Research Article
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Kinetic Modelling of a Landfill Anaerobic Digestion Temperature in Relation to Multiphase Flow Across Unsaturated Porous Waste Media

Year 2022, Volume 17, Issue 3, 85 - 103, 31.10.2022

Abstract

Because an engineered landfill gas production unit is a closed system where organic waste is buried and compacted, there is need to understudy the kinetics under which gas evolves thereof. In this study, models were developed for multiphase flow across unsaturated porous waste media, semi-saturated and saturated media in a prototype landfill system. The anaerobic digestion temperature regime was kinetically Modelled for low, intermediate, and high landfill gas pressures as well as mass flow rates. The gas transport was modelled based on one dimensional transient basic differential equation while the biochemical kinetics was modelled based on Monod’s Equation. The models which were developed for anaerobic digestion temperature at mesophilic range of 305, 309, 313, 317 and 321 K were narrowed down to multiphase flow across unsaturated porous organic waste media. The average maximum landfill gas pressures at low, intermediate, and high-pressure zones within the landfill confinements were recorded as 10.87, 13.31, 15.3, 17.8 and 20.4 KPa for the aforementioned mesophilic temperature along between flow distance of 0.0 and 0.045 m. Similarly, maximum mass flow rate of 1E-07, 1E-06, 1E-05, 1E-03 and 1E-01 kg/s were obtained for landfill gas at the same mesophilic temperature range. This indicated that landfill temperature is proportional to the average kinetic energy of the landfill gas densities and particles. Therefore, constant increase in the landfill temperature scaled up the heat rate per unit area of the landfill, which in turn served as a catalyst for microbial breakdown of organic waste for the generation and acceleration of gas flow within the landfill confinements.

