Research Article
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Primipar Gebelerde Gebeliğe Uyum ve Kaygı Düzeyleri ve Etkileyen Faktörlerin Belirlenmesi

Year 2023, Volume: 26 Issue: 4, 280 - 286, 29.12.2023
https://doi.org/10.5152/JANHS.2023.23505

Abstract

Amaç: Bu çalışma, primipar gebelerin gebeliğe uyum ve kaygı düzeylerini ve etkileyen faktörleri belirlemek amacıyla yapılmıştır.

Yöntemler: Kesitsel tipte olan bu çalışma, Türkiye’deki bir devlet hastanesinin kadın doğum polikliniğinde ikinci ve üçüncü trimesterlerindeki toplam 136 primipar gebe ile gerçekleştirilmiştir. Araştırmanın verileri “Kişisel Bilgi Formu”, “Prenatal Kendini Değerlendirme Ölçeği (PKDÖ)” ve “Durumluk-Sürekli Kaygı Envanteri (DSKE; DKE-SKE)” aracılığıyla toplanmıştır.

Bulgular: Çalışmaya katılan gebelerin yaş ortalaması 24,79 ± 5,04 idi. Katılımcıların toplam DKE, SKE ve PKDÖ puan ortalamaları sırasıyla 38,53 ± 7,69, 42,38 ± 7,95, ve 135,95 ± 25,43, olup, gebelerin gebeliklerine uyum sağladıkları ve kaygı yaşadıkları belirlenmiştir. Araştırmaya katılan gebelerin gebeliğe uyumunu belirleyen en önemli değişkenlerin SKE ve DKE düzeyleri (sırasıyla β = 0,347, P < 0.001, β = 0,256, P = 0.001), doğuma hazırlık sınıflarına katılım (β = 0,202) ve en uzun süre yaşanan yer (β = −0,195, P = 0,004) olduğu bulunmuştur.

Sonuç: Primipar gebelerin gebeliklerine uyum sağladıkları ve antenatal dönemde anksiyete yaşadıkları görülmüştür. Bu dönemde yaşanan kaygı, kadının gebeliğe uyumunun en önemli belirleyicisi olmuştur

