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YUNANİSTAN'IN MÜLTECİ KRİZİNE MÜDAHALESİNE TEORİK BİR BAKIŞ

Year 2021, Issue: 1, 59 - 77, 30.04.2021

Abstract

Ortadoğu’dan Avrupa Birliği üye ülkelerine yönelik artan göç dalgaları politikacıların ve liderlerin gündeminde önemli bir yer edinir hale gelmiştir. Bu durum 2015 yılından itibaren “Mülteci Krizi” olarak adlandırılan dönemde çok sayıda mülteci kabul eden İtalya, İspanya ve Yunanistan gibi üye ülkeler için daha da kritik bir hal almıştır. Uluslararası İnsancıl Hukuk’un temel değerlerinden olan “geri göndermeme” ilkesi zaman ve durum gözetmeksizin herhangi bir mültecinin zulüm riskinin olduğu bir ülkeye geri gönderilmemesi gerektiğinin altını çizmektedir. Ancak 2015 sonrası dönemde devletlerin tepkilerinin bulunulan bağlam içerisinde şekillendiği ve farklılıklar gösterdiği gözlenmiştir. Bu makalede Kopenhag Okulu ve Realist teori tarafından öne sunulmuş varsayımlar ve argümanlar karşılaştırılarak teorik bir perspektiften 2018 ve 2021 yılları arasında Yunanistan’ın mültecilere yönelik tutumu incelenecektir. Bu çalışmanın öne sunduğu argüman Kopenhag Okulu’nun belirtilen zaman aralığı içerisindeki tutumu açıklamakta yetersiz kalmasına karşılık Realist teorinin korumacı sınır politikalarını ve güvenlik merkezli yaklaşımı anlamak için uygulanabileceğidir.

