Research Article
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Pedagogy-driven Design Fundamentals of 21st Century Primary Schools’ Physical Learning Environments

Year 2022, Volume , Issue 21, 99 - 110, 24.01.2022
https://doi.org/10.30786/jef.805905

Abstract

Today, it is widely acknowledged that the quality of physical learning environments is directly related to the quality of education. Hence, the structure and characteristics of school buildings and physical learning environments are determined by the requirements of pedagogy. This study is considered to be important in terms of understanding pedagogical fundamentals that shape the physical learning environments of 21st-century primary schools. This study aims to provide a holistic perspective on the pedagogical foundations that guide the building design and physical learning environments of primary schools. The pedagogical foundations of primary school buildings were subsumed under two main categories, i.e. ‘child-friendly design’ and ‘design for learning’. Appropriate designs of the physical learning environment concerning these pedagogical principles were spaces that are child-scale, interactive open, purposed as teaching tools, flexible, and community-connected. Some suggestions were introduced to rethink the physical learning environments of primary schools. Learning environments should be designed by social interaction and different learning objectives, in various sizes, and including common areas where the whole school community will come together. Schools’ learning environments should be flexible to meet the expectations of developing pedagogy. Physical learning environments should take learning beyond classrooms and be functional. The open spaces of the schools should be interactive and host community-based events.

