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Hugo Chavez Period as a Case of Populist Leadership in Venezuela (1998–2013)

Year 2023, Volume: 3 Issue: 2, 101 - 111, 29.12.2023

Abstract

The Latin American region provides an opportunity to analyze populism as a phenomenon that appears in different times and countries. Venezuela, as one of the countries in the region, attracts attention with the political transformation it has experienced recently. In this regard, this study will examine the main reasons for this transformation in its political system. Hugo Chavez caused the Venezuelan political system to radically change with the policies he followed during his 15-year rule, which lasted from 1998 to 2013. Through the social welfare programs that Chavez followed and the practices implemented in the context of the Bolivarian revolution, Chavez succeeded in transforming the Venezuelan political system. In this context, thanks to political support he garnered by displaying a populist leadership, Chavez could radicalize his power by drafting the 1999 Constitution and declaring 21st-century socialism vision which led to polarization of the society, democratic backsliding, and authoritarianism of the regime. This article argues that the authoritarianism of the Chavez and subsequent Nicolas Maduro administrations resulted from the conditions created by the populist policies that Chavez followed during his presidential terms.

References

  • Akgemci, E. (2014). Venezuela’da Sosyalizme Geçişte İkinci aşama ve Chávez Mirasından geriye kalanlar. Ayrıntı Dergi. https://ayrintidergi.com.tr/venezuelada-sosyalizme-geciste-ikinci-asamave-chavezmirasindan-geriye-kalanlar/
  • Akgemci, E. (2020). Venezuela’da Post- neoliberalizm: Bolivarcı devrim Sürecinin Kazanım ve Sınırlılıkları. In D. T. Köşesi (Ed.). Esra Akgemci ve Kazım Ateş içinde, (ss. 237–250). İletişim Yayınları.
  • Barr, R. R. (2017). The resurgence of populism in Latin America. Lynne Rienner Publishers.
  • Brading, R. (2013). Populism in Venezuela. Routledge.
  • Carlson,C. (2007). What Venezuela’s constitutional reform really about Venezuelanaly. https://venezuelanalysis.com/analysis/2890
  • Çin, G. (2019). Amerikan Emperyalizminin latin Amerika’daki son örneği: Bolivarcı Venezuela Cumhuriyeti’nde Yaşanan kriz. Üsküdar üniversitesi sosyal bilimler dergisi, 1–38.
  • Corrales, J., & Penfold-Becerra, M. (2011). Dragon in the tropics: Hugo Chávez and the Political Economy of Revolution in Venezuela. Brookings Institution Press.
  • De la Torre, C. (2013). In the name of the people: Democratization, popular organizations, and populism in Venezuela, Bolivia, and Ecuador. European Review of Latin American and Caribbean Studies | Revista Europea de Estudios Latinoamericanos y Del Caribe, (95), 27–48.
  • De la Torre, C. (2017). Hugo Chávez and the diffusion of Bolivarianism. Democratization, 24(7), 1271–1288.
  • De la Torre, C. (2018). Transformations of populism in Europe and the Americas history and recent tendencies. In B. M. Chesterton, G. Marotta & G. Norman (Eds.), The contested meanings of populist revolution in Latin America (pp. 330–345). Bloomsbury Publishing Academic.
  • Di Tella, T. S. (1997). Populism into the twenty-first century. Government and Opposition, 32(2), 187–200.
  • Edwards, S. (2010). Left Behind: Latin America and the False Promise of Populism. In Neopopulism, and inequality in the new century (s. 180). University of Chicago Press.
  • Ellner, S., & Salas, M. T. (2005). Introduction: The Venezuelan exceptionalism thesis separating myth from reality. Latin American Perspectives, 32(2), 5–19.
