Research Article
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ECONOMIC SANCTIONS AND GLOBALIZATION: ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF THE GLOBALIZATION LEVEL OF TARGET STATE ON SANCTIONS EFFICACY

Year 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, 41 - 54, 30.03.2019
https://doi.org/10.17261/Pressacademia.2019.1027

Abstract

Purpose - When do states resist the threat of sanctions or comply with the demands of the political unit imposing sanctions? This article

argues that if the target has a high globalization index, it conforms to the demands of the sender. Therefore, the article examines the

impact of target’s globalization level on the initiation and success of economic sanctions as a frequently used foreign policy tool.

Methodology - In combination of two datasets, (for sanctions cases, Hufbauer et al, 2007; and for globalization index Raab et al, 2007), this

article, uses 72 sanctions cases from Hufbauer et al. (2007) dataset to examine some indicators of sanctions efficacy. A probit model is used

to analyze the hypotheses.

Findings - The findings of the empirical models presented in the article, reveal a positive relationship between the efficacy of economic

sanctions and the high level of globalization in target state. Thus, as targets become globalized, the efficacy of sanctions increases.

Empirical evidence has been found in the models as the relationship between sanctions success and globalization has been indicated, since

cultural globalization index is used as an indicator of regime type and, most importantly, due to the presumed relationship between

winning coalitions and cultural globalization.

Conclusion - It has been found that cultural globalization leads to political change that causes transitional political systems to emerge for

such states. Referring to the selectorate theory, it is claimed that the winning coalition is possibly wider and the scope of this coalition can

be determined without identifying a regime type for the target. In addition, cultural globalization leads to social change that may affect

public opinion. As such the audience costs are higher in culturally globalized targets because it requires a publicly accepted foreign policy

behavior.