References

  • 1. Soto-Balbuena C, Rodríguez MF, Escudero Gomis AI, Ferrer Barriendos FJ, Le HN, Pmb-Huca G. Incidence, prevalence and risk factors related to anxiety symptoms during pregnancy. Psicothema. 2018;30(3):257-263. [CrossRef]
  • 2. Werner-Bierwisch T, Pinkert C, Niessen K, Metzing S, Hellmers C. Mothers’ and fathers’ sense of security in the context of pregnancy, childbirth and the postnatal period: an integrative literature review. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2018;18(1):473. [CrossRef]
  • 3. Lederman RP, Wels KL. Psychosocial Adaptation to Pregnancy: Seven Dimensions of Maternal Role Development. 4th ed. Karen Weis: Springer International Publishing; 2020.
  • 4. Demirbaş H, Kadıoğlu H. Adaptation to pregnancy in prenatal period women and factors associated with adaptation. J Marmara Univ Inst Health Sci. 2014;4:200-206. [CrossRef]
  • 5. Amanak K, Sevil U, Karacam Z. The impact of prenatal education based on the Roy adaptation model on gestational hypertension, adaptation to pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes. Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association. 2019; 69(1): 11-17.
  • 6. Ibanez G, Charles M-A, Forhan A, et al. Depression and anxiety in women during pregnancy and neonatal outcome: data from the EDEN mother–child cohort. Early Human Development. 2012; 8: 643-649. [CrossRef]
  • 7. Dennis CL, Falah-Hassani K, Shiri R. Prevalence of antenatal and postnatal anxiety: systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Psychiatry. 2017;210(5):315-323. [CrossRef]
  • 8. Ibanez G, Charles MA, Forhan A, et al. Depression and anxiety in women during pregnancy and neonatal outcome: data from the EDEN mother–child cohort. Early Hum Dev. 2012;88(8):643-649.[CrossRef]
  • 9. Ding XX, Wu YL, Xu SJ, et al. Maternal anxiety during pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. J Affect Disord. 2014;159:103-110. [CrossRef]
  • 10. Field T. Prenatal anxiety effects: a review. Infant Behav Dev. 2017;49:120-128. [CrossRef]
  • 11. Sydsjö G, Sydsjö A, Gunnervik C, Bladh M, Josefsson A. obstetric outcome for women who received individualized treatment for fear of childbirth during pregnancy. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2012;91(1):44-49. [CrossRef]
  • 12. Pınar G, Avsar F, Aslantekin F. Evaluation of the impact of childbirth education classes in Turkey on adaptation to pregnancy process, concerns about birth, rate of vaginal birth, and adaptation to maternity: a case-control study. Clin Nurs Res. 2016:1-28. [CrossRef]
  • 13. Rondung E, Ekdahl J, Hildingsson I, Rubertsson C, Sundin Ö. Heterogeneity in childbirth related fear or anxiety. Scand J Psychol. 2018;59(6):634-643. [CrossRef]
  • 14. Mete S, Çİçek Ö, Aluş Tokat M, Çamlıbel M, Uludağ E. The effect of childbirth preparation classes on fear of childbirth, birth preference and preparation of labor. Turkiye Klinikleri J Nurs Sci. 2017;9(3):201-206. [CrossRef]
  • 15. Çankaya S, Şimşek B. Effects of antenatal education on fear of birth, depression, anxiety, childbirth self-efficacy, and mode of delivery in primiparous pregnant women: a prospective randomized controlled study. Clin Nurs Res. 2020:1-12. [CrossRef]
  • 16. Demİrcİ H, Şİmşek HN. Effects of prenatal education on fear of childbirth. Turkiye Klinikleri J Health Sci. 2018;3(1):48-56. [CrossRef]
  • 17. Beydağ DK, Mete S. Validity and reliability study of the prenatal self evaluation questionnaire. Atatürk University School of Nursing Journal. 2008;1:16-24.
  • 18. Öner N, Le Compte A. State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Handbook. 2nd ed. Boğaziçi Publications; 1985.
  • 19. Bjelica A, Cetkovic N, Trninic-Pjevic A, Mladenovic-Segedi L. The phenomenon of pregnancy-a psychological view. Ginekol Pol.2018;89(2):102-106. [CrossRef]
  • 20. de Almeida Schiavo R, Piazentin Rolim Rodrigues oM, Benzaquen Perosa G. Variables associated with gestational anxiety in primigravidas and multigravidas. Trends Psychol. 2018;26(4):2105-2118. [CrossRef]
  • 21. Çıtak Bilgin N. PPID: AJFM-3191-2769-31 Effects of childbirth education on prenatal adaptation, prenatal and maternal attachment.Anatol JFM. 2020;3(2):128-135. [CrossRef]
  • 22. Sel G, Barut A, Solak S, Uslu S, et al. The factors having an impact on anxiety among pregnant women. Contin Med Educ. 2019;28:334-339. [CrossRef]
  • 23. Fisher J, de Mello MC, Patel V, et al. Prevalence and determinants of common perinatal mental disorders in women in low- and lower-middle-income countries: a systematic review. Bull World Health Organ. 2012;90:139-149. [CrossRef]
  • 24. Hassanzadeh R, Abbas-Alizadeh F, Meedya S, Mohammad-Alizadeh-Charandabi S, Mirghafourvand M. Fear of childbirth, anxiety and depression in three groups of primiparous pregnant women not attending, irregularly attending and regularly attending childbirth preparation classes. BMC Womens Health. 2020;20(1):180. [CrossRef]
  • 25. T.R. Ministry of Health pregnant school circular. General Directorate of Health Services, Department of Health. Available at: https ://shgmsmd b.sag lik.g ov.tr/TR-7 7063/genel geler.html . Accessed October 18, 2022.
  • 26. Maimburg RD, Væth M, Hvidman L, Dürr J, olsen J. Women’s worries in first pregnancy: results from a randomised controlled trial. Sex Reprod Healthc. 2013;4(4):129-131. [CrossRef]