References

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  • Bolani, Lydia; Gemi, Eda; & Skleparis, Dimitris. (2016). “Refugee Crisis and Asylum Policies in Greece and Italy. Migrants and Refugees. Impact and Policies. Case Studies of Jordan, Lebanon, Turkey, and Greece”. European Institute of the Mediterranean. EuroMeSCo Joint Policy Study 4. https://www.um.edu.mt/library/oar/handle/123456789/23785
  • Betts, Alexander. (2009). Forced migration and global politics. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons.
  • Betts, Alexander, & Collier, Paul (2017). Refuge: Transforming a broken refugee system. United Kingdom: Penguin.
  • Bigo, Didier (2009). “Immigration controls and free movement in Europe”. International Review of the Red Cross, 91(875), 579-591.
  • Castles, Stephen (1995). “How nation‐states respond to immigration and ethnic diversity”. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 21(3), 293-308.
  • Council of Europe (2018). “Preliminary observations were made by the delegation of the European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CPT), which visited Greece from 10 to 19 April 2018”, https://rm.coe.int/16808afaf6 (Accessed 10.04.2021)
  • DeutscheWelle (2020) “Turkey's Erdogan vows to keep the border open for migrants until the EU meets demands”, https://www.dw.com/en/turkeys-erdogan-vows-to-keep-border-open-for-migrants-until-eu-meets-demands/a-52718983 (Accessed 05.03.2021)
  • European Commission Statement (2020) “Remarks by President von der Leyen at the joint press conference with Kyriakos Mitsotakis, Prime Minister of Greece, Andrej Plenković, Prime Minister of Croatia, President Sassoli, and President Michel”, https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/statement_20_380 (Accessed 06.03.2021)
  • Huysmans, Jef (2006). The politics of insecurity: Fear, migration, and asylum in the EU. London: Routledge.
  • Human Rights Watch (2018). “Stuck in a Revolving Door Iraqis and Other Asylum Seekers and Migrants at the Greece/Turkey Entrance to the European Union.” https://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/greeceturkey1108web_0.pdf (Accessed 10.04.2021)
  • Human Rights Watch (2018). “Greece: Violent Push-backs at Turkey Border End Summary Returns, Unchecked Violence”, https://www.hrw.org/news/2018/12/18/greece-violent-pushbacks-turkey-border (Accessed 10.04.2021)
  • Human Rights Watch (2020). “Greece/EU: Allow New Arrivals to Claim Asylum More Than 450 Held on Navy Boat”, https://www.hrw.org/news/2020/03/10/greece/eu-allow-new-arrivals-claim-asylum (Accessed 10.04.2021)
  • Kostakopoulou, Theodora. (2000). “The 'Protective union'; change and continuity in migration law and policy in Post‐Amsterdam Europe”. JCMS: Journal of Common Market Studies, 38(3), 497-518. Lodge, Juliet. (1993). “From civilian power to speaking with a common voice: The transition to a common foreign and security policy”. Global Society: Journal of Interdisciplinary International Relations, 7(2), 33-58.
  • Lazaridis, Gabriella; Skleparis, Dimitris (2016). “Securitization of migration and the far right: the case of Greek security professionals”. International Migration, 54(2), 176-192.
  • Morgenthau, Hans (1948). Politics Among Nations: The struggle for power and peace. New York: Alfred Kopf.
  • Public Issue (2017). “Observatory of the Municipality of Athens for Refugees & Immigrants. Key conclusions of the research project - April 2017”, https://ec.europa.eu/migrant-integration/news/survey-reveals-ambivalent-attitudes-towards-refugees-in-greece (Accessed 06.03.2021)
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  • Swarts, Jonathan; Karakatsanis, Neovi M. (2012). “The securitization of migration: Greece in the 1990s”. Journal of Balkan and Near Eastern Studies, 14(1), 33-51.
  • Skleparis, Dimitris. (2017). The Greek response to the migration challenge: 2015-2017. kas Katoptron.
  • Stevis-Gridneff, Matina (2020). “Child Dies at Sea as Greece Cracks Down on Migrants from Turkey”. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/02/world/europe/migrant-death-greece.html?auth=login-google%20 (Accessed 10.04.2021)
  • Stevis-Gridneff, Matina; Gall, Carlotta (2020). “Erdogan Says, 'We Opened the Doors,' and Clashes Erupt as Migrants Head for Europe”, The New York Times, https://www.nytimes.com/2020/02/29/world/europe/turkey-migrants-eu.html (Accessed 10.04.2021)
  • Triandafyllidou, Anna (2014). “Greek migration policy in the 2010s: Europeanization tensions at a time of crisis”. Journal of European Integration, 36(4), 409-425.
  • The Chad European Federalists (2020). “Greece Turkey border crisis - Statement by Stelios Petsas [1.3.2020]” [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ozjO7uMKmoI (Accessed 10.04.2021)
  • Krasner, D. Stephen (2009). Sovereignty: Organized Hypocrisy. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
  • Ugur, Mehmet (1995). “Freedom of Movement vs. Exclusion: A Reinterpretation of the 'Insider' 'Outsider' Divide in the European Union”. International Migration Review, 29(4), 964-999.
  • UNHCR (2020). “UNHCR Greece Factsheet September 2020”, https://data2.unhcr.org/en/documents/details/82833 (Accessed 06.03.2021)
  • UNHCR (2018). “UNHCR Greece Factsheet November 2018”, https://data2.unhcr.org/en/documents/details/67410 (Accessed 06.03.2021)
  • UNHCR (2020). “Data – Operational Portal: Mediterranean Situation Greece”, https://data2.unhcr.org/en/situations/mediterranean/location/5179 (Accessed 04.02.2021)
  • Walt, M. Stephen (1998). “International relations: one world, many theories”. Foreign policy, 110, 29-46.
  • Wæver, Ole; Buzan, Barry. (1993). Identity, migration, and the new security agenda in Europe. London: Pinter Publishers.
  • Wæver, Ole. (1993). Securitization and desecuritization. Copenhagen: Centre for Peace and Conflict Research. Waltz, Kenneth. (1979). Theory of international politics. Illinois: Waveland Press.

