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Chasing a Mirage? Examining the South Sudan’s Quest for Democracy and Sustainable Peace

Year 2023, Volume: 3 Issue: 2, 49 - 56, 29.12.2023

Abstract

South Sudan’s quest for a democratic government and sustainable peace is increasingly becoming elusive, because of several challenges including lack of political will, arms embargo, the diminishing role of the regional and international community, inadequate resources to fund the implementation of the agreement, and the widespread insecurity in various parts of the country. The article notes that these challenges have remained constant since 2015, undermining the implementation of the Agreement on the Resolution of Conflict in the Republic of South Sudan, the Revitalized Agreement on the Resolution of Conflict in the Republic of South Sudan, and the newly extended roadmap ending in March 2025. The study concludes that unless South Sudan, probably with assistance of the regional and international community, sufficiently address the aforementioned challenges, a democratic governance remains a mirage.

References

  • African Development Bank. (2020). South Sudan economic outlook. https://www.afdb.org/en/countries/east-africa/south-sudan/south-sudaneconomic-outlook
  • Afriyie, F. A., Jisong, J., & Yaw Appiah, K. (2020). Comprehensive analysis of South Sudan conflict: Determinants and repercussions. Journal of Liberty and International Affairs, 6(1), 33–47.
  • Alex, B. (2023). Cash-crunched NCAC down tools casting doubt on 2024 poll. City Review. https://cityreviewss.com/cash-crunched-ncac-down-toolscasting-doubt-on-2024-poll/
  • Clayton, V. H. (2020). The formation of the revitalized transitional government of national Unity in South Sudan. Accord. https://www.accord.org.za/conflict-trends/the-formation-of-the-revitalized-transitional-government-of-national-unity-in-south-sudan/
  • Crisis24. (2021). Suspected militants killed two truck drivers, near Nesitu along Juba-Nimule road, Central Equatoria State, South Sudan. https://crisis24.garda.com/alerts/2021/07/south-sudan-suspected-militants-killed-two-truck-drivers-near-nesitu-along-juba-nimule-road-central-equatoriastate-july-15#:~:text=Since%20April%202020%2C%20several%20attacks,the%20south%20of%20the%20country
  • Joint Monitoring and Evaluation Commission report of April 2017. https://jmecsouthsudan.org/index.php/reports/rjmec-quarterly-reports/63-jmecquarterly-report-to-igad-on-the-status-of-implementation-of-the-arcss-from-february-2017-to-april-2017
  • Jolly, O. T. (2023). Kiir’s gamble that could slip South Sudan back to war. Daily Monitor. https://www.monitor.co.ug/uganda/news/national/kiir-s-gamblethat-could-slip-south-sudan-back-to-war-4153704
  • Jonathan, K. (2023). UN panel accuses South Sudan of breaching arms embargo. The East African. https://www.theeastafrican.co.ke/tea/news/eastafrica/un-panel-accuses-south-sudan-of-breaching-arms-embargo-4224982
  • Kelly, C. (2022). United States strips funding from South Sudan peace observers. The Organization for World Peace. https://theowp.org/united-statesstrips-funding-from-south-sudan-peace-observers/
  • Kenya National Bureau of Statistics. (2019). Census: Frequently asked questions. https://www.knbs.or.ke/census-frequently-asked-questions-faqs/#:~ :text=The%20basic%20reports%20of%20the,its%20statistical%20and%20cultural%20value
  • Mairi, J. B. (2018). Why peace fails: The case of South Sudan’s Agreement on the Resolution of the conflict in the Republic of South Sudan. FriedrichEbert-Stiftung (FES). https://library.fes.de/pdf-files/bueros/fes-pscc/14355-20180511.pdf
  • Mamer, A. (2022). Troika, EU tells government to raise own funds to support peace deal. The City Review. https://cityreviewss.com/troika-eu-tells-govtto-raise-own-funds-to-support-peace-deal/