References

  • Allen, S. H. (2005). The determinants of economic sanctions success and failure. International Interactions, 31, 117–138.
  • Baldwin, D. (1985). Economic statecraft. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Bolks, S. M., Al-Sowayel, D. (2000). How long do economic sanctions last? Examining the sanctioning process through duration. Political Research Quarterly, 53, 241-265.
  • Bueno de Mesquita, B., Smith, A., Siverson R. M., Morrow, J. D. (1999). An institutional explanation for the democratic peace. American Political Science Review, 93, 791–808.
  • Bueno de Mesquita, B., Smith, A., Siverson R. M., Morrow, J. D. (2003). The Logic of Political Survival. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  • Dashti-Gibson, J., Davis, P., Radcliff, B. (1997). On the determinants of the success of economic sanctions: an empirical analysis. American Journal of Political Science, 41 (2), 608-618.
  • DeVaus, D. A. (2001). Research design in social research. California: Sage Publications.
  • Drezner, D. W. (1998). Conflict expectations and the paradox of economic coercion. International Studies Quarterly, 42, 709-731.
  • Drezner, D. W. (1999). The sanctions paradox: economic statecraft and international relations. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Drezner, D. W. (2001). Outside the box: explaining sanctions in pursuit of foreign economic goals. International Interactions, 26 (4), 379-410.
  • Drury, A. C. (2000). How and whom the US president sanctions: A time-series cross-section analysis of us sanction decisions and characteristics. In Chan, S., Cooper, D. A., Sanctions as economic statecraft: theory and practice, New York: St. Martin’s Press.
  • Eland, I. (1995). Economic sanctions as tools of foreign policy. In Cortright, D., Lopez, G. A., Economic sanctions: panacea or peacebuilding in a post-cold war world?. Boulder: Westview Press.
  • Fearon, J. D. (1994). Domestic political audiences and the escalation of international disputes. American Political Science Review, 88, 577-592.
  • Galtung, J. (1967). On the effects of international economic sanctions: with examples from the case of Rhodesia. World Politics, 19 (3), 378-416.
  • Galtung, J. (1966). On the effects of international economic sanctions. World Politics, 19, 411.
  • Hufbauer, G., Schott, J., Elliott, K., Oegg, B. (2007). Economic sanctions reconsidered (3rd edition). Washington: Peterson Institute for International Economics.
  • Hufbauer, G., Schott, J., Elliott, K. (1990). Economic sanctions reconsidered (2nd edition). Washington: Peterson Institute for International Economics.
  • Hufbauer, G., Oegg, B. (2006). Economic sanctions for foreign policy purposes: A survey of the twentieth century. In Kerr, W.A., & Gaisford, J. D., Handbook on international trade policy, Cornwall: Edward Elgar Publishing.
  • Kaempfer, W. H., Lowenberg, A. D. (2000). A public choice analysis of the political economy of international sanctions. In Chan S., & Drury, A. C., Sanctions as economic statecraft: theory and practice, New York: St. Martin’s Press.
  • Kaempfer, W. H., Lowenberg, A. D. (2007). Political economy of economic sanctions. In Sandler T., & Hartley, K., Handbook of defense economics.
  • Kaempfer, W. H., Lowenberg, A. D. (1992). International economic sanctions: A public choice perspective. Boulder: Westview Press.
  • King, G., Keohane, R. O., Verba, S. (2006). Designing social inquiry: Scientific inference in qualitative research. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
  • Lektzian, D., Souva, M. (2003). The economic peace between democracies: Economic sanctions and domestic institutions. Journal of Peace Research, 40 (6), 641-660.
  • Lektzian, D., Souva, M. (2007). An institutional theory of sanctions onset and success. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 51 (6), 848-871.
  • Lopez, G. A., Cortright, D. (1995). Economic sanctions in contemporary global relations. In Lopez, G. A., Cortright, D., Economic sanctions: panacea or peace-building in a post-cold war world?. Boulder: Westview.
  • McGillivray, F., Smith, A. (2000). Trust and cooperation through agent-specific punishments. International Organization, 54, 809–824.
  • Nooruddin, I. (2001). Modeling selection bias in studies of sanctions efficacy. International Interactions, 28, 59-75.
  • Nossal, K. R. (1999). Liberal democratic regimes, international sanctions, and global governance. In Vayrynen, R., Globalization and global governance, Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield.
  • Pape, R. (1997). Why economic sanctions do not work?. International Security, 22 (2), 90-136.
  • Raab, M., Ruland, M., Schönberger, B., Blossfeld, H-P., Hofäcker, D. (2007). GlobalIndex - a multidimensional approach to globalization measurement. http://www.transeurope-project.org
  • Simons, G. (1999). Imposing economic sanctions: Legal remedy or genocidal tool?. London: Pluto Press.
  • Tomz, M. (2007). Domestic audience costs in international relations: an experimental approach. International Organization, 61, pp. 821-40.

Year 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, 41 - 54, 30.03.2019
https://doi.org/10.17261/Pressacademia.2019.1027