References

  • Akbaba, A., & Turhan, M. (2016). Investigating teachers’ views about physical problems of primary schools (Van sample) [İlköğretim okul binalarinin fiziksel sorunlarina ilişkin öğretmen görüşlerinin incelenmesi (Van il örneği)]. Karadeniz Technical University Institute of Social Sciences Journal of Social Sciences. 6(12), 341-357.
  • Ayre, J. (Ed.) (2017). Guidelines on exploring and adapting learning spaces in schools. European Schoolnet (EUN Partnership AISBL), Brussels. Retrieved from http://files.eun.org/fcl/Learning_spaces_guidelines_Final.pdf
  • Bardone, A., & Gargiulo, C. (2014). Learning in twenty-first century schools: Norms and costs of school infrastructure. Inter-American Development Bank.
  • Bosworth, K., Ford, L., & Hernandez, D. (2011). School climate factors contributing to student and faculty perceptions of safety in select Arizona schools. Journal of School Health, 81(4), 194–201.
  • Brkovic, M., Pons, O., & Parnell, R. (2015). Where sustainable school meets the ‘third teacher’: Primary school case study from Barcelona, Spain. International Journal of Architectural Research: ArchNet-IJAR, 9(2). 77-97.
  • CABE/RIBA. (2004). 21st Century Schools: Learning environments of the future. Retrieved from https://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20110118205716/http://www.cabe.org.uk/files/21st century-schools.pdf
  • Cheveland, B., & Fisher, K. (2014). The evaluation of physical learning environments: A critical review of the literature. Learning Environments Research, 17, 1–28. doi:10.1007/s10984-013-9149-3.
  • Cole, A. (2011). Critical review of elementary school design. Unpublished Master’s Thesis Retrieved from https://scholarworks.umass.edu/theses/589
  • Cole, L. B. (2014). The teaching green school building: A framework for linking architecture and environmental education, Environmental Education Research, 20(6), 836-857. doi: 10.1080/13504622.2013.833586.
  • Cutter-Mackenzie, A. (2009). Multicultural school gardens: Creating engaging garden spaces in learning about language, culture, and environment. Canadian Journal of Environmental Education, 14, 122-135.
  • Craissati, D., Devi Banerjee, U., King, L., Lans down, G., & Smith, A. (2007). A human rights based approach to education for all. New York: United Nations Children’s Fund.
  • Çiftçi, S., Sağlam, A., & Yayla, A. (2021). Student, teacher and educational environments in the context of 21. century skills [21. yüzyıl becerileri bağlamında öğrenci, öğretmen ve eğitim ortamları]. RumeliDE Dil ve Edebiyat Araştırmaları Dergisi, (24), 718-734. doi:10.29000/rumelide.995863.
  • Darmody, M., Smyth, E., & Doherty, C. (2010). Designing primary schools for the future. The Economic and Social Research Institute. Retrieved from https://www.esri.ie/system/files?file=media/file-uploads/2016-03/RS16.pdf
  • De Gregori, A. (2011). Reimagining the classroom: Opportunities to link recent advances in pedagogy to physical settings. Policy Paper: Designing Classroom Space to Better Support 21st Century Learning. McGraw-Hill Research Foundation.
  • Deveci, Ö., & Aykaç, N. (2019). Evaluation of studies examining the problems experienced in basic: A meta-synthesis study. Journal of Qualitative Research in Education, 7(1), 277-301. doi:10.14689/issn.2148-2624.1.7c1s.13m
  • Education & Skills Funding Agency. (2016). Priority school building programme: Overview. Retrieved from https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/psbp-overview/priority-school-building-programme-overview
  • EDUSPACES21. (2016). Physical and architectural learning environment: Educational spaces 21. open up! Warsaw: Center for Citizenship Education Foundation.
  • Fırat, M. (2012). Determination of educators’ radical and transformative approaches on the future of school. Journal of Education and Future, 2, 15-30.
  • Fisher, K. (2010). Technology-enabled active learning environments: An appraisal. OECD.
  • Fisher A. V., Godwin K. E., & Seltman H. (2014). Visual environment, attention allocation, and learning, when too much of a good thing may be bad. Psychological Science, 25(7), 1362-1370.
  • Flores, M. M. (2008). Universal design in elementary and middle school: Designing classrooms and instructional practices to ensure access to learning for all students, Childhood Education, 84(4), 224-229. doi:10.1080/00094056.2008.10523013.
  • Foster, A., Percival, S., Chillman, B., Jackson, M., Mountain, J., Burn, G., Martin, P., Walters, G., & Robinson, F. (2006). Schools for the future: Designing school ground. London: The Stationery Office. Retrieved from https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/276691/schools_for_the_future_-_designing_school_grounds.pdf
  • Giraldo-Henao, T. M. (2017). Creating a 21St - century learning space . School of Education Student Capstone Theses and Dissertations. 4264. Retrieved from https://digitalcommons.hamline.edu/hse_all/4264
  • Göçen, A., Eral S. H., & Bücük, M. H. (2020). Teacher perceptions of a 21st century classroom. International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research, 7(1), 85-98. doi: https://doi.org/10.33200/ijcer.638110
  • Gökçe, E., & Erdem, A. (2019). What kind of teacher do we want? [Nasıl bir öğretmen istiyoruz?]. In B. Aslan & F. Hazır-Bıkmaz (Eds.), Gift to Prof. Dr. Mehmet Ali Kısakürek [Prof. Dr. Mehmet Ali Kısakürek’e Armağan] (pp. 61-74). Ankara: Ankara University Publishing.
  • Gültekin, M., & Özenç-İra, G. (2021). Classroom teachers’ views on the physical learning environments of primary schools in Turkey. International Online Journal of Primary Education, 10(1), 180-192.
