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Promoting Self-Regulation in Early Years: Tools of the Mind

Year 2015, Volume 0, Issue 8, 15 - 25, 24.07.2015

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to provide information and suggest ways to develop young children's self-regulation through Tools of the Mind program. Characteristics of preschool and kindergarten children indicate their potential for the development of self-regulation. They are capable of voluntary control of their emotions, their social interactions, and problem-solving activities (Bronson, 2000). Self-regulatory abilities are of fundamental significance for children’s general and academic development. Research point to the need for children to develop self-control, self-direction, and positive strategies to cope with life situations which of these abilities has been accepted as a form of self-regulation (Bronson, 2000). Tools of the Mind is a program developed based on Lev Vygotsky’s views with a particular aim of promoting children’s self-regulation. This paper reviews the need for development of self-regulation in early years and how Tools of the Mind program supports this skill. The risks of the lack of self-regulation and its results in early childhood learning environments are discussed within the paper.  The components of the Tools program are revealed within activity examples. The implementation of developmentally appropriate and play based activities in an enjoyable manner help children improve their thinking and enhance self-regulatory skills. Children practice self-regulation through carefully designed academic activities and make-believe play. The article underlies the need for self-regulation in early years and suggest ways to promote self-regulation.

Keywords: self-regulation, early childhood education, tools of the mind

References

  • Barnett, W. S., Jung, K., Yarosz, D., Thomas, J., Hornbeck, A., Stechuk, R., et al. (2008). Educational effects of the tools of the mind curriculum: A randomized trial. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 23(3), 299-313.
  • Bialystok, E., & Martin, M. M. (2003). Notation to symbol: Development in children’s understanding of print. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 86, 223-243.
  • Blair, C., & A. Diamond. 2008. Biological Processes in Prevention and Intervention: The Promotion of Self-Regulation as a Means of Preventing School Failure. Development and Psychopathology, 20, 899–911.
  • Blair, C., & R.P. Razza. 2007. Relating effortful control, executive function, and false belief understanding to emerging math and literacy ability in kindergarten. Child Development 78 (2), 647–63.
  • Bodrova, E. & Leong, D. J. (2001). Vygotsky, the Mozart of psychology. Early education today 15(4), 48.
  • Bodrova, E. & Leong, D. J. (2005). Why children need play. Early Childhood Today, (20)1, 6.
  • Bodrova, E. & Leong, D. J. (2005). Self-regulation: A foundation for early learning. Early Childhood, 20(1), 6.
  • Bodrova, E. & Leong, D. J. (2007). Tools of the mind: the Vygotskian approach to early childhood education (2nd ed.). Columbus, OH: Merrill/Prentice Hall.
  • Bodrova, E., Leong, D. J. (2008) Developing self-regulation in young children: Can we keep all the crickets in the basket? Young Children, 63 (2), pp. 56-58
  • Bronson, M.B. 2000. Self-regulation in early childhood: Nature and nurture. New York: Guilford.
  • Diamond, A., & Lee, K. (2011). Interventions shown to aid executive function development in children 4-12 years old.Science, 333, 959-964.
  • Hughes C. (2011). Changes and challenges in 20 years of research into the development of executive functions. Infant Child Development. 20, 251–271
  • Karpov, Y. 2005. The Neo-Vygotskian approach to child development. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Pintrich, P. R., & Zusho, A. (2002). The development of academic self-regulation: The role of cognitive and motivational factors. In A. Wigfield & J. S. Eccles (Eds.), Development of achievement motivation (pp. 249– 284). San Diego, CA: Academic
  • Rubin, K. H., Nelson, L. J., Hastings, P. D., and Asendorpf, J. (1999). The transaction between parents’ perceptions of their children’s shyness and their parenting styles. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 23, 937-957.
  • Veenman, M. V. J., & Spaans, M. A. (2005). Relation between intellectual and metacognitive skills: Age and task differences. Learning and Individual Differences, 15, 159–176.
  • Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  • Vygotsky, L. S. (1987). Thinking and speech (N. Minick, Trans.). In R. W. Rieber & A. S. Carton (Eds.), The collected works of L. S. Vygotsky: Vol. 1. Problems of general psychology (pp. 39-285). New York: Plenum Press. (Original work published 1934)
  • Wang, M. C., Haertel, G. D., & Walberg, H. J. (1990). What influences learning? A content analysis of review literature. Journal of Educational Research, 84(1), 30-43.

