology, 83(2), 171-176, https://doi.org/10.1080/14620316.2008. 11512366
  • Rallo, P., & Rapoport, H. F. (2001). Early growth and development of the olive fruit mesocarp. Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology, 76, 408-412. https://doi.org/10.1080/14620316.2001.11511385
  • Recio, M., Cabezudo, B., Trigo, M. M., & Toro, F. J. (1997). Accumulative air temperature as a predicting parameter for daily airborne olive pollen (Olea europaea L) during the prepeak period in Malaga (Western Mediterranean area). Grana, 36, 44-48. https://doi.org/10.1080/ 00173139709362589
  • Salvador, M. D., Aranda, F., & Fregapane, G. (2001). Influence of fruit ripening on Cornicabra virgin olive oil quality: A study of four successive crop seasons. Food Chemistry, 73, 45-53. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(00)00276-4
  • Sanz-Cortes, F., Martinez-Calvo, J., Badenes, M.L., Bleiholder, H., Hack, H., Llacer, G., & Meier, U. (2002). Phenological growth stages of olive trees (Olea europaea). Annals of Applied Biology, 140(2), 151-157. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7348.2002.tb00167.x
  • Shibasaki, H. (2005). Influence of fruit ripening on chemical properties of "Mission” variety olive oil in Japan. Food Science Technology Research, 11(1), 9-12.
  • Solinas, M. (1990). Olive oil quality and its determining factors. Problems on Olive Oil Quality Congress. Florence.
  • Tombesi, A. (1994). Olive fruit growth and metabolism. Acta Horticulturae, 356, 225-32. https://doi.org/10.17660/ ActaHortic.1994.356.49
  • Trentacoste, E. R., Puertasa, C. M., & Sadrasb, V. O. (2012). Modelling the intraspecific variation in the dynamics of fruit growth, oil and water concentration in olive (Olea europea L.). European Journal of Agronomy, 38, 83-93. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eja.2012.01.001

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Agricultural, Engineering
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Filiz BAYSAL> (Primary Author)
Alata Horticulture Research Institute
0000-0001-5209-9135
Türkiye


Nurengin METE>
Olive Research Institute
0000-0003-4357-8614
Türkiye


Oznur CETIN>
Olive Research Institute
0000-0003-4252-0357
Türkiye

Publication Date June 28, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 3, Issue 1

Cite

APA Baysal, F. , Mete, N. & Cetın, O. (2022). The Timing of Vegetative and Generative Development of ‘Memecik’ and ‘Gemlik’ Olive Cultivars . Journal of Agricultural Production , 3 (1) , 35-41 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/japro/issue/69979/1122464