A THEORETICAL LOOK ON GREEK RESPONSE TO THE REFUGEE CRISIS

Year 2021, Issue: 1, 59 - 77, 30.04.2021

Abstract

The massive migration flows from the Middle Eastern countries towards the European Union had become one of the central issues in the policy-makers agendas. Especially, the period after 2015, often regarded as the Refugee Crisis, challenged particularly three-member states, Italy, Spain, and Greece, when they had received a high number of refugees. One of the core values of the international human rights law, the non-refoulment principle, applies to all migrants regardless of time and migration status, and it guarantees that any person should not be turned back to a state where there is a risk of persecution, cruelty, inhuman treatment, torture or other irreparable harm. However, in terms of their responses, the EU member states had shown differences and approaches changed over time depending on changing context conditions. Due to this paper’s limited nature, there will be a focus on Greek response in recent years while carrying a theoretical attempt by comparing the assumptions and insights provided by Copenhagen School and Realist School. In the end, the presented argument in this study is that realism can be applied to explain a protectionist Greek approach during the last years towards incoming migrants as the Copenhagen School is limited to some extent.

References

  • Amnesty International (2020). “Greece/Turkey: Asylum-seekers and migrants killed and abused at borders”, https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/news/2020/04/greece-turkey-asylum-seekers-and-migrants-killed-and-abused-at-borders/ (Accessed 03.0.2021)
  • Amnesty International Report (2020). “Caught in a political game: Asylum Seekers and Migrants on the Greece/Turkey Border Pay the Price”, https://www.amnesty.org/en/documents/eur01/2077/2020/en/ (Accessed 06.03. 2021)
  • Bolani, Lydia; Gemi, Eda; & Skleparis, Dimitris. (2016). “Refugee Crisis and Asylum Policies in Greece and Italy. Migrants and Refugees. Impact and Policies. Case Studies of Jordan, Lebanon, Turkey, and Greece”. European Institute of the Mediterranean. EuroMeSCo Joint Policy Study 4. https://www.um.edu.mt/library/oar/handle/123456789/23785
  • Betts, Alexander. (2009). Forced migration and global politics. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons.
  • Betts, Alexander, & Collier, Paul (2017). Refuge: Transforming a broken refugee system. United Kingdom: Penguin.
  • Bigo, Didier (2009). “Immigration controls and free movement in Europe”. International Review of the Red Cross, 91(875), 579-591.
  • Castles, Stephen (1995). “How nation‐states respond to immigration and ethnic diversity”. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 21(3), 293-308.
  • Council of Europe (2018). “Preliminary observations were made by the delegation of the European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CPT), which visited Greece from 10 to 19 April 2018”, https://rm.coe.int/16808afaf6 (Accessed 10.04.2021)
  • DeutscheWelle (2020) “Turkey's Erdogan vows to keep the border open for migrants until the EU meets demands”, https://www.dw.com/en/turkeys-erdogan-vows-to-keep-border-open-for-migrants-until-eu-meets-demands/a-52718983 (Accessed 05.03.2021)
  • European Commission Statement (2020) “Remarks by President von der Leyen at the joint press conference with Kyriakos Mitsotakis, Prime Minister of Greece, Andrej Plenković, Prime Minister of Croatia, President Sassoli, and President Michel”, https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/statement_20_380 (Accessed 06.03.2021)
  • Huysmans, Jef (2006). The politics of insecurity: Fear, migration, and asylum in the EU. London: Routledge.
  • Human Rights Watch (2018). “Stuck in a Revolving Door Iraqis and Other Asylum Seekers and Migrants at the Greece/Turkey Entrance to the European Union.” https://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/greeceturkey1108web_0.pdf (Accessed 10.04.2021)
  • Human Rights Watch (2018). “Greece: Violent Push-backs at Turkey Border End Summary Returns, Unchecked Violence”, https://www.hrw.org/news/2018/12/18/greece-violent-pushbacks-turkey-border (Accessed 10.04.2021)
  • Human Rights Watch (2020). “Greece/EU: Allow New Arrivals to Claim Asylum More Than 450 Held on Navy Boat”, https://www.hrw.org/news/2020/03/10/greece/eu-allow-new-arrivals-claim-asylum (Accessed 10.04.2021)