Erken Çocukluk Döneminde Öz-Düzenleme Becerilerinin Desteklenmesi: Zihnin Araçları Programı

Year 2015, Volume 0, Issue 8, 15 - 25, 24.07.2015

Abstract

Çalışmanın amacı öz-düzenleme becerilerinin okulöncesi dönemde desteklenmesinin gerektiğine dikkat çekmek ve bu amaçla tasarlanan zihnin araçları programının öz-düzenleme becerilerini nasıl desteklediği hakkında bilgi vermektir. Öz-düzenleme çocukların dikkatini verme, hareket ve davranışlarını kontrol etme, amacına uygun bir şekilde hareket etme, sosyal ilişkilerinde empati kurma ve işbirliği yapma becerilerini kapsar. Bu becerilerin okulöncesi dönemde edinilmemesi çocuklarda akademik problemler, anti-sosyal davranışlar ve okula karşı isteksiz tutum ile sonuçlanmaktadır. Bunların yanında öz-düzenleme becerilerine erken çocukluk döneminde yeterince önem verilmemesi çocukların ileriki dönem başarılarını da olumsuz etkilemektedir. Bu nedenlerle çocukların öz-düzenleme becerilerine yönelik etkinlik önerileri içeren ve öğretmen uygulamaları öneren zihnin araçları programı çalışmanın temel felsefesini oluşturmaktadır. Zihnin araçları programı akademik ve sosyal becerilerden özellikle dil ve bilişsel gelişim alanlarını hedef alan bir uygulama önerisidir. Program dahilinde öğretmen rolünde, öğrencilerin rolünde ve müfredat içeriğinde bu başarıyı hedef alan basamaklar bulunmaktadır. Program temelini Lev Vygostky'nin çocuk gelişimi ve öğrenmesine yönelik kuramından almaktadır ve kuramın okulöncesi öğrenme ortamlarında uygulanmasına yönelik bir sistem olarak literatüre yansımaktadır. İçsel isteklendirme, özdüzenleme ve oyun programın önemli karakteristiklerini oluşturmaktadır. Uluslararası literatürde zihnin araçları programının özellikle öz-düzenleme ve dil gelişimi boyutlarına yönelik araştırmalar bulunmaktadır. Bu araştırmalardan elde edilen sonuçlar çocukların öz-düzenleme becerilerinde artış olduğunu, nörobilişsel testlerde daha yüksek sonuçlar aldıklarını, ses ve dil çalışmalarında başarılı olduklarını göstermektedir. Bu çalışma ile literatürde henüz yeri çok az olan öz-düzenleme becerilerinin okulöncesi dönemde desteklenmesi gerektiğine dikkat çekmek amaçlanmaktadır. Öz-düzenleme becerilerinin akademik etkinlikler dahilinde destekleyen zihnin araçları programı hakkında bilgi verilmiştir. Okulöncesi öğretmenlerine öz-düzenleme becerilerinin erken dönemde nasıl destekleneceğine yönelik uygulama tabanlı öneriler sunulmuş ve etkinlikler tanıtılmıştır