  • Hanovar Research. (2011). School structures that support 21st century learning. Washington DC. Retrieved from https://www.apsva.us/wp-content/uploads/legacy_assets/www/bda59d16b8-School_Structures.pdf
  • Higgins, S., Hall, E., Wall, K., Woolner, P., & McCaughey, C. (2005). The impact of school environments: a literature review. London: The Design Council. Retrieved from www.designcouncil.org.uk/resources/assets/assets/pdf/Publications/The%20Impact%
  • Işıkoğlu-Erdoğan, N., & Şimşek, Z. C. (2014). Investigation of school readiness of first grade children, parents and teachers. International Journal of New Trends in Arts, Sports & Science Education, 3(2), 62-70.
  • Kopec, D. (2006). Environmental psychology for design. NY: Fairchild Publication.
  • Köse, Ç., & Barkul, Ö. (2012). A study on the problems of the implementation of project type primary structures. MEGARON, 7(2), 94-102.
  • Leiringer, R., & Cardellino, P. (2011). Schools for the twenty-first century: school design and educational transformation. British Educational Research Journal, 37(6), 915-934.
  • Luna-Scott, C. (2015). The futures of learning 3: What kind of pedagogies for the C21st? UNESCO.
  • Mahony, P., Hextall, I., & Richardson, M. (2011). 'Building Schools for the Future': reflections on a new social architecture. Journal of Education Policy, 26(3), 341-360. doi: 10.1080/02680939.2010.513741.
  • Milo-Shussman, Y. (2017). “A little bit of this and not too much of that…”: Is there a recipe for class display load level in elementary schools? Journal of Learning Spaces, 6(2), 22-27.
  • Nair, P., & Fielding, R. (2013). The language of school design: Design patterns for 21st century schools (3rd ed.). Minneapolis, USA: Designshare.com.
  • NRC. (2011). Assessing 21st century skills: Summary of a workshop. DC: The National Academies.
  • O’Donnell, S. (2012). The design of elementary schools. In Learning in 21st century schools: toward school buildings that promote learning, ensure safety, and protect the environment (pp. 35-49). Inter-American Development Bank.
  • OECD. (2015). Schooling redesigned: Towards innovative learning Systems. Paris: OECD Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1787/9789264245914-en
  • OECD. (2018). PISA 2015: Results in focus. Retrieved from https://www.oecd.org/pisa/pisa-2015-results-in-focus.pdf
  • Presidency of Turkey, Presidency of Strategy and Budget. (2019). The eleventh development plan (2019-2023). Retrieved from http://www.sbb.gov.tr/wp-content/uploads/2019/07/OnbirinciKalkinmaPlani.pdf
  • Radmard, S., Karataş, İ. H., & Öksüz-Gül, F. (2019). The design and aesthetics of school structure: A content analysis of national and international perspectives. Hacettepe University Journal of Education. Advance online publication. doi: 10.16986/HUJE.2019056302.
  • Republic of Turkey Ministry of National Education. (2019). 2019-2023 strategic plan. Retrieved from http://ttkb.meb.gov.tr/meb_iys_dosyalar/2020_03/31150840_stratejik_plan_2019_2023.pdf
  • Republic of Turkey Ministry of National Education. (2020a). National education statistics formal education 2019-2020. Retrieved from http://sgb.meb.gov.tr/www/icerik_goruntule.php?KNO=396
  • Republic of Turkey Ministry of National Education. (2020b). Special education institutions standards directive [özel öğretim kurumları standartlar yönergesi]. Retrieved from http://ookgm.meb.gov.tr/meb_iys_dosyalar/2020_03/13113722_OZEL_OYRETYM_kURUMLARI_STANDARTLAR_YO NERGESY_11.03.2020_tarihli_ve_5331494_sayYlY_Makam_Oluru.pdf
  • Rigolon, A., & Alloway, M. (2011). Children and their development as the starting point: A new way to think about the design of elementary schools. Educational & Child Psychology, 28(1), 64-76.
  • Sarıbaş, S., & Babadağ, G. (2015). Basic problems of primary education. Anatolian Journal of Educational Leadership and Instruction, 3(1), 18-34.
  • Sigurðardottir, A. K., & Hjartarson, T. (2011). School buildings for the 21st century: Some features of new school buildings in Iceland. CEPS Journal, 1, 25–43.
  • Sutherland, R., & Fischer, F. (2014) Future learning spaces: design, collaboration, knowledge, assessment, teachers, technology and the radical past. Technology, Pedagogy and Education, 23(1), 1-5. doi: 10.1080/1475939X.2013.870107.
  • Şimşek, H., & Yıldırım, A. (2011). Qualitative research methods in the social sciences. Ankara: Seçkin Publishing.
  • Tavşancıl, E. & Aslan, E. (2001). Content analysis and application examples for oral, written and other materials. Istanbul: Epsilon Publications.
  • The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2020). Reopening K-12 schools during the COVID-19 pandemic: Prioritizing health, equity, and communities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/25858.
  • UK Design Council. (2005). Learning environment campaign prospectus. Retrieved from https://www.yumpu.com/en/document/read/4762247/learning-environments-campaign-prospectus-design-council
  • Uludağ, Z., & Odacı, H. (2002). Physical space in educational activities. Journal of National Education, 153-154.
  • Weinstein, C. S. (1979). The physical environment of the school: A review of the research. Review of Educational Research, 49(4), 577-610.
  • Woolner, P. (2010). The design of learning spaces. Bloomsbury. [EBook, ISBN:9781441127143]
  • Yılmaz, A. (2012). The evaluation of the primary schools’ physical structure in terms of education. Balikesir University The Journal of Social Sciences Institute, 15(28), 78-107.