  • Nic, C., Luka, B., & Edmund, Y. (2023). How (not) to hold election in South Sudan. Friedrich-Ebert-Stifftung.
  • Reliefweb. (2020, February 14). South Sudan holdout groups take part in cessation of hostilities. https://reliefweb.int/report/south-sudan/south-sudanholdout-groups-take-part-cessation-hostilities
  • Resolution 2428. (2018). Adopted by the United Nations Security Council. https://digitallibrary.un.org/record/1634093?ln=en
  • Resolution 2683. (2023). Adopted by the United Nations Security Council. https://press.un.org/en/2023/sc15297.doc.htm
  • Revitalized Joint Monitoring and Evaluation Commission (RJMEC) report of April 2020.
  • Resolutions of the 30th RJMEC meeting conducted in Juba South Sudan on 6th July 2023. https://www.jmecsouthsudan.com/index.php/plenary/ plenary-resolutions
  • Revitalized agreement on the resolution of conflict in the Republic of South Sudan (R-ARCSS). (2018, September 12). https://jmecsouthsudan.org/index.php/arcss-2015/agreement-summary/130-summary-of-the-revitalized-agreement-on-the-resolution-of-the-conflict-in-the-republic-of-southsudan-r-arcss-12-september-2018/file
  • RJMEC report of December, 2022. https://www.jmecsouthsudan.com/index.php/reports/rjmec-quarterly-reports
  • Statement by the troika, the EU and its Member States on the extension of the revitalized agreement on the resolution of the conflict in South Sudan. (2022, August 9). https://www.eeas.europa.eu/delegations/south-sudan/statement-troika-eu-and-its-member-states-extension-revitalizedagreement_en?s=121
  • The Star. (2022, August 30). South Sudan first unified forces to graduate. https://www.the-star.co.ke/news/africa/2022-08-30-south-sudan-first-unified -forces-to-graduate/
  • The Star. (2023, March 3). RJMEC calls for resolution of standoff over firing of South Sudan Defence minister. https://www.the-star.co.ke/news/ africa/2023-03-10-rjmec-calls-for-resolution-of-standoff-over-firing-of-south-sudan-defence-minister/
  • Transparency International. (2020). Corruption perceptions index 2019. https://www.transparency.org/files/content/pages/2019_CPI_Report_EN.pdf
  • Voice of America News. (2022, July 15). U.S. Withdraws from Peace Monitoring Groups in South Sudan. https://www.voanews.com/a/us-withdraws-frompeace-monitoring-groups-in-south-sudan-/6661298.html
  • United Nations Economic Commission for Africa. (2020). ECA estimates billions worth of losses in Africa due to COVID-19 impact. https://www.uneca. org/stories/eca-estimates-billions-worth-losses-africa-due-covid-19-impact
  • United Nations. (2020). UN rights Chief urges South Sudan authorities to address inter-communal violence. News. https://news.un.org/en/story/2020/0 3/1059822
  • United Nations. (2022). Despite new road map extending South Sudan’s democratic transition, increasing violence, food insecurity threaten progress. https://press.un.org/en/2022/sc15033.doc.htm
  • World, B. (2020). South Sudan economic update: Poverty and vulnerability in a fragile environment (English). http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/893571583937198098/pdf/South-Sudan-Economic-Update-Poverty-and-Vulnerability-in-a-Fragile-Environment.pdf
  • World Bank Report. (2023). https://www.worldbank.org/en/country/southsudan/overview
  • Xinhua. (2023). UN extends arms embargo on South Sudan. The East African. https://www.theeastafrican.co.ke/tea/news/east-africa/un-extends-armsembargo-on-south-sudan-4253456
  • Xinhuanet. (2021). South Sudan urges EU to support lifting of arms embargo. http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/africa/2021-02/11/c_139737949.htm

Bir Serabın Peşinde misiniz? Güney Sudan’ın Demokrasi ve Sürdürülebilir Barış Arayışının İncelenmesi