References

  • Kjeldsen, P. and Fischer, E. V. (1995) Landfill gas migration-field investigations at Skellingsted landfill, Denmark. Waste Management and Resource, 13(5), 467-484 (1995).
  • Spokas KA, Bogner JE, (1996) Field system for continuous measurement of landfill gas pressures and temperatures. Waste Management and Resource, 14(3), 233-242.
  • Bentley HW, Smith SJ, Tang J, Walter GR, (2003) A method for estimating the rate of landfill gas generation by measurement and analysis of barometric pressure waves. In: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Solid Waste Technology and Management, Philadelphia, USA.
  • Orhorhoro EK, Ikpe AE, Ukwaba SI, (2018) Effects of Landfill Gas Flow Trajectories at Three Distinct Temperature Phases on the Stress-Strain-Displacement Properties of a Gas Extraction Pipe. Journal of Applied Science and Environmental Management, 22(11), 1737-1743.
  • Gebert J, Groengroeft A, (2006) Passive landfill gas emission-influence of atmospheric pressure and implications for the operation of methane-oxidising biofilters. Waste Management, 26(3), 245-251.
  • Chen ZK, Coo JL, Ng CW, (2016) Experimental study of gas breakthrough and emission in an unsaturated clay landfill cover. E3S Web of Conferences, 9, 13005.
  • Nec Y, Huculak G, (2010) Landfill gas flow: collection by horizontal wells. Thompson Rivers University, Kamloops, British Columbia, Canada.
  • Zhang T, Shi JY, Qian XD, Ai YB (2019) Temperature and gas pressure monitoring and leachate pumping tests in a newly filled MSW layer of a landfill. International Journal of Environmental Resources, 13(1), 1-19.
  • Ikpe, AE, Ndon AE, Etim PJ, (2020a) A Conceptual Framework for Bio-thermal variations in Municipal Solid Waste Landfill under Mesophilic Temperature Regime. International Journal of Computational and Experimental Science and Engineering, 6(3), 152-164.
  • Ikpe AE., Ndon AE, Etim PJ, (2020b) Fuzzy Modelling and Optimization of Anaerobic Co-Digestion Process Parameters for Effective Biogas Yield from Bio-Wastes. The International Journal of Energy & Engineering Sciences, 5(2), 43-61.
  • Feng Q, Liu L, Xue Q, Zhao Y, (2009) Landfill Gas Generation and Transport in Bioreactor Landfill. Proceedings of International Symposium on Geoenvironmental Engineering, 633-636, September 8-10, Hangzhou, China.
  • Ikpe AE, Ndon AE, Etuk EM, (2020c) Parametric Study of Polypropylene Based Geotextile Mat for Optimum Performance in Engineered Landfill Systems. Applications of Modelling and Simulation, 4, 149-158.
  • Ikpe AE, Ndon AE, Adoh AU. (2019) Modelling and Simulation of High Density Polyethylene Liner Installation in Engineered Landfill for Optimum Performance. Journal of Applied Science and Environmental Management, 23(3), 449-456.
  • Ebunilo PO, Okovido J, Ikpe AE, (2018) Investigation of the energy (biogas) production from co-digestion of organic waste materials. International Journal of Energy Applications and Technologies, 5(2), 68-75.
  • Lefebvre X, Lanini S, Houi D, (2000) The role of aerobic activity on refuse temperature rise, I. Landfill experimental study. Waste Management and Resources, 18(5), 444-452.
  • Jang YS, Kim YI, (2003) Behaviour of a municipal landfill from field measurement data during a waste-disposal period. Environmental Earth Sciences, 44(5), 592–598.
  • Hedderich R, Whitman WB, (2006) Physiology and Biochemistry of Methane-Producing Archaea. In Dworking, M. editor. The Prokaryotes, 3rd Edition. Springer, New York.
  • Ikpe AE, Imonitie DI, Ndon, AE, (2019) Investigation of Biogas Energy Derivation from Anaerobic Digestion of Different Local Food Wastes in Nigeria. Academic Platform Journal of Engineering and Science, 7(2), 332-340.
  • Borrel G, Toole PW, Harris H, Peyeret P, Brugere JF, Gribaldo S, (2013) Phylogenomic Data Support a Seventh Order of Methylotrophic Methanogens and Provide Insights into the Evolution of Methanogenesis. Genome Biology and Evolution, 5(10), 1769-1780.
  • Buivid MG, Wise DL, Blanchet MJ, Remedios EC, Jenkins BN, Boyd WF, Pacey JG, (1981) Fuel gas enhancement by controlled landfilling municipal solid waste. Resource and Conservation, 6(1), 3-20.
  • Li YC, Cleall PJ, Ma XF, Zhan TL, Chen YM, (2012) Gas pressure model for layered municipal solid waste landfills. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 138(7), 752-760.
  • Li YC, Zheng J, Chen YM, Guo RY, (2013) One-dimensional transient analytical solution for gas pressure in municipal solid waste landfills. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 139(12), 1441-1445.
  • Khalil MJ, Gupta R, Sharma K, (2014) Microbiological Degradation of Municipal Solid Waste in Landfills for LFG Generation. International Journal of Engineering and Technical Research, 2321, 10-14.
  • Lu S, Xiong J, Feng S, Chen H, Bai Z, Fu W, Lu F, (2019) A finite-volume numerical model for bio-hydro-mechanical behaviours of municipal solid waste in landfills. Computers and Geotechnics, 109, 204-219.
  • Nastev M, Therrien R, Lefebvre R, Gélinas P, (2001) Gas production and migration in landfills and geological materials. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 52(1-4), 187–211.