Year 2022, Volume , Issue 21, 99 - 110, 24.01.2022
https://doi.org/10.30786/jef.805905

Abstract

References

  • Akbaba, A., & Turhan, M. (2016). Investigating teachers’ views about physical problems of primary schools (Van sample) [İlköğretim okul binalarinin fiziksel sorunlarina ilişkin öğretmen görüşlerinin incelenmesi (Van il örneği)]. Karadeniz Technical University Institute of Social Sciences Journal of Social Sciences. 6(12), 341-357.
  • Ayre, J. (Ed.) (2017). Guidelines on exploring and adapting learning spaces in schools. European Schoolnet (EUN Partnership AISBL), Brussels. Retrieved from http://files.eun.org/fcl/Learning_spaces_guidelines_Final.pdf
  • Bardone, A., & Gargiulo, C. (2014). Learning in twenty-first century schools: Norms and costs of school infrastructure. Inter-American Development Bank.
  • Bosworth, K., Ford, L., & Hernandez, D. (2011). School climate factors contributing to student and faculty perceptions of safety in select Arizona schools. Journal of School Health, 81(4), 194–201.
  • Brkovic, M., Pons, O., & Parnell, R. (2015). Where sustainable school meets the ‘third teacher’: Primary school case study from Barcelona, Spain. International Journal of Architectural Research: ArchNet-IJAR, 9(2). 77-97.
  • CABE/RIBA. (2004). 21st Century Schools: Learning environments of the future. Retrieved from https://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20110118205716/http://www.cabe.org.uk/files/21st century-schools.pdf
  • Cheveland, B., & Fisher, K. (2014). The evaluation of physical learning environments: A critical review of the literature. Learning Environments Research, 17, 1–28. doi:10.1007/s10984-013-9149-3.
  • Cole, A. (2011). Critical review of elementary school design. Unpublished Master’s Thesis Retrieved from https://scholarworks.umass.edu/theses/589
  • Cole, L. B. (2014). The teaching green school building: A framework for linking architecture and environmental education, Environmental Education Research, 20(6), 836-857. doi: 10.1080/13504622.2013.833586.
  • Cutter-Mackenzie, A. (2009). Multicultural school gardens: Creating engaging garden spaces in learning about language, culture, and environment. Canadian Journal of Environmental Education, 14, 122-135.
  • Craissati, D., Devi Banerjee, U., King, L., Lans down, G., & Smith, A. (2007). A human rights based approach to education for all. New York: United Nations Children’s Fund.
  • Çiftçi, S., Sağlam, A., & Yayla, A. (2021). Student, teacher and educational environments in the context of 21. century skills [21. yüzyıl becerileri bağlamında öğrenci, öğretmen ve eğitim ortamları]. RumeliDE Dil ve Edebiyat Araştırmaları Dergisi, (24), 718-734. doi:10.29000/rumelide.995863.
  • Darmody, M., Smyth, E., & Doherty, C. (2010). Designing primary schools for the future. The Economic and Social Research Institute. Retrieved from https://www.esri.ie/system/files?file=media/file-uploads/2016-03/RS16.pdf
  • De Gregori, A. (2011). Reimagining the classroom: Opportunities to link recent advances in pedagogy to physical settings. Policy Paper: Designing Classroom Space to Better Support 21st Century Learning. McGraw-Hill Research Foundation.
  • Deveci, Ö., & Aykaç, N. (2019). Evaluation of studies examining the problems experienced in basic: A meta-synthesis study. Journal of Qualitative Research in Education, 7(1), 277-301. doi:10.14689/issn.2148-2624.1.7c1s.13m
  • Education & Skills Funding Agency. (2016). Priority school building programme: Overview. Retrieved from https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/psbp-overview/priority-school-building-programme-overview
  • EDUSPACES21. (2016). Physical and architectural learning environment: Educational spaces 21. open up! Warsaw: Center for Citizenship Education Foundation.