Year 2023, Volume: 3 Issue: 2, 49 - 56, 29.12.2023

Abstract

Güney Sudan’ın demokratik bir hükümet ve sürdürülebilir barış arayışı, siyasi irade eksikliği, silah ambargosu ve bölgesel ve uluslararası toplumun azalan rolü, anlaşmanın uygulanmasını finanse etmek için yetersiz kaynaklar ve ülkenin çeşitli bölgelerinde yaygın güvensizlik gibi çeşitli zorluklar nedeniyle giderek zorlaşmaktadır. Makale, bu zorlukların 2015’ten bu yana sabit kaldığını ve Güney Sudan Cumhuriyeti’ndeki Çatışmanın Çözümüne İlişkin Anlaşma’nın (ARCSS), Güney Sudan Cumhuriyeti’ndeki Çatışmanın Çözümüne İlişkin Yeniden Canlandırılmış Anlaşma’nın (R-ARCSS) ve Mart 2025’te sona erecek olan yeni uzatılmış Yol Haritası’nın uygulanmasını baltaladığını belirtiyor. Çalışma, Güney Sudan’ın ve muhtemelen bölgesel ve uluslararası toplumun yardımıyla yukarıda bahsi geçen zorlukları yeterince ele almadığı sürece, demokratik bir yönetimin bir serap olarak kalacağı sonucuna varmaktadır.

