Research Article
PDF EndNote BibTex RIS Cite

The Impact of COVID-19 on Water Consumption and Treatment Capacity in Tourism Area: Example of Bodrum

Year 2022, Volume 17, Issue 4, 156 - 164, 31.12.2022

Abstract

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused many countries to close their borders, and large numbers of people have begun to spend their holidays and vacation time within their own countries rather than traveling abroad. This study assesses the impact of the pandemic on water consumption and wastewater generation in a popular tourist Aegean city (Bodrum, Turkey) and its suburbia where many visitors moved in to live there for an unforeseen future. The effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on water consumption within the residential and commercial areas showed a significant decrease in water consumption in commercial areas (%23) and an increase in the residential areas (%15) during the pandemic period. The wastewater in residential areas had to be treated in a large number of on-site wastewater treatment plants, apart from the central treatment plants which may pose a risk to the groundwater and surface water resources of the region. This shows that the treatment technologies and capacities of wastewater treatment plants need to be revised for situations such as unexpected pandemics.

References

  • Balamurugan M, Kasiviswanathan KS, Ilampooranan I, Soundharajan BS, (2021) COVID-19 Lockdown Disruptions on Water Resources, Wastewater, and Agriculture in India. Front. Water. 3, 603531. doi: 10.3389/frwa.2021.603531.
  • Bandala ER, Kruger BR, Cesarino I, Leao AL, Wijesiri B, Goonetilleke A, (2021) Impacts of COVID-19 pandemic on the wastewater pathway into surface water: A review. Sci. Total Environ. 774, 145586. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.145586
  • Bich-Ngoc N, Teller J, (2020) Potential effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic through Changes in Outbound Tourism on Water Demand: The Case of Liège (Belgium) Water 12, 2820; doi:10.3390/w12102820 www.mdpi.
  • Bin J, Zhao Y, Wei T, Kang P, (2021) Water science under the global epidemic of COVID-19: Bibliometric tracking on COVID-19 publication and further research needs. J. Environ. Chem. Engin. 9 105357.from https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jece.2021.105357.
  • Cheng Y, Zhang J, Wei W, Zhao B, (2021) Effects of urban parks on residents’ expressed happiness before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, Landsc Urban Plan, 212, 104118. https://pesquisa.bvsalud.org/global-literature-on-novel-coronavirus-2019-ncov/resource/pt/covidwho-1179872
  • CSB (2021) Repubic of Turkey Ministery of Environment and Urbanisation. Retrieved July, 2021, from https://eizin.cevre.gov.tr/Rapor/BelgeArama.aspx.
  • Donde OO, Atoni E, Muia AW, Yillia PT, (2021) COVID-19 pandemic: water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) as a critical control measure remains a major challenge in low-income countries, Water Res. 191, 116793. doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2020.116793
  • Dong E, Du H, Gardner L (2019) An interactive web-based dashboard to track COVID-19 in real time. Lancet Infect Dis; published online Feb 19. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30120-1.
  • DSİ (2010) Muğla-Bodrum peninsula drinking water treatment facility and transmission lines feasibility report (p. 213). Aydın: Ministry of Forestry and Water Affairs. General Directorate of State Hydraulic Works. XXI. Regional Directorate.
  • Ghasemi A, Zahediasl S, (2012) Normality tests for statistical analysis: a guide for non-statisticians. Int. J. Endocrinol. Metab. 10: 486–489. https://doi.org/10.5812/ijem.3505.
  • Howard G, Bartram J, Brocklehurst, Colford CJM, Costa, Cunliffe D, Dreibelbis R et al (2020) COVID-19: urgent actions, critical reflections and future relevance of ‘WaSH’: lessons for the current and future pandemics. J. Water Health 18, 613–630. doi: 10.2166/wh.2020.162
  • Huang NE, Qiao F, (2020) A data driven time-dependent transmission rate for tracking an epidemic: a case study of 2019-nCoV. Sci. Bull. 65: 425–427. https://doi.org/10. 1016/j.scib.2020.02.005.
  • Kalbusch A, Henning E, Brikalski MP, Vieira FL, Konrath AC, (2020) Impact of coronavirus (COVID-19) spread-prevention actions on urban water consumption. Resources, Conservation & Recycling 163, 105098.
  • Kasiviswanathan KS, Saravanan S, Balamurugan M, Saravanan K, (2016) Genetic programming based monthly groundwater level forecast models with uncertainty quantification. Model. Earth Syst. Environ. 2, 27. doi: 10.1007/s40808-016-0083-0.
  • Koç C, Bakış R, Bayazıt Y, (2017) A study on assessing the domestic water resources, demands and it quality in holiday region of Bodrum Peninsula, Turkey. Elsevier, Tourism Manag. 62, 10-19. doi:10.1016/j.tourman.2017.03.024
  • Kuroda K, Li C, Dhangar K, Kumar M, (2021) Predicted occurrence, ecotoxicological risk and environmentally acquired resistance of antiviral drugs associated with COVID-19 in environmental waters. Sci. Total Environ. 776, 145710. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.145740.
  • Lau JTF, Griffiths S, Choi KC, Tsui HY, (2009) Widespread public misconception in the early phase of the H1N1 influenza epidemic. J. Infection 59:122–127. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2009.06.004.
  • Lüdtke DU, Luetkemeier R, Schneemann M, Liehr S (2021) Increase in Daily Household Water Demand during the First Wave of the Covid-19 Pandemic in Germany. Water 13, 260. https://doi.org/10.3390/ w13030260. Republic of Turkey Ministry of Health, https://covid19.saglik.gov.tr/.
  • Stoler J, Jepson WE, Wutich A, (2020) Beyond handwashing: water insecurity undermines COVID-19 response in developing areas. J. Glob. Health 10, 010355. doi: 10.7189/jogh.10.010355
  • Sun AY, Scanlon BR, (2019) How can Big Data and machine learning benefit environment and water management: a survey of methods, applications, and future directions. Environ. Res. Lett. 14, 073001. doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/ab1b7d.
  • Tetteh EK, Amankwa MO, Armah EK, Rathilal S, (2020) Fate of COVID-19 Occurrences in Wastewater Systems: Emerging Detection and Treatment Technologies—A Review. Water, 12, 2680; doi:10.3390/w12102680.
  • Tian F, Lu Y, Hu H, Kinzelbach W, Sivapalan M (2019) Dynamics and driving mechanisms of asymmetric human water consumption during alternating wet and dry periods. Hydrol. Sci. J. 64, 507–524. doi: 10.1080/02626667.2019.1588972.
  • Tian H, Liu Y, Li Y, Wu C, Chen B, Kraemer MUG, (2020) An investigation of transmission control measures during the first 50 days of the COVID-19 epidemic in China. Science. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abb6105.
  • WHO (2015) Water sanitation and hygiene (WASH) package and WASH safety plans Training of trainers. (World Health Organization) https://www.who.int/csr/disease/ebola/wash-training.pdf? ua=1>(accessed 02 April 2020).
  • World Health Organization, https://covid19.who.int/.