  • Liu H, Luo X, Jiang X, Cui C, Huyan Z, (2021) The Evaluation System of the Sustainable Development of Municipal Solid Waste Landfills and Its Application. Sustainability, 13(1150), 1-17.
  • Haug RT, (1993) The Practical Handbook of Compost Engineering. Lewis Publishers, Florida, USA.
  • Reid, R. C., Prausnitz, J. M., and Poling, B. E. (1987) The properties of gases and liquids, McGraw-Hill, New York.
  • Durmusoglu E, (2002) Municipal landfill settlement with refuse decomposition and gas generation. PhD dissertation, Texas A&M University, College Station.
  • Zhang T, Shi J, Wu X, Lin H, Li X, (2021) Simulation of Gas Transport in A Landfill with Layered New and Old Municipal Solid Waste. Scientific Report, 11, 9436-9449.
  • Baptista M, Antunes F, Souteiro GM, Morvan B, Silveira A, (2010) Composting kinetics in full-scale mechanical-biological treatment plants. Waste Management, 30(10), 1908-1921.
  • Zeng HY, Diao NR, Fang ZH, (2002) A finite line-source model for boreholes in geothermal heat exchangers. Heat Transfer-Asian Research, 31(7), 558-567.
  • Yang Y, (2016) Analyses of Heat Transfer and Temperature-induced Behaviour in Geotechnics. Ruhr-University, Bochum, Germany.
  • Nield D, Bejan A, (2006) Convection in porous media, 3rd Edition. Berlin, Springer, 2006.
  • Sole-Mauri F, Illa J, Magrí A, Prenafeta-Boldú FX, Flotats X, (2007) An integrated biochemical and physical model for the composting process. Bioresource Technology, 98(17), 3278-3293.
  • Schink B, Stamms AJ, (2006) Syntrophism among Prokaryotes. In: Dworkin M., Editor. The Prokaryotes, 3rd Edition, p. 309-335, Springer-Verlag, New York.
  • Mason IG, (2009) Predicting biodegradable volatile solids degradation profiles in the composting process. Waste Management, 29(2), 559-569.
  • Lin YP, Huang GH, Lu HW, He L, (2008) Modelling of substrate degradation and oxygen consumption in waste composting processes. Waste Management, 28(8), 1375-1385.
  • Qin X, Huang G, Zeng G, Chakma A, Xi B, (2007) A fuzzy composting process model. Journal of Air and Waste Management Association, 57(5), 535-550.
  • Bear J, (1972) Dynamics of Fluids in Porous Media. Dover Publications Inc, New York, ISBN: 0-486-65675-6.
  • Staub M, Galietti B, Oxarango L, Khire MV, Gourc JP, (2009) Porosity and hydraulic conductivity of MSW using laboratory-scale tests. In: Third International Conference of Hydro-Physico-Mechanics of Landfills, Braunschweig, Germany, 10-13 March.
  • Beaven RP, Powrie W, (1995) Determination of the hydrogeological and geotechnical properties of refuse using a large scale compression cell. In: Sardinia 1995, Fifth International Landfill Symposium, S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Italy, 2-6 October.
  • Higgins CW, Walker LP, (2001) Validation of a new model for aerobic organic solids decomposition: simulations with substrate specific kinetics. Process Biochemistry, 36, 875-884.
  • Nayagum D, White J, Rees-White T, Holmes D, Zardava K, (2009.) Modelling study of field-scale aerobic treatment of waste using forced-air injection. In: Sardinia 2009, Twelfth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium, S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Italy, 5-9 October.
  • Rees-White TC., Beaven RP, White JK, Nyagum R, Braithwaite P, Purcell B, (2008). Monitoring and modeling air flow and distribution at a forced-air aerobic waste treatment plant. In: Proceedings of Waste Management Symposium, Stratford-upon-Avon, UK, 07-10 September.
  • Iannelli R, Giraldi D, Pollini M, Russomanno F, (2005) Effect of pure oxygen injection as an alternative to air and oxygen-enriched air in the composting processes. In: Sardinia 2005, Tenth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium, S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Italy, 3-5 October.
  • Komilis D, Evangelou A, Giannakis G, Lymperis C, (2012) Revisiting the elemental composition and the calorific value of the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes. Waste Management, 32(3), 372–381.
  • Rosso L, Lobry JR, Flandrois JP, (1993) An unexpected correlation between cardinal temperatures of microbial growth highlighted by a new model. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 162, 447-463.
  • Nikoli E, Voudrias E, (2009) Using biogas for energy production: comparison between anaerobic digestion and landfilling. In: Sardinia 2009, Twelfth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium, S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Italy, 5-9 October.
  • Fytanidis DK, Voudrias AE, (2014) Numerical simulation of landfill aeration using computational fluid dynamics. Waste Management, 34(4), 804-816.
  • Mualem Y, (1976) A new model for predicting the hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated porous media. Water Resources Research, 12(3), 513-522. Ranz WE, Marshall WR, (1952a) Evaporation from drops, Part I: Chemical Engineering Progress, 48 (3), 141-146.
  • Ranz, W.E., Marshall WR, (1952b) Evaporation from drops: Part II. Chemical Engineering Progress, 48(4), 173-180.
  • van Genuchten MT, (1980) A closed form equation for predicting the hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 44(5), 892-898.
  • Sikora A, Detman A, Chojnacka A, Blaszczyk MK, (2017) Fermentation Processes. IntechOpen Limited, UK.