References

  • African Development Bank. (2020). South Sudan economic outlook. https://www.afdb.org/en/countries/east-africa/south-sudan/south-sudaneconomic-outlook
  • Afriyie, F. A., Jisong, J., & Yaw Appiah, K. (2020). Comprehensive analysis of South Sudan conflict: Determinants and repercussions. Journal of Liberty and International Affairs, 6(1), 33–47.
  • Alex, B. (2023). Cash-crunched NCAC down tools casting doubt on 2024 poll. City Review. https://cityreviewss.com/cash-crunched-ncac-down-toolscasting-doubt-on-2024-poll/
  • Clayton, V. H. (2020). The formation of the revitalized transitional government of national Unity in South Sudan. Accord. https://www.accord.org.za/conflict-trends/the-formation-of-the-revitalized-transitional-government-of-national-unity-in-south-sudan/
  • Crisis24. (2021). Suspected militants killed two truck drivers, near Nesitu along Juba-Nimule road, Central Equatoria State, South Sudan. https://crisis24.garda.com/alerts/2021/07/south-sudan-suspected-militants-killed-two-truck-drivers-near-nesitu-along-juba-nimule-road-central-equatoriastate-july-15#:~:text=Since%20April%202020%2C%20several%20attacks,the%20south%20of%20the%20country
  • Joint Monitoring and Evaluation Commission report of April 2017. https://jmecsouthsudan.org/index.php/reports/rjmec-quarterly-reports/63-jmecquarterly-report-to-igad-on-the-status-of-implementation-of-the-arcss-from-february-2017-to-april-2017
  • Jolly, O. T. (2023). Kiir’s gamble that could slip South Sudan back to war. Daily Monitor. https://www.monitor.co.ug/uganda/news/national/kiir-s-gamblethat-could-slip-south-sudan-back-to-war-4153704
  • Jonathan, K. (2023). UN panel accuses South Sudan of breaching arms embargo. The East African. https://www.theeastafrican.co.ke/tea/news/eastafrica/un-panel-accuses-south-sudan-of-breaching-arms-embargo-4224982
  • Kelly, C. (2022). United States strips funding from South Sudan peace observers. The Organization for World Peace. https://theowp.org/united-statesstrips-funding-from-south-sudan-peace-observers/
  • Kenya National Bureau of Statistics. (2019). Census: Frequently asked questions. https://www.knbs.or.ke/census-frequently-asked-questions-faqs/#:~ :text=The%20basic%20reports%20of%20the,its%20statistical%20and%20cultural%20value
  • Mairi, J. B. (2018). Why peace fails: The case of South Sudan’s Agreement on the Resolution of the conflict in the Republic of South Sudan. FriedrichEbert-Stiftung (FES). https://library.fes.de/pdf-files/bueros/fes-pscc/14355-20180511.pdf
  • Mamer, A. (2022). Troika, EU tells government to raise own funds to support peace deal. The City Review. https://cityreviewss.com/troika-eu-tells-govtto-raise-own-funds-to-support-peace-deal/
  • Nic, C., Luka, B., & Edmund, Y. (2023). How (not) to hold election in South Sudan. Friedrich-Ebert-Stifftung.
  • Reliefweb. (2020, February 14). South Sudan holdout groups take part in cessation of hostilities. https://reliefweb.int/report/south-sudan/south-sudanholdout-groups-take-part-cessation-hostilities
  • Resolution 2428. (2018). Adopted by the United Nations Security Council. https://digitallibrary.un.org/record/1634093?ln=en
  • Resolution 2683. (2023). Adopted by the United Nations Security Council. https://press.un.org/en/2023/sc15297.doc.htm
  • Revitalized Joint Monitoring and Evaluation Commission (RJMEC) report of April 2020.
  • Resolutions of the 30th RJMEC meeting conducted in Juba South Sudan on 6th July 2023. https://www.jmecsouthsudan.com/index.php/plenary/ plenary-resolutions
  • Revitalized agreement on the resolution of conflict in the Republic of South Sudan (R-ARCSS). (2018, September 12). https://jmecsouthsudan.org/index.php/arcss-2015/agreement-summary/130-summary-of-the-revitalized-agreement-on-the-resolution-of-the-conflict-in-the-republic-of-southsudan-r-arcss-12-september-2018/file
  • RJMEC report of December, 2022. https://www.jmecsouthsudan.com/index.php/reports/rjmec-quarterly-reports
  • Statement by the troika, the EU and its Member States on the extension of the revitalized agreement on the resolution of the conflict in South Sudan. (2022, August 9). https://www.eeas.europa.eu/delegations/south-sudan/statement-troika-eu-and-its-member-states-extension-revitalizedagreement_en?s=121
  • The Star. (2022, August 30). South Sudan first unified forces to graduate. https://www.the-star.co.ke/news/africa/2022-08-30-south-sudan-first-unified -forces-to-graduate/
  • The Star. (2023, March 3). RJMEC calls for resolution of standoff over firing of South Sudan Defence minister. https://www.the-star.co.ke/news/ africa/2023-03-10-rjmec-calls-for-resolution-of-standoff-over-firing-of-south-sudan-defence-minister/
  • Transparency International. (2020). Corruption perceptions index 2019. https://www.transparency.org/files/content/pages/2019_CPI_Report_EN.pdf
  • Voice of America News. (2022, July 15). U.S. Withdraws from Peace Monitoring Groups in South Sudan. https://www.voanews.com/a/us-withdraws-frompeace-monitoring-groups-in-south-sudan-/6661298.html
  • United Nations Economic Commission for Africa. (2020). ECA estimates billions worth of losses in Africa due to COVID-19 impact. https://www.uneca. org/stories/eca-estimates-billions-worth-losses-africa-due-covid-19-impact
  • United Nations. (2020). UN rights Chief urges South Sudan authorities to address inter-communal violence. News. https://news.un.org/en/story/2020/0 3/1059822
  • United Nations. (2022). Despite new road map extending South Sudan’s democratic transition, increasing violence, food insecurity threaten progress. https://press.un.org/en/2022/sc15033.doc.htm
  • World, B. (2020). South Sudan economic update: Poverty and vulnerability in a fragile environment (English). http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/893571583937198098/pdf/South-Sudan-Economic-Update-Poverty-and-Vulnerability-in-a-Fragile-Environment.pdf
  • World Bank Report. (2023). https://www.worldbank.org/en/country/southsudan/overview
  • Xinhua. (2023). UN extends arms embargo on South Sudan. The East African. https://www.theeastafrican.co.ke/tea/news/east-africa/un-extends-armsembargo-on-south-sudan-4253456
  • Xinhuanet. (2021). South Sudan urges EU to support lifting of arms embargo. http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/africa/2021-02/11/c_139737949.htm

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Policy and Administration (Other), African Studies, Conflict Resolution in International Relations
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Saul Kipchirchir MARIGAT This is me 0000-0002-9293-8471

Publication Date December 29, 2023
Published in Issue Year 2023 Volume: 3 Issue: 2

Cite

APA MARIGAT, S. K. (2023). Chasing a Mirage? Examining the South Sudan’s Quest for Democracy and Sustainable Peace. Uluslararası İlişkiler Çalışmaları Dergisi, 3(2), 49-56.

Content of this journal is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial 4.0 International License

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