Year 2022, Volume 17, Issue 4, 156 - 164, 31.12.2022

Abstract

References

  • Balamurugan M, Kasiviswanathan KS, Ilampooranan I, Soundharajan BS, (2021) COVID-19 Lockdown Disruptions on Water Resources, Wastewater, and Agriculture in India. Front. Water. 3, 603531. doi: 10.3389/frwa.2021.603531.
  • Bandala ER, Kruger BR, Cesarino I, Leao AL, Wijesiri B, Goonetilleke A, (2021) Impacts of COVID-19 pandemic on the wastewater pathway into surface water: A review. Sci. Total Environ. 774, 145586. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.145586
  • Bich-Ngoc N, Teller J, (2020) Potential effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic through Changes in Outbound Tourism on Water Demand: The Case of Liège (Belgium) Water 12, 2820; doi:10.3390/w12102820 www.mdpi.
  • Bin J, Zhao Y, Wei T, Kang P, (2021) Water science under the global epidemic of COVID-19: Bibliometric tracking on COVID-19 publication and further research needs. J. Environ. Chem. Engin. 9 105357.from https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jece.2021.105357.
  • Cheng Y, Zhang J, Wei W, Zhao B, (2021) Effects of urban parks on residents’ expressed happiness before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, Landsc Urban Plan, 212, 104118. https://pesquisa.bvsalud.org/global-literature-on-novel-coronavirus-2019-ncov/resource/pt/covidwho-1179872
  • CSB (2021) Repubic of Turkey Ministery of Environment and Urbanisation. Retrieved July, 2021, from https://eizin.cevre.gov.tr/Rapor/BelgeArama.aspx.
  • Donde OO, Atoni E, Muia AW, Yillia PT, (2021) COVID-19 pandemic: water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) as a critical control measure remains a major challenge in low-income countries, Water Res. 191, 116793. doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2020.116793
  • Dong E, Du H, Gardner L (2019) An interactive web-based dashboard to track COVID-19 in real time. Lancet Infect Dis; published online Feb 19. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30120-1.
  • DSİ (2010) Muğla-Bodrum peninsula drinking water treatment facility and transmission lines feasibility report (p. 213). Aydın: Ministry of Forestry and Water Affairs. General Directorate of State Hydraulic Works. XXI. Regional Directorate.
  • Ghasemi A, Zahediasl S, (2012) Normality tests for statistical analysis: a guide for non-statisticians. Int. J. Endocrinol. Metab. 10: 486–489. https://doi.org/10.5812/ijem.3505.
  • Howard G, Bartram J, Brocklehurst, Colford CJM, Costa, Cunliffe D, Dreibelbis R et al (2020) COVID-19: urgent actions, critical reflections and future relevance of ‘WaSH’: lessons for the current and future pandemics. J. Water Health 18, 613–630. doi: 10.2166/wh.2020.162
  • Huang NE, Qiao F, (2020) A data driven time-dependent transmission rate for tracking an epidemic: a case study of 2019-nCoV. Sci. Bull. 65: 425–427. https://doi.org/10. 1016/j.scib.2020.02.005.
  • Kalbusch A, Henning E, Brikalski MP, Vieira FL, Konrath AC, (2020) Impact of coronavirus (COVID-19) spread-prevention actions on urban water consumption. Resources, Conservation & Recycling 163, 105098.
  • Kasiviswanathan KS, Saravanan S, Balamurugan M, Saravanan K, (2016) Genetic programming based monthly groundwater level forecast models with uncertainty quantification. Model. Earth Syst. Environ. 2, 27. doi: 10.1007/s40808-016-0083-0.