Year 2022, Volume 17, Issue 3, 85 - 103, 31.10.2022

Abstract

References

  • Kjeldsen, P. and Fischer, E. V. (1995) Landfill gas migration-field investigations at Skellingsted landfill, Denmark. Waste Management and Resource, 13(5), 467-484 (1995).
  • Spokas KA, Bogner JE, (1996) Field system for continuous measurement of landfill gas pressures and temperatures. Waste Management and Resource, 14(3), 233-242.
  • Bentley HW, Smith SJ, Tang J, Walter GR, (2003) A method for estimating the rate of landfill gas generation by measurement and analysis of barometric pressure waves. In: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Solid Waste Technology and Management, Philadelphia, USA.
  • Orhorhoro EK, Ikpe AE, Ukwaba SI, (2018) Effects of Landfill Gas Flow Trajectories at Three Distinct Temperature Phases on the Stress-Strain-Displacement Properties of a Gas Extraction Pipe. Journal of Applied Science and Environmental Management, 22(11), 1737-1743.
  • Gebert J, Groengroeft A, (2006) Passive landfill gas emission-influence of atmospheric pressure and implications for the operation of methane-oxidising biofilters. Waste Management, 26(3), 245-251.
  • Chen ZK, Coo JL, Ng CW, (2016) Experimental study of gas breakthrough and emission in an unsaturated clay landfill cover. E3S Web of Conferences, 9, 13005.
  • Nec Y, Huculak G, (2010) Landfill gas flow: collection by horizontal wells. Thompson Rivers University, Kamloops, British Columbia, Canada.
  • Zhang T, Shi JY, Qian XD, Ai YB (2019) Temperature and gas pressure monitoring and leachate pumping tests in a newly filled MSW layer of a landfill. International Journal of Environmental Resources, 13(1), 1-19.
  • Ikpe, AE, Ndon AE, Etim PJ, (2020a) A Conceptual Framework for Bio-thermal variations in Municipal Solid Waste Landfill under Mesophilic Temperature Regime. International Journal of Computational and Experimental Science and Engineering, 6(3), 152-164.
  • Ikpe AE., Ndon AE, Etim PJ, (2020b) Fuzzy Modelling and Optimization of Anaerobic Co-Digestion Process Parameters for Effective Biogas Yield from Bio-Wastes. The International Journal of Energy & Engineering Sciences, 5(2), 43-61.
  • Feng Q, Liu L, Xue Q, Zhao Y, (2009) Landfill Gas Generation and Transport in Bioreactor Landfill. Proceedings of International Symposium on Geoenvironmental Engineering, 633-636, September 8-10, Hangzhou, China.
  • Ikpe AE, Ndon AE, Etuk EM, (2020c) Parametric Study of Polypropylene Based Geotextile Mat for Optimum Performance in Engineered Landfill Systems. Applications of Modelling and Simulation, 4, 149-158.
  • Ikpe AE, Ndon AE, Adoh AU. (2019) Modelling and Simulation of High Density Polyethylene Liner Installation in Engineered Landfill for Optimum Performance. Journal of Applied Science and Environmental Management, 23(3), 449-456.
  • Ebunilo PO, Okovido J, Ikpe AE, (2018) Investigation of the energy (biogas) production from co-digestion of organic waste materials. International Journal of Energy Applications and Technologies, 5(2), 68-75.
  • Lefebvre X, Lanini S, Houi D, (2000) The role of aerobic activity on refuse temperature rise, I. Landfill experimental study. Waste Management and Resources, 18(5), 444-452.
  • Jang YS, Kim YI, (2003) Behaviour of a municipal landfill from field measurement data during a waste-disposal period. Environmental Earth Sciences, 44(5), 592–598.
  • Hedderich R, Whitman WB, (2006) Physiology and Biochemistry of Methane-Producing Archaea. In Dworking, M. editor. The Prokaryotes, 3rd Edition. Springer, New York.