  • Frajman, E. (2014). Broadcasting populist leadership: Hugo Chávez and “aló presidente”. Journal of Latin American Studies, 46(3), 501–526.
  • García-Guadilla, M. P., & Mallen, A. (2019). Polarization, participatory democracy, and democratic erosion in Venezuela’s twenty-first century socialism. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 681(1), 62–77.
  • Gott, R. (2008). Hugo Chavez ve Bolivarcı Devrim (H. Böğün, Çev.). Yordam Kitap.
  • Hawkins, K. (2010), A.Venezuela’s Chavismo and Populism in Comparative Perspective. Cambridge University Press.
  • Kalaycıoğlu, E. (2020). Halk Yönetimi: Popülizm ve Demokrasi. İktisat ve Toplum, 115, 4–21.
  • Kürkçügil, M. (2007). Hugo Chavez ve Devrimde Devrim. Agora Kitaplığı.
  • Levine, D. H. (2002). The decline and fall of democracy in Venezuela: Ten theses. Bulletin of Latin American Research, 21(2), 248–269.
  • Levitsky, S., & Loxton, J. (2019). Populism and competitive authoritarianism in Latin America. In C. de la Torre (Ed.), Routledge handbook of global populism (pp. 334–351). Routledge.
  • Lewis, P., Caelainn, B., Clarke, S., Voce, A., Levett, C., & Gutiérrez, P. (2019). Revealed: The rise and rise of populist rhetoric. The Guardian.
  • Love, G. J., & Windsor, L. C. (2018). Populism and popular support: Vertical accountability, exogenous events, and leader discourse in Venezuela. Political Research Quarterly, 71(3), 532–545.
  • Maya, M. L. (2015). Popular power in the discourse of Hugo Chavez (1999–2013). In C. de la Torre (Ed.), The Promise and perils of populism: Global perspectives (pp. 389–415). University Press of Kentucky.
  • Mazzuca, S. L. (2013). The rise of rentier populism. Journal of Democracy, 24(2), 108–122.
  • Mudde, C., & Kaltwasser, C. R. (2019). Popülizm kısa bir giriş (S. Erdem Türközü, Çeviren). Nika Yayınevi.
  • Oner, I. (2021). Nicolas Maduro: A populist without Popularity (pp. 4–20). Europen Center for Populism Studies.
  • Panizza, F., & Miorelli, R. (2009). Populism and democracy in Latin America. Ethics and International Affairs, 23(1), 39–46.
  • Penfold-Becerra, M. (2007). Clientelism and social funds: Evidence from Chávez’s Misiones. Latin American Politics and Society, 49(4), 63–84.
  • Roberts, K. (2012). Populism and democracy in Venezuela under Hugo Chávez. In C. Mudde & C. R. Kaltwasser (Eds.), Populism in Europe and the Americas threat or corrective for democracy? (ss. 136–159). Cambridge University Press.
  • Roberts, K. M. (2006). Populism political conflict, and grass-roots organization in Latin America. Comparative Politics, 38(2), 127–148.
  • Salas, M. T. (2015). Venezuela: What everyone needs to know. Oxford University Press.
  • Spronk, S. (2008). Pink tide? Neoliberalism and its alternatives in Latin America. Canadian Journal of Latin American and Caribbean Studies, 33(65), 173–186.
  • Stavrakakis, Y., Kioupkiolis, A., Katsambekis, G., Nikisianis, N., & Siomos, T. (2016). Contemporary left-wing populism in Latin America: Leadership, horizontalism, and postdemocracy in Chávez’s Venezuela. Latin American Politics and Society, 58(3), 51–76.
  • Umruk, N. (2012). Chavez bizi bırakma. Destek Yayınları.
  • Weyland, K. (2019). Populism and authoritarianism. In C. de la Torre (Ed.), Routledge handbook of global populism (pp. 319–334). Routledge.
  • Wilpert, G. (2015). Chavez’s Venezuela and 21st century socialism. In Transitions in Latin America and in Poland and Syria (pp. 3–42).
  • Yeşil, H. (2013). Latin amerika: 21.Yüzyılın Sosyalizmi mi? Dönüşüm Yayınları.

Venezuela’da Popülist Liderlik Örneği Olarak Hugo Chavez Dönemi (1998–2013)