  • Koç C, Bakış R, Bayazıt Y, (2017) A study on assessing the domestic water resources, demands and it quality in holiday region of Bodrum Peninsula, Turkey. Elsevier, Tourism Manag. 62, 10-19. doi:10.1016/j.tourman.2017.03.024
  • Kuroda K, Li C, Dhangar K, Kumar M, (2021) Predicted occurrence, ecotoxicological risk and environmentally acquired resistance of antiviral drugs associated with COVID-19 in environmental waters. Sci. Total Environ. 776, 145710. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.145740.
  • Lau JTF, Griffiths S, Choi KC, Tsui HY, (2009) Widespread public misconception in the early phase of the H1N1 influenza epidemic. J. Infection 59:122–127. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2009.06.004.
  • Lüdtke DU, Luetkemeier R, Schneemann M, Liehr S (2021) Increase in Daily Household Water Demand during the First Wave of the Covid-19 Pandemic in Germany. Water 13, 260. https://doi.org/10.3390/ w13030260. Republic of Turkey Ministry of Health, https://covid19.saglik.gov.tr/.
  • Stoler J, Jepson WE, Wutich A, (2020) Beyond handwashing: water insecurity undermines COVID-19 response in developing areas. J. Glob. Health 10, 010355. doi: 10.7189/jogh.10.010355
  • Sun AY, Scanlon BR, (2019) How can Big Data and machine learning benefit environment and water management: a survey of methods, applications, and future directions. Environ. Res. Lett. 14, 073001. doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/ab1b7d.
  • Tetteh EK, Amankwa MO, Armah EK, Rathilal S, (2020) Fate of COVID-19 Occurrences in Wastewater Systems: Emerging Detection and Treatment Technologies—A Review. Water, 12, 2680; doi:10.3390/w12102680.
  • Tian F, Lu Y, Hu H, Kinzelbach W, Sivapalan M (2019) Dynamics and driving mechanisms of asymmetric human water consumption during alternating wet and dry periods. Hydrol. Sci. J. 64, 507–524. doi: 10.1080/02626667.2019.1588972.
  • Tian H, Liu Y, Li Y, Wu C, Chen B, Kraemer MUG, (2020) An investigation of transmission control measures during the first 50 days of the COVID-19 epidemic in China. Science. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abb6105.
  • WHO (2015) Water sanitation and hygiene (WASH) package and WASH safety plans Training of trainers. (World Health Organization) https://www.who.int/csr/disease/ebola/wash-training.pdf? ua=1>(accessed 02 April 2020).
  • World Health Organization, https://covid19.who.int/.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Environmental Studies
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Feyyaz KESKİN> (Primary Author)
MUGLA SITKI KOCMAN UNIVERSITY, ENVIRONMENT PROBLEMS RESEARCH AND APPLICATION CENTER
0000-0002-2813-994X
Türkiye


Ahmet DEMİRAK>
MUGLA SITKI KOCMAN UNIVERSITY, FACULTY OF SCIENCE, DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY
0000-0002-6815-8037
Türkiye


Nedim ÖZDEMİR>
MUGLA SITKI KOCMAN UNIVERSITY, FACULTY OF AQUACULTURE
0000-0001-7410-6113
Türkiye


Harika ÖZKAN>
Muğla Water and Sewage Administration General Directorate , Mugla, Turkey
0000-0001-8539-0308
Türkiye


Atilla ÖZKAN>
Muğla Metropolitan Municipality, Mugla, Turkey
0000-0002-0333-9021
Türkiye