  • Ikpe AE, Imonitie DI, Ndon, AE, (2019) Investigation of Biogas Energy Derivation from Anaerobic Digestion of Different Local Food Wastes in Nigeria. Academic Platform Journal of Engineering and Science, 7(2), 332-340.
  • Borrel G, Toole PW, Harris H, Peyeret P, Brugere JF, Gribaldo S, (2013) Phylogenomic Data Support a Seventh Order of Methylotrophic Methanogens and Provide Insights into the Evolution of Methanogenesis. Genome Biology and Evolution, 5(10), 1769-1780.
  • Buivid MG, Wise DL, Blanchet MJ, Remedios EC, Jenkins BN, Boyd WF, Pacey JG, (1981) Fuel gas enhancement by controlled landfilling municipal solid waste. Resource and Conservation, 6(1), 3-20.
  • Li YC, Cleall PJ, Ma XF, Zhan TL, Chen YM, (2012) Gas pressure model for layered municipal solid waste landfills. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 138(7), 752-760.
  • Li YC, Zheng J, Chen YM, Guo RY, (2013) One-dimensional transient analytical solution for gas pressure in municipal solid waste landfills. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 139(12), 1441-1445.
  • Khalil MJ, Gupta R, Sharma K, (2014) Microbiological Degradation of Municipal Solid Waste in Landfills for LFG Generation. International Journal of Engineering and Technical Research, 2321, 10-14.
  • Lu S, Xiong J, Feng S, Chen H, Bai Z, Fu W, Lu F, (2019) A finite-volume numerical model for bio-hydro-mechanical behaviours of municipal solid waste in landfills. Computers and Geotechnics, 109, 204-219.
  • Nastev M, Therrien R, Lefebvre R, Gélinas P, (2001) Gas production and migration in landfills and geological materials. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 52(1-4), 187–211.
  • Liu H, Luo X, Jiang X, Cui C, Huyan Z, (2021) The Evaluation System of the Sustainable Development of Municipal Solid Waste Landfills and Its Application. Sustainability, 13(1150), 1-17.
  • Haug RT, (1993) The Practical Handbook of Compost Engineering. Lewis Publishers, Florida, USA.
  • Reid, R. C., Prausnitz, J. M., and Poling, B. E. (1987) The properties of gases and liquids, McGraw-Hill, New York.
  • Durmusoglu E, (2002) Municipal landfill settlement with refuse decomposition and gas generation. PhD dissertation, Texas A&M University, College Station.
  • Zhang T, Shi J, Wu X, Lin H, Li X, (2021) Simulation of Gas Transport in A Landfill with Layered New and Old Municipal Solid Waste. Scientific Report, 11, 9436-9449.
  • Baptista M, Antunes F, Souteiro GM, Morvan B, Silveira A, (2010) Composting kinetics in full-scale mechanical-biological treatment plants. Waste Management, 30(10), 1908-1921.
  • Zeng HY, Diao NR, Fang ZH, (2002) A finite line-source model for boreholes in geothermal heat exchangers. Heat Transfer-Asian Research, 31(7), 558-567.
  • Yang Y, (2016) Analyses of Heat Transfer and Temperature-induced Behaviour in Geotechnics. Ruhr-University, Bochum, Germany.
  • Nield D, Bejan A, (2006) Convection in porous media, 3rd Edition. Berlin, Springer, 2006.
  • Sole-Mauri F, Illa J, Magrí A, Prenafeta-Boldú FX, Flotats X, (2007) An integrated biochemical and physical model for the composting process. Bioresource Technology, 98(17), 3278-3293.
  • Schink B, Stamms AJ, (2006) Syntrophism among Prokaryotes. In: Dworkin M., Editor. The Prokaryotes, 3rd Edition, p. 309-335, Springer-Verlag, New York.
  • Mason IG, (2009) Predicting biodegradable volatile solids degradation profiles in the composting process. Waste Management, 29(2), 559-569.
  • Lin YP, Huang GH, Lu HW, He L, (2008) Modelling of substrate degradation and oxygen consumption in waste composting processes. Waste Management, 28(8), 1375-1385.