Year 2023, Volume: 3 Issue: 2, 101 - 111, 29.12.2023

Abstract

Latin Amerika bölgesi, farklı zaman ve ülkelerde karşımıza çıkan bir olgu olması itibariyle popülizmi inceleyebilmeye imkân tanımaktadır. Bölge ülkelerinden Venezuela ise son dönemde yaşadığı siyasi dönüşümle dikkat çekmektedir. Bu doğrultuda bu çalışma, Venezuela’nın siyasi sistemindeki söz konusu dönüşümün temel sebeplerini inceleyecektir. Hugo Chavez, 1998 yılından 2013 yılına kadar süren 15 yıllık iktidarında uyguladığı politikalarla Venezuela siyasi sisteminin kökten değişmesine neden olmuştur. İzlemiş olduğu sosyal refah programları ve Bolivarcı devrim bağlamında yapmış olduğu uygulamalar aracılığıyla Chavez, Venezuela siyasi sistemini dönüştürmeyi başarmıştır. Bu bağlamda Chavez’in popülist bir liderlik sergileyerek elde etmiş olduğu destek sonucunda oluşturulan 1999 Anayasası ve 2005 yılında ilan ettiği 21. Yüzyıl Sosyalizmi vizyonuyla Chavez yönetiminin radikalleşmesi ve toplumun giderek kutuplaşması Venezuela demokrasisinin gerilemesine ve rejimin otoriterleşmesine yol açmıştır. Bu makale, Chavez ve sonrasındaki Nicolas Maduro iktidarlarının otoriterleşmesinin, Chavez’in başkanlık dönemleri boyunca izlemiş olduğu popülist politikaların yarattığı koşullardan kaynaklandığını öne sürmektedir.