Aslı ASLAN>
Department of Biostatistics, Epidemiology, and Environmental Health Sciences Jiann-Ping Hsu College of Public Health, Georgia Southern University
0000-0002-3667-9954
United States

Supporting Institution No funds.
Thanks We would like to thank Muğla Metropolitan Municipality and Muğla Water and Sewage Administration General Directorate for sharing the data used in the study with us.
Early Pub Date December 25, 2022
Publication Date December 31, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 17, Issue 4

Cite

Bibtex @research article { jieas1187294, journal = {Journal of International Environmental Application and Science}, issn = {1307-0428}, eissn = {2636-7661}, address = {}, publisher = {Selcuk University}, year = {2022}, volume = {17}, number = {4}, pages = {156 - 164}, title = {The Impact of COVID-19 on Water Consumption and Treatment Capacity in Tourism Area: Example of Bodrum}, key = {cite}, author = {Keskin, Feyyaz and Demirak, Ahmet and Özdemir, Nedim and Özkan, Harika and Özkan, Atilla and Aslan, Aslı} }
APA Keskin, F. , Demirak, A. , Özdemir, N. , Özkan, H. , Özkan, A. & Aslan, A. (2022). The Impact of COVID-19 on Water Consumption and Treatment Capacity in Tourism Area: Example of Bodrum . Journal of International Environmental Application and Science , 17 (4) , 156-164 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/jieas/issue/74146/1187294
MLA Keskin, F. , Demirak, A. , Özdemir, N. , Özkan, H. , Özkan, A. , Aslan, A. "The Impact of COVID-19 on Water Consumption and Treatment Capacity in Tourism Area: Example of Bodrum" . Journal of International Environmental Application and Science 17 (2022 ): 156-164 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/jieas/issue/74146/1187294>
Chicago Keskin, F. , Demirak, A. , Özdemir, N. , Özkan, H. , Özkan, A. , Aslan, A. "The Impact of COVID-19 on Water Consumption and Treatment Capacity in Tourism Area: Example of Bodrum". Journal of International Environmental Application and Science 17 (2022 ): 156-164
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - The Impact of COVID-19 on Water Consumption and Treatment Capacity in Tourism Area: Example of Bodrum AU - FeyyazKeskin, AhmetDemirak, NedimÖzdemir, HarikaÖzkan, AtillaÖzkan, AslıAslan Y1 - 2022 PY - 2022 N1 - DO - T2 - Journal of International Environmental Application and Science JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 156 EP - 164 VL - 17 IS - 4 SN - 1307-0428-2636-7661 M3 - UR - Y2 - 2022 ER -
EndNote %0 Journal of International Environmental Application and Science The Impact of COVID-19 on Water Consumption and Treatment Capacity in Tourism Area: Example of Bodrum %A Feyyaz Keskin , Ahmet Demirak , Nedim Özdemir , Harika Özkan , Atilla Özkan , Aslı Aslan %T The Impact of COVID-19 on Water Consumption and Treatment Capacity in Tourism Area: Example of Bodrum %D 2022 %J Journal of International Environmental Application and Science %P 1307-0428-2636-7661 %V 17 %N 4 %R %U
ISNAD Keskin, Feyyaz , Demirak, Ahmet , Özdemir, Nedim , Özkan, Harika , Özkan, Atilla , Aslan, Aslı . "The Impact of COVID-19 on Water Consumption and Treatment Capacity in Tourism Area: Example of Bodrum". Journal of International Environmental Application and Science 17 / 4 (December 2022): 156-164 .
AMA Keskin F. , Demirak A. , Özdemir N. , Özkan H. , Özkan A. , Aslan A. The Impact of COVID-19 on Water Consumption and Treatment Capacity in Tourism Area: Example of Bodrum. JIEAS. 2022; 17(4): 156-164.
Vancouver Keskin F. , Demirak A. , Özdemir N. , Özkan H. , Özkan A. , Aslan A. The Impact of COVID-19 on Water Consumption and Treatment Capacity in Tourism Area: Example of Bodrum. Journal of International Environmental Application and Science. 2022; 17(4): 156-164.
IEEE F. Keskin , A. Demirak , N. Özdemir , H. Özkan , A. Özkan and A. Aslan , "The Impact of COVID-19 on Water Consumption and Treatment Capacity in Tourism Area: Example of Bodrum", Journal of International Environmental Application and Science, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 156-164, Dec. 2022

“Journal of International Environmental Application and Science” is indexed in Index Copernicus, 

CAS Source Index (CASSI), ProQuest, CABI, Ulrich's™ Serials Analysis System, EBSCO, 

SCIRUS, ArgosBiotech, NAAEE, The University of Queensland's institutional Indexing List.