  • Qin X, Huang G, Zeng G, Chakma A, Xi B, (2007) A fuzzy composting process model. Journal of Air and Waste Management Association, 57(5), 535-550.
  • Bear J, (1972) Dynamics of Fluids in Porous Media. Dover Publications Inc, New York, ISBN: 0-486-65675-6.
  • Staub M, Galietti B, Oxarango L, Khire MV, Gourc JP, (2009) Porosity and hydraulic conductivity of MSW using laboratory-scale tests. In: Third International Conference of Hydro-Physico-Mechanics of Landfills, Braunschweig, Germany, 10-13 March.
  • Beaven RP, Powrie W, (1995) Determination of the hydrogeological and geotechnical properties of refuse using a large scale compression cell. In: Sardinia 1995, Fifth International Landfill Symposium, S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Italy, 2-6 October.
  • Higgins CW, Walker LP, (2001) Validation of a new model for aerobic organic solids decomposition: simulations with substrate specific kinetics. Process Biochemistry, 36, 875-884.
  • Nayagum D, White J, Rees-White T, Holmes D, Zardava K, (2009.) Modelling study of field-scale aerobic treatment of waste using forced-air injection. In: Sardinia 2009, Twelfth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium, S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Italy, 5-9 October.
  • Rees-White TC., Beaven RP, White JK, Nyagum R, Braithwaite P, Purcell B, (2008). Monitoring and modeling air flow and distribution at a forced-air aerobic waste treatment plant. In: Proceedings of Waste Management Symposium, Stratford-upon-Avon, UK, 07-10 September.
  • Iannelli R, Giraldi D, Pollini M, Russomanno F, (2005) Effect of pure oxygen injection as an alternative to air and oxygen-enriched air in the composting processes. In: Sardinia 2005, Tenth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium, S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Italy, 3-5 October.
  • Komilis D, Evangelou A, Giannakis G, Lymperis C, (2012) Revisiting the elemental composition and the calorific value of the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes. Waste Management, 32(3), 372–381.
  • Rosso L, Lobry JR, Flandrois JP, (1993) An unexpected correlation between cardinal temperatures of microbial growth highlighted by a new model. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 162, 447-463.
  • Nikoli E, Voudrias E, (2009) Using biogas for energy production: comparison between anaerobic digestion and landfilling. In: Sardinia 2009, Twelfth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium, S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Italy, 5-9 October.
  • Fytanidis DK, Voudrias AE, (2014) Numerical simulation of landfill aeration using computational fluid dynamics. Waste Management, 34(4), 804-816.
  • Mualem Y, (1976) A new model for predicting the hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated porous media. Water Resources Research, 12(3), 513-522. Ranz WE, Marshall WR, (1952a) Evaporation from drops, Part I: Chemical Engineering Progress, 48 (3), 141-146.
  • Ranz, W.E., Marshall WR, (1952b) Evaporation from drops: Part II. Chemical Engineering Progress, 48(4), 173-180.
  • van Genuchten MT, (1980) A closed form equation for predicting the hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 44(5), 892-898.
  • Sikora A, Detman A, Chojnacka A, Blaszczyk MK, (2017) Fermentation Processes. IntechOpen Limited, UK.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Geology
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Aniekan IKPE> (Primary Author)
Akwa Ibom State Polytechnic
0000-0001-9069-9676
Nigeria