  • Fırat, M. (2012). Determination of educators’ radical and transformative approaches on the future of school. Journal of Education and Future, 2, 15-30.
  • Fisher, K. (2010). Technology-enabled active learning environments: An appraisal. OECD.
  • Fisher A. V., Godwin K. E., & Seltman H. (2014). Visual environment, attention allocation, and learning, when too much of a good thing may be bad. Psychological Science, 25(7), 1362-1370.
  • Flores, M. M. (2008). Universal design in elementary and middle school: Designing classrooms and instructional practices to ensure access to learning for all students, Childhood Education, 84(4), 224-229. doi:10.1080/00094056.2008.10523013.
  • Foster, A., Percival, S., Chillman, B., Jackson, M., Mountain, J., Burn, G., Martin, P., Walters, G., & Robinson, F. (2006). Schools for the future: Designing school ground. London: The Stationery Office. Retrieved from https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/276691/schools_for_the_future_-_designing_school_grounds.pdf
  • Giraldo-Henao, T. M. (2017). Creating a 21St - century learning space . School of Education Student Capstone Theses and Dissertations. 4264. Retrieved from https://digitalcommons.hamline.edu/hse_all/4264
  • Göçen, A., Eral S. H., & Bücük, M. H. (2020). Teacher perceptions of a 21st century classroom. International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research, 7(1), 85-98. doi: https://doi.org/10.33200/ijcer.638110
  • Gökçe, E., & Erdem, A. (2019). What kind of teacher do we want? [Nasıl bir öğretmen istiyoruz?]. In B. Aslan & F. Hazır-Bıkmaz (Eds.), Gift to Prof. Dr. Mehmet Ali Kısakürek [Prof. Dr. Mehmet Ali Kısakürek’e Armağan] (pp. 61-74). Ankara: Ankara University Publishing.
  • Gültekin, M., & Özenç-İra, G. (2021). Classroom teachers’ views on the physical learning environments of primary schools in Turkey. International Online Journal of Primary Education, 10(1), 180-192.
  • Hanovar Research. (2011). School structures that support 21st century learning. Washington DC. Retrieved from https://www.apsva.us/wp-content/uploads/legacy_assets/www/bda59d16b8-School_Structures.pdf
  • Higgins, S., Hall, E., Wall, K., Woolner, P., & McCaughey, C. (2005). The impact of school environments: a literature review. London: The Design Council. Retrieved from www.designcouncil.org.uk/resources/assets/assets/pdf/Publications/The%20Impact%
  • Işıkoğlu-Erdoğan, N., & Şimşek, Z. C. (2014). Investigation of school readiness of first grade children, parents and teachers. International Journal of New Trends in Arts, Sports & Science Education, 3(2), 62-70.
  • Kopec, D. (2006). Environmental psychology for design. NY: Fairchild Publication.
  • Köse, Ç., & Barkul, Ö. (2012). A study on the problems of the implementation of project type primary structures. MEGARON, 7(2), 94-102.
  • Leiringer, R., & Cardellino, P. (2011). Schools for the twenty-first century: school design and educational transformation. British Educational Research Journal, 37(6), 915-934.
  • Luna-Scott, C. (2015). The futures of learning 3: What kind of pedagogies for the C21st? UNESCO.
  • Mahony, P., Hextall, I., & Richardson, M. (2011). 'Building Schools for the Future': reflections on a new social architecture. Journal of Education Policy, 26(3), 341-360. doi: 10.1080/02680939.2010.513741.
  • Milo-Shussman, Y. (2017). “A little bit of this and not too much of that…”: Is there a recipe for class display load level in elementary schools? Journal of Learning Spaces, 6(2), 22-27.
  • Nair, P., & Fielding, R. (2013). The language of school design: Design patterns for 21st century schools (3rd ed.). Minneapolis, USA: Designshare.com.
  • NRC. (2011). Assessing 21st century skills: Summary of a workshop. DC: The National Academies.