References

  • Barnett, W. S., Jung, K., Yarosz, D., Thomas, J., Hornbeck, A., Stechuk, R., et al. (2008). Educational effects of the tools of the mind curriculum: A randomized trial. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 23(3), 299-313.
  • Bialystok, E., & Martin, M. M. (2003). Notation to symbol: Development in children’s understanding of print. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 86, 223-243.
  • Blair, C., & A. Diamond. 2008. Biological Processes in Prevention and Intervention: The Promotion of Self-Regulation as a Means of Preventing School Failure. Development and Psychopathology, 20, 899–911.
  • Blair, C., & R.P. Razza. 2007. Relating effortful control, executive function, and false belief understanding to emerging math and literacy ability in kindergarten. Child Development 78 (2), 647–63.
  • Bodrova, E. & Leong, D. J. (2001). Vygotsky, the Mozart of psychology. Early education today 15(4), 48.
  • Bodrova, E. & Leong, D. J. (2005). Why children need play. Early Childhood Today, (20)1, 6.
  • Bodrova, E. & Leong, D. J. (2005). Self-regulation: A foundation for early learning. Early Childhood, 20(1), 6.
  • Bodrova, E. & Leong, D. J. (2007). Tools of the mind: the Vygotskian approach to early childhood education (2nd ed.). Columbus, OH: Merrill/Prentice Hall.
  • Bodrova, E., Leong, D. J. (2008) Developing self-regulation in young children: Can we keep all the crickets in the basket? Young Children, 63 (2), pp. 56-58
  • Bronson, M.B. 2000. Self-regulation in early childhood: Nature and nurture. New York: Guilford.
  • Diamond, A., & Lee, K. (2011). Interventions shown to aid executive function development in children 4-12 years old.Science, 333, 959-964.
  • Hughes C. (2011). Changes and challenges in 20 years of research into the development of executive functions. Infant Child Development. 20, 251–271
  • Karpov, Y. 2005. The Neo-Vygotskian approach to child development. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Pintrich, P. R., & Zusho, A. (2002). The development of academic self-regulation: The role of cognitive and motivational factors. In A. Wigfield & J. S. Eccles (Eds.), Development of achievement motivation (pp. 249– 284). San Diego, CA: Academic
  • Rubin, K. H., Nelson, L. J., Hastings, P. D., and Asendorpf, J. (1999). The transaction between parents’ perceptions of their children’s shyness and their parenting styles. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 23, 937-957.
  • Veenman, M. V. J., & Spaans, M. A. (2005). Relation between intellectual and metacognitive skills: Age and task differences. Learning and Individual Differences, 15, 159–176.
  • Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  • Vygotsky, L. S. (1987). Thinking and speech (N. Minick, Trans.). In R. W. Rieber & A. S. Carton (Eds.), The collected works of L. S. Vygotsky: Vol. 1. Problems of general psychology (pp. 39-285). New York: Plenum Press. (Original work published 1934)
  • Wang, M. C., Haertel, G. D., & Walberg, H. J. (1990). What influences learning? A content analysis of review literature. Journal of Educational Research, 84(1), 30-43.

Details

Primary Language En
Journal Section Makaleler
Authors

Selda ARAS>

Publication Date July 24, 2015
Application Date August 13, 2015
Acceptance Date
Published in Issue Year 2015, Volume 0, Issue 8

Cite

Bibtex @ { jef196739, journal = {Journal of Education and Future}, issn = {2146-8249}, address = {}, publisher = {Aydın Yayıncılık}, year = {2015}, volume = {0}, number = {8}, pages = {15 - 25}, title = {Promoting Self-Regulation in Early Years: Tools of the Mind}, key = {cite}, author = {Aras, Selda} }
APA Aras, S. (2015). Promoting Self-Regulation in Early Years: Tools of the Mind . Journal of Education and Future , 0 (8) , 15-25 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/jef/issue/18640/196739
MLA Aras, S. "Promoting Self-Regulation in Early Years: Tools of the Mind" . Journal of Education and Future 0 (2015 ): 15-25 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/jef/issue/18640/196739>
Chicago Aras, S. "Promoting Self-Regulation in Early Years: Tools of the Mind". Journal of Education and Future 0 (2015 ): 15-25
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Promoting Self-Regulation in Early Years: Tools of the Mind AU - SeldaAras Y1 - 2015 PY - 2015 N1 - DO - T2 - Journal of Education and Future JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 15 EP - 25 VL - 0 IS - 8 SN - 2146-8249- M3 - UR - Y2 - 2022 ER -
EndNote %0 Journal of Education and Future Promoting Self-Regulation in Early Years: Tools of the Mind %A Selda Aras %T Promoting Self-Regulation in Early Years: Tools of the Mind %D 2015 %J Journal of Education and Future %P 2146-8249- %V 0 %N 8 %R %U
ISNAD Aras, Selda . "Promoting Self-Regulation in Early Years: Tools of the Mind". Journal of Education and Future 0 / 8 (July 2015): 15-25 .
AMA Aras S. Promoting Self-Regulation in Early Years: Tools of the Mind. JEF. 2015; 0(8): 15-25.
Vancouver Aras S. Promoting Self-Regulation in Early Years: Tools of the Mind. Journal of Education and Future. 2015; 0(8): 15-25.
IEEE S. Aras , "Promoting Self-Regulation in Early Years: Tools of the Mind", Journal of Education and Future, vol. 0, no. 8, pp. 15-25, Jul. 2015
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