References

  • Akgemci, E. (2014). Venezuela’da Sosyalizme Geçişte İkinci aşama ve Chávez Mirasından geriye kalanlar. Ayrıntı Dergi. https://ayrintidergi.com.tr/venezuelada-sosyalizme-geciste-ikinci-asamave-chavezmirasindan-geriye-kalanlar/
  • Akgemci, E. (2020). Venezuela’da Post- neoliberalizm: Bolivarcı devrim Sürecinin Kazanım ve Sınırlılıkları. In D. T. Köşesi (Ed.). Esra Akgemci ve Kazım Ateş içinde, (ss. 237–250). İletişim Yayınları.
  • Barr, R. R. (2017). The resurgence of populism in Latin America. Lynne Rienner Publishers.
  • Brading, R. (2013). Populism in Venezuela. Routledge.
  • Carlson,C. (2007). What Venezuela’s constitutional reform really about Venezuelanaly. https://venezuelanalysis.com/analysis/2890
  • Çin, G. (2019). Amerikan Emperyalizminin latin Amerika’daki son örneği: Bolivarcı Venezuela Cumhuriyeti’nde Yaşanan kriz. Üsküdar üniversitesi sosyal bilimler dergisi, 1–38.
  • Corrales, J., & Penfold-Becerra, M. (2011). Dragon in the tropics: Hugo Chávez and the Political Economy of Revolution in Venezuela. Brookings Institution Press.
  • De la Torre, C. (2013). In the name of the people: Democratization, popular organizations, and populism in Venezuela, Bolivia, and Ecuador. European Review of Latin American and Caribbean Studies | Revista Europea de Estudios Latinoamericanos y Del Caribe, (95), 27–48.
  • De la Torre, C. (2017). Hugo Chávez and the diffusion of Bolivarianism. Democratization, 24(7), 1271–1288.
  • De la Torre, C. (2018). Transformations of populism in Europe and the Americas history and recent tendencies. In B. M. Chesterton, G. Marotta & G. Norman (Eds.), The contested meanings of populist revolution in Latin America (pp. 330–345). Bloomsbury Publishing Academic.
  • Di Tella, T. S. (1997). Populism into the twenty-first century. Government and Opposition, 32(2), 187–200.
  • Edwards, S. (2010). Left Behind: Latin America and the False Promise of Populism. In Neopopulism, and inequality in the new century (s. 180). University of Chicago Press.
  • Ellner, S., & Salas, M. T. (2005). Introduction: The Venezuelan exceptionalism thesis separating myth from reality. Latin American Perspectives, 32(2), 5–19.
  • Frajman, E. (2014). Broadcasting populist leadership: Hugo Chávez and “aló presidente”. Journal of Latin American Studies, 46(3), 501–526.
  • García-Guadilla, M. P., & Mallen, A. (2019). Polarization, participatory democracy, and democratic erosion in Venezuela’s twenty-first century socialism. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 681(1), 62–77.
  • Gott, R. (2008). Hugo Chavez ve Bolivarcı Devrim (H. Böğün, Çev.). Yordam Kitap.
  • Hawkins, K. (2010), A.Venezuela’s Chavismo and Populism in Comparative Perspective. Cambridge University Press.
  • Kalaycıoğlu, E. (2020). Halk Yönetimi: Popülizm ve Demokrasi. İktisat ve Toplum, 115, 4–21.
  • Kürkçügil, M. (2007). Hugo Chavez ve Devrimde Devrim. Agora Kitaplığı.
  • Levine, D. H. (2002). The decline and fall of democracy in Venezuela: Ten theses. Bulletin of Latin American Research, 21(2), 248–269.
  • Levitsky, S., & Loxton, J. (2019). Populism and competitive authoritarianism in Latin America. In C. de la Torre (Ed.), Routledge handbook of global populism (pp. 334–351). Routledge.
  • Lewis, P., Caelainn, B., Clarke, S., Voce, A., Levett, C., & Gutiérrez, P. (2019). Revealed: The rise and rise of populist rhetoric. The Guardian.
  • Love, G. J., & Windsor, L. C. (2018). Populism and popular support: Vertical accountability, exogenous events, and leader discourse in Venezuela. Political Research Quarterly, 71(3), 532–545.
  • Maya, M. L. (2015). Popular power in the discourse of Hugo Chavez (1999–2013). In C. de la Torre (Ed.), The Promise and perils of populism: Global perspectives (pp. 389–415). University Press of Kentucky.
  • Mazzuca, S. L. (2013). The rise of rentier populism. Journal of Democracy, 24(2), 108–122.
  • Mudde, C., & Kaltwasser, C. R. (2019). Popülizm kısa bir giriş (S. Erdem Türközü, Çeviren). Nika Yayınevi.
  • Oner, I. (2021). Nicolas Maduro: A populist without Popularity (pp. 4–20). Europen Center for Populism Studies.
  • Panizza, F., & Miorelli, R. (2009). Populism and democracy in Latin America. Ethics and International Affairs, 23(1), 39–46.
  • Penfold-Becerra, M. (2007). Clientelism and social funds: Evidence from Chávez’s Misiones. Latin American Politics and Society, 49(4), 63–84.
  • Roberts, K. (2012). Populism and democracy in Venezuela under Hugo Chávez. In C. Mudde & C. R. Kaltwasser (Eds.), Populism in Europe and the Americas threat or corrective for democracy? (ss. 136–159). Cambridge University Press.
  • Roberts, K. M. (2006). Populism political conflict, and grass-roots organization in Latin America. Comparative Politics, 38(2), 127–148.
  • Salas, M. T. (2015). Venezuela: What everyone needs to know. Oxford University Press.
  • Spronk, S. (2008). Pink tide? Neoliberalism and its alternatives in Latin America. Canadian Journal of Latin American and Caribbean Studies, 33(65), 173–186.
  • Stavrakakis, Y., Kioupkiolis, A., Katsambekis, G., Nikisianis, N., & Siomos, T. (2016). Contemporary left-wing populism in Latin America: Leadership, horizontalism, and postdemocracy in Chávez’s Venezuela. Latin American Politics and Society, 58(3), 51–76.
  • Umruk, N. (2012). Chavez bizi bırakma. Destek Yayınları.
  • Weyland, K. (2019). Populism and authoritarianism. In C. de la Torre (Ed.), Routledge handbook of global populism (pp. 319–334). Routledge.
  • Wilpert, G. (2015). Chavez’s Venezuela and 21st century socialism. In Transitions in Latin America and in Poland and Syria (pp. 3–42).
  • Yeşil, H. (2013). Latin amerika: 21.Yüzyılın Sosyalizmi mi? Dönüşüm Yayınları.

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Policy and Administration (Other), American Studies, Politics in International Relations
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Selin KARANA 0000-0001-5900-2674

Beyza YANGIN This is me 0009-0001-1099-9773

Publication Date December 29, 2023
Submission Date October 23, 2023
Acceptance Date December 18, 2023
Published in Issue Year 2023 Volume: 3 Issue: 2

Cite

APA KARANA, S., & YANGIN, B. (2023). Venezuela’da Popülist Liderlik Örneği Olarak Hugo Chavez Dönemi (1998–2013). Uluslararası İlişkiler Çalışmaları Dergisi, 3(2), 101-111.

Content of this journal is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial 4.0 International License

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