  • O’Donnell, S. (2012). The design of elementary schools. In Learning in 21st century schools: toward school buildings that promote learning, ensure safety, and protect the environment (pp. 35-49). Inter-American Development Bank.
  • OECD. (2015). Schooling redesigned: Towards innovative learning Systems. Paris: OECD Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1787/9789264245914-en
  • OECD. (2018). PISA 2015: Results in focus. Retrieved from https://www.oecd.org/pisa/pisa-2015-results-in-focus.pdf
  • Presidency of Turkey, Presidency of Strategy and Budget. (2019). The eleventh development plan (2019-2023). Retrieved from http://www.sbb.gov.tr/wp-content/uploads/2019/07/OnbirinciKalkinmaPlani.pdf
  • Radmard, S., Karataş, İ. H., & Öksüz-Gül, F. (2019). The design and aesthetics of school structure: A content analysis of national and international perspectives. Hacettepe University Journal of Education. Advance online publication. doi: 10.16986/HUJE.2019056302.
  • Republic of Turkey Ministry of National Education. (2019). 2019-2023 strategic plan. Retrieved from http://ttkb.meb.gov.tr/meb_iys_dosyalar/2020_03/31150840_stratejik_plan_2019_2023.pdf
  • Republic of Turkey Ministry of National Education. (2020a). National education statistics formal education 2019-2020. Retrieved from http://sgb.meb.gov.tr/www/icerik_goruntule.php?KNO=396
  • Republic of Turkey Ministry of National Education. (2020b). Special education institutions standards directive [özel öğretim kurumları standartlar yönergesi]. Retrieved from http://ookgm.meb.gov.tr/meb_iys_dosyalar/2020_03/13113722_OZEL_OYRETYM_kURUMLARI_STANDARTLAR_YO NERGESY_11.03.2020_tarihli_ve_5331494_sayYlY_Makam_Oluru.pdf
  • Rigolon, A., & Alloway, M. (2011). Children and their development as the starting point: A new way to think about the design of elementary schools. Educational & Child Psychology, 28(1), 64-76.
  • Sarıbaş, S., & Babadağ, G. (2015). Basic problems of primary education. Anatolian Journal of Educational Leadership and Instruction, 3(1), 18-34.
  • Sigurðardottir, A. K., & Hjartarson, T. (2011). School buildings for the 21st century: Some features of new school buildings in Iceland. CEPS Journal, 1, 25–43.
  • Sutherland, R., & Fischer, F. (2014) Future learning spaces: design, collaboration, knowledge, assessment, teachers, technology and the radical past. Technology, Pedagogy and Education, 23(1), 1-5. doi: 10.1080/1475939X.2013.870107.
  • Şimşek, H., & Yıldırım, A. (2011). Qualitative research methods in the social sciences. Ankara: Seçkin Publishing.
  • Tavşancıl, E. & Aslan, E. (2001). Content analysis and application examples for oral, written and other materials. Istanbul: Epsilon Publications.
  • The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2020). Reopening K-12 schools during the COVID-19 pandemic: Prioritizing health, equity, and communities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/25858.
  • UK Design Council. (2005). Learning environment campaign prospectus. Retrieved from https://www.yumpu.com/en/document/read/4762247/learning-environments-campaign-prospectus-design-council
  • Uludağ, Z., & Odacı, H. (2002). Physical space in educational activities. Journal of National Education, 153-154.
  • Weinstein, C. S. (1979). The physical environment of the school: A review of the research. Review of Educational Research, 49(4), 577-610.
  • Woolner, P. (2010). The design of learning spaces. Bloomsbury. [EBook, ISBN:9781441127143]
  • Yılmaz, A. (2012). The evaluation of the primary schools’ physical structure in terms of education. Balikesir University The Journal of Social Sciences Institute, 15(28), 78-107.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Social
Journal Section Makaleler
Authors