  • Kostakopoulou, Theodora. (2000). “The 'Protective union'; change and continuity in migration law and policy in Post‐Amsterdam Europe”. JCMS: Journal of Common Market Studies, 38(3), 497-518. Lodge, Juliet. (1993). “From civilian power to speaking with a common voice: The transition to a common foreign and security policy”. Global Society: Journal of Interdisciplinary International Relations, 7(2), 33-58.
  • Lazaridis, Gabriella; Skleparis, Dimitris (2016). “Securitization of migration and the far right: the case of Greek security professionals”. International Migration, 54(2), 176-192.
  • Morgenthau, Hans (1948). Politics Among Nations: The struggle for power and peace. New York: Alfred Kopf.
  • Public Issue (2017). “Observatory of the Municipality of Athens for Refugees & Immigrants. Key conclusions of the research project - April 2017”, https://ec.europa.eu/migrant-integration/news/survey-reveals-ambivalent-attitudes-towards-refugees-in-greece (Accessed 06.03.2021)
  • Prime Minister GR. (2020) “Statements by Prime Minister Kyriakos Mitsotakis in Kastanies, Evros, following his visit with the heads of the EU institutions at the Greek-Turkish border”, https://primeminister.gr/en/2020/03/03/23458 (Accessed 10.04.2021)
  • Republic of Turkey Ministry of Foreign Affairs. (2021) “No: 78, 28 February 2021, Press Release Regarding the Push-Backs of Asylum-Seekers by Greece”, http://www.mfa.gov.tr/no_-78_-yunanistan-in-siginmacilari-geri-itmesi-hk.en.mfa (Accessed 03.03.2021)
  • Swarts, Jonathan; Karakatsanis, Neovi M. (2012). “The securitization of migration: Greece in the 1990s”. Journal of Balkan and Near Eastern Studies, 14(1), 33-51.
  • Skleparis, Dimitris. (2017). The Greek response to the migration challenge: 2015-2017. kas Katoptron.
  • Stevis-Gridneff, Matina (2020). “Child Dies at Sea as Greece Cracks Down on Migrants from Turkey”. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/02/world/europe/migrant-death-greece.html?auth=login-google%20 (Accessed 10.04.2021)
  • Stevis-Gridneff, Matina; Gall, Carlotta (2020). “Erdogan Says, 'We Opened the Doors,' and Clashes Erupt as Migrants Head for Europe”, The New York Times, https://www.nytimes.com/2020/02/29/world/europe/turkey-migrants-eu.html (Accessed 10.04.2021)
  • Triandafyllidou, Anna (2014). “Greek migration policy in the 2010s: Europeanization tensions at a time of crisis”. Journal of European Integration, 36(4), 409-425.
  • The Chad European Federalists (2020). “Greece Turkey border crisis - Statement by Stelios Petsas [1.3.2020]” [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ozjO7uMKmoI (Accessed 10.04.2021)
  • Krasner, D. Stephen (2009). Sovereignty: Organized Hypocrisy. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
  • Ugur, Mehmet (1995). “Freedom of Movement vs. Exclusion: A Reinterpretation of the 'Insider' 'Outsider' Divide in the European Union”. International Migration Review, 29(4), 964-999.
  • UNHCR (2020). “UNHCR Greece Factsheet September 2020”, https://data2.unhcr.org/en/documents/details/82833 (Accessed 06.03.2021)
  • UNHCR (2018). “UNHCR Greece Factsheet November 2018”, https://data2.unhcr.org/en/documents/details/67410 (Accessed 06.03.2021)
  • UNHCR (2020). “Data – Operational Portal: Mediterranean Situation Greece”, https://data2.unhcr.org/en/situations/mediterranean/location/5179 (Accessed 04.02.2021)
  • Walt, M. Stephen (1998). “International relations: one world, many theories”. Foreign policy, 110, 29-46.
  • Wæver, Ole; Buzan, Barry. (1993). Identity, migration, and the new security agenda in Europe. London: Pinter Publishers.
  • Wæver, Ole. (1993). Securitization and desecuritization. Copenhagen: Centre for Peace and Conflict Research. Waltz, Kenneth. (1979). Theory of international politics. Illinois: Waveland Press.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects International Relations
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

İrem DUMLU This is me
İZMİR EKONOMİ ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-1161-8039
Türkiye

Publication Date April 30, 2021
Submission Date January 18, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021 Issue: 1

Cite

APA
DUMLU, İ. (2021). A THEORETICAL LOOK ON GREEK RESPONSE TO THE REFUGEE CRISIS. Journal of International Relations and Political Science Studies(1), 59-77.