Victor UDOH>
Akwa Ibom State Polytechnic
Nigeria

Publication Date October 31, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 17, Issue 3

Cite

Bibtex @research article { jieas1149813, journal = {Journal of International Environmental Application and Science}, issn = {1307-0428}, eissn = {2636-7661}, address = {}, publisher = {Selcuk University}, year = {2022}, volume = {17}, number = {3}, pages = {85 - 103}, title = {Kinetic Modelling of a Landfill Anaerobic Digestion Temperature in Relation to Multiphase Flow Across Unsaturated Porous Waste Media}, key = {cite}, author = {Ikpe, Aniekan and Udoh, Victor} }
APA Ikpe, A. & Udoh, V. (2022). Kinetic Modelling of a Landfill Anaerobic Digestion Temperature in Relation to Multiphase Flow Across Unsaturated Porous Waste Media . Journal of International Environmental Application and Science , 17 (3) , 85-103 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/jieas/issue/73353/1149813
MLA Ikpe, A. , Udoh, V. "Kinetic Modelling of a Landfill Anaerobic Digestion Temperature in Relation to Multiphase Flow Across Unsaturated Porous Waste Media" . Journal of International Environmental Application and Science 17 (2022 ): 85-103 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/jieas/issue/73353/1149813>
Chicago Ikpe, A. , Udoh, V. "Kinetic Modelling of a Landfill Anaerobic Digestion Temperature in Relation to Multiphase Flow Across Unsaturated Porous Waste Media". Journal of International Environmental Application and Science 17 (2022 ): 85-103
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Kinetic Modelling of a Landfill Anaerobic Digestion Temperature in Relation to Multiphase Flow Across Unsaturated Porous Waste Media AU - AniekanIkpe, VictorUdoh Y1 - 2022 PY - 2022 N1 - DO - T2 - Journal of International Environmental Application and Science JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 85 EP - 103 VL - 17 IS - 3 SN - 1307-0428-2636-7661 M3 - UR - Y2 - 2022 ER -
EndNote %0 Journal of International Environmental Application and Science Kinetic Modelling of a Landfill Anaerobic Digestion Temperature in Relation to Multiphase Flow Across Unsaturated Porous Waste Media %A Aniekan Ikpe , Victor Udoh %T Kinetic Modelling of a Landfill Anaerobic Digestion Temperature in Relation to Multiphase Flow Across Unsaturated Porous Waste Media %D 2022 %J Journal of International Environmental Application and Science %P 1307-0428-2636-7661 %V 17 %N 3 %R %U
ISNAD Ikpe, Aniekan , Udoh, Victor . "Kinetic Modelling of a Landfill Anaerobic Digestion Temperature in Relation to Multiphase Flow Across Unsaturated Porous Waste Media". Journal of International Environmental Application and Science 17 / 3 (October 2022): 85-103 .
AMA Ikpe A. , Udoh V. Kinetic Modelling of a Landfill Anaerobic Digestion Temperature in Relation to Multiphase Flow Across Unsaturated Porous Waste Media. JIEAS. 2022; 17(3): 85-103.
Vancouver Ikpe A. , Udoh V. Kinetic Modelling of a Landfill Anaerobic Digestion Temperature in Relation to Multiphase Flow Across Unsaturated Porous Waste Media. Journal of International Environmental Application and Science. 2022; 17(3): 85-103.
IEEE A. Ikpe and V. Udoh , "Kinetic Modelling of a Landfill Anaerobic Digestion Temperature in Relation to Multiphase Flow Across Unsaturated Porous Waste Media", Journal of International Environmental Application and Science, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 85-103, Oct. 2022

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