Mehmet GULTEKIN
ANADOLU ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-5281-1767
Türkiye


Gözde ÖZENÇ İRA (Primary Author)
HACETTEPE ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0001-6046-0306
Türkiye

Publication Date January 24, 2022
Application Date October 5, 2020
Acceptance Date October 19, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume , Issue 21

Cite

Bibtex @research article { jef805905, journal = {Journal of Education and Future}, issn = {2146-8249}, address = {}, publisher = {Aydın Yayıncılık}, year = {2022}, number = {21}, pages = {99 - 110}, doi = {10.30786/jef.805905}, title = {Pedagogy-driven Design Fundamentals of 21st Century Primary Schools’ Physical Learning Environments}, key = {cite}, author = {Gultekın, Mehmet and Özenç İra, Gözde} }
APA Gultekın, M. & Özenç İra, G. (2022). Pedagogy-driven Design Fundamentals of 21st Century Primary Schools’ Physical Learning Environments . Journal of Education and Future , (21) , 99-110 . DOI: 10.30786/jef.805905
MLA Gultekın, M. , Özenç İra, G. "Pedagogy-driven Design Fundamentals of 21st Century Primary Schools’ Physical Learning Environments" . Journal of Education and Future (2022 ): 99-110 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/jef/issue/68768/805905>
Chicago Gultekın, M. , Özenç İra, G. "Pedagogy-driven Design Fundamentals of 21st Century Primary Schools’ Physical Learning Environments". Journal of Education and Future (2022 ): 99-110
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Pedagogy-driven Design Fundamentals of 21st Century Primary Schools’ Physical Learning Environments AU - Mehmet Gultekın , Gözde Özenç İra Y1 - 2022 PY - 2022 N1 - doi: 10.30786/jef.805905 DO - 10.30786/jef.805905 T2 - Journal of Education and Future JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 99 EP - 110 VL - IS - 21 SN - 2146-8249- M3 - doi: 10.30786/jef.805905 UR - https://doi.org/10.30786/jef.805905 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 Journal of Education and Future Pedagogy-driven Design Fundamentals of 21st Century Primary Schools’ Physical Learning Environments %A Mehmet Gultekın , Gözde Özenç İra %T Pedagogy-driven Design Fundamentals of 21st Century Primary Schools’ Physical Learning Environments %D 2022 %J Journal of Education and Future %P 2146-8249- %V %N 21 %R doi: 10.30786/jef.805905 %U 10.30786/jef.805905
ISNAD Gultekın, Mehmet , Özenç İra, Gözde . "Pedagogy-driven Design Fundamentals of 21st Century Primary Schools’ Physical Learning Environments". Journal of Education and Future / 21 (January 2022): 99-110 . https://doi.org/10.30786/jef.805905
AMA Gultekın M. , Özenç İra G. Pedagogy-driven Design Fundamentals of 21st Century Primary Schools’ Physical Learning Environments. JEF. 2022; (21): 99-110.
Vancouver Gultekın M. , Özenç İra G. Pedagogy-driven Design Fundamentals of 21st Century Primary Schools’ Physical Learning Environments. Journal of Education and Future. 2022; (21): 99-110.
IEEE M. Gultekın and G. Özenç İra , "Pedagogy-driven Design Fundamentals of 21st Century Primary Schools’ Physical Learning Environments", Journal of Education and Future, no. 21, pp. 99-110, Jan. 2022, doi:10.30786/jef.805905
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