Abstract

References

  • Allen, S. H. (2005). The determinants of economic sanctions success and failure. International Interactions, 31, 117–138.
  • Baldwin, D. (1985). Economic statecraft. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Bolks, S. M., Al-Sowayel, D. (2000). How long do economic sanctions last? Examining the sanctioning process through duration. Political Research Quarterly, 53, 241-265.
  • Bueno de Mesquita, B., Smith, A., Siverson R. M., Morrow, J. D. (1999). An institutional explanation for the democratic peace. American Political Science Review, 93, 791–808.
  • Bueno de Mesquita, B., Smith, A., Siverson R. M., Morrow, J. D. (2003). The Logic of Political Survival. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  • Dashti-Gibson, J., Davis, P., Radcliff, B. (1997). On the determinants of the success of economic sanctions: an empirical analysis. American Journal of Political Science, 41 (2), 608-618.
  • DeVaus, D. A. (2001). Research design in social research. California: Sage Publications.
  • Drezner, D. W. (1998). Conflict expectations and the paradox of economic coercion. International Studies Quarterly, 42, 709-731.
  • Drezner, D. W. (1999). The sanctions paradox: economic statecraft and international relations. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Drezner, D. W. (2001). Outside the box: explaining sanctions in pursuit of foreign economic goals. International Interactions, 26 (4), 379-410.
  • Drury, A. C. (2000). How and whom the US president sanctions: A time-series cross-section analysis of us sanction decisions and characteristics. In Chan, S., Cooper, D. A., Sanctions as economic statecraft: theory and practice, New York: St. Martin’s Press.
  • Eland, I. (1995). Economic sanctions as tools of foreign policy. In Cortright, D., Lopez, G. A., Economic sanctions: panacea or peacebuilding in a post-cold war world?. Boulder: Westview Press.
  • Fearon, J. D. (1994). Domestic political audiences and the escalation of international disputes. American Political Science Review, 88, 577-592.
  • Galtung, J. (1967). On the effects of international economic sanctions: with examples from the case of Rhodesia. World Politics, 19 (3), 378-416.
  • Galtung, J. (1966). On the effects of international economic sanctions. World Politics, 19, 411.
  • Hufbauer, G., Schott, J., Elliott, K., Oegg, B. (2007). Economic sanctions reconsidered (3rd edition). Washington: Peterson Institute for International Economics.
  • Hufbauer, G., Schott, J., Elliott, K. (1990). Economic sanctions reconsidered (2nd edition). Washington: Peterson Institute for International Economics.
  • Hufbauer, G., Oegg, B. (2006). Economic sanctions for foreign policy purposes: A survey of the twentieth century. In Kerr, W.A., & Gaisford, J. D., Handbook on international trade policy, Cornwall: Edward Elgar Publishing.
  • Kaempfer, W. H., Lowenberg, A. D. (2000). A public choice analysis of the political economy of international sanctions. In Chan S., & Drury, A. C., Sanctions as economic statecraft: theory and practice, New York: St. Martin’s Press.
  • Kaempfer, W. H., Lowenberg, A. D. (2007). Political economy of economic sanctions. In Sandler T., & Hartley, K., Handbook of defense economics.
  • Kaempfer, W. H., Lowenberg, A. D. (1992). International economic sanctions: A public choice perspective. Boulder: Westview Press.
  • King, G., Keohane, R. O., Verba, S. (2006). Designing social inquiry: Scientific inference in qualitative research. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
  • Lektzian, D., Souva, M. (2003). The economic peace between democracies: Economic sanctions and domestic institutions. Journal of Peace Research, 40 (6), 641-660.
  • Lektzian, D., Souva, M. (2007). An institutional theory of sanctions onset and success. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 51 (6), 848-871.
  • Lopez, G. A., Cortright, D. (1995). Economic sanctions in contemporary global relations. In Lopez, G. A., Cortright, D., Economic sanctions: panacea or peace-building in a post-cold war world?. Boulder: Westview.
  • McGillivray, F., Smith, A. (2000). Trust and cooperation through agent-specific punishments. International Organization, 54, 809–824.
  • Nooruddin, I. (2001). Modeling selection bias in studies of sanctions efficacy. International Interactions, 28, 59-75.
  • Nossal, K. R. (1999). Liberal democratic regimes, international sanctions, and global governance. In Vayrynen, R., Globalization and global governance, Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield.
  • Pape, R. (1997). Why economic sanctions do not work?. International Security, 22 (2), 90-136.
  • Raab, M., Ruland, M., Schönberger, B., Blossfeld, H-P., Hofäcker, D. (2007). GlobalIndex - a multidimensional approach to globalization measurement. http://www.transeurope-project.org
  • Simons, G. (1999). Imposing economic sanctions: Legal remedy or genocidal tool?. London: Pluto Press.
  • Tomz, M. (2007). Domestic audience costs in international relations: an experimental approach. International Organization, 61, pp. 821-40.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Social, Humanities, Multidisciplinary, Economics, Management, Business Finance
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Murad DUZCU> (Primary Author)

0000-0001-5587-4774

Publication Date March 30, 2019
Published in Issue Year 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1

Cite

APA Duzcu, M. (2019). ECONOMIC SANCTIONS AND GLOBALIZATION: ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF THE GLOBALIZATION LEVEL OF TARGET STATE ON SANCTIONS EFFICACY . Journal of Economics Finance and Accounting , 6 (1) , 41-54 . DOI: 10.17261/Pressacademia.2019.1027

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