Determination of Adaptation to Pregnancy and Anxiety Levels in Primiparous Pregnant Women and Affecting Factors

Year 2023, Volume: 26 Issue: 4, 280 - 286, 29.12.2023
https://doi.org/10.5152/JANHS.2023.23505

Abstract

Objective: This study was conducted to determine primiparous pregnant women’s adaptation to pregnancy, anxiety levels, and affecting factors.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted with a total of 136 primiparous pregnant women in the second and third trimesters at the obstetrics policlinic of the state hospital in Turkey. The data for the study were collected through the “Personal Information Form,” the “Prenatal Self-Evaluation Questionnaire (PSEQ),” and the “State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI; SAI-TAI).”

Results: The average age of the participating pregnant women was 24.79 ± 5.04 years. The participants’ total SAI, TAI, and PSEQ mean scores were found to be 38.53 ± 7.69, 42.38 ± 7.95, and 135.95 ± 25.43, respectively. The most important variables determining the participating pregnant women’s adaptation to pregnancy were found to be TAI and SAI levels (β = 0,347, P < 0.001; β = 0,256, P = 0.001 respectively), participation in the childbirth preparation classes (β = 0,202, P = 0.004), and the longest place of residence (β = -0,195, P <0.004)

Conclusion: The primiparous pregnant women adapted to their pregnancy, and they suffered from anxiety during the antenatal period. Anxiety experienced during this period was the most important determinant of the woman’s adaptation to pregnancy.

References

  • 1. Soto-Balbuena C, Rodríguez MF, Escudero Gomis AI, Ferrer Barriendos FJ, Le HN, Pmb-Huca G. Incidence, prevalence and risk factors related to anxiety symptoms during pregnancy. Psicothema. 2018;30(3):257-263. [CrossRef]
  • 2. Werner-Bierwisch T, Pinkert C, Niessen K, Metzing S, Hellmers C. Mothers’ and fathers’ sense of security in the context of pregnancy, childbirth and the postnatal period: an integrative literature review. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2018;18(1):473. [CrossRef]
  • 3. Lederman RP, Wels KL. Psychosocial Adaptation to Pregnancy: Seven Dimensions of Maternal Role Development. 4th ed. Karen Weis: Springer International Publishing; 2020.
  • 4. Demirbaş H, Kadıoğlu H. Adaptation to pregnancy in prenatal period women and factors associated with adaptation. J Marmara Univ Inst Health Sci. 2014;4:200-206. [CrossRef]
  • 5. Amanak K, Sevil U, Karacam Z. The impact of prenatal education based on the Roy adaptation model on gestational hypertension, adaptation to pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes. Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association. 2019; 69(1): 11-17.
  • 6. Ibanez G, Charles M-A, Forhan A, et al. Depression and anxiety in women during pregnancy and neonatal outcome: data from the EDEN mother–child cohort. Early Human Development. 2012; 8: 643-649. [CrossRef]
  • 7. Dennis CL, Falah-Hassani K, Shiri R. Prevalence of antenatal and postnatal anxiety: systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Psychiatry. 2017;210(5):315-323. [CrossRef]
  • 8. Ibanez G, Charles MA, Forhan A, et al. Depression and anxiety in women during pregnancy and neonatal outcome: data from the EDEN mother–child cohort. Early Hum Dev. 2012;88(8):643-649.[CrossRef]
  • 9. Ding XX, Wu YL, Xu SJ, et al. Maternal anxiety during pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. J Affect Disord. 2014;159:103-110. [CrossRef]
  • 10. Field T. Prenatal anxiety effects: a review. Infant Behav Dev. 2017;49:120-128. [CrossRef]
  • 11. Sydsjö G, Sydsjö A, Gunnervik C, Bladh M, Josefsson A. obstetric outcome for women who received individualized treatment for fear of childbirth during pregnancy. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2012;91(1):44-49. [CrossRef]
  • 12. Pınar G, Avsar F, Aslantekin F. Evaluation of the impact of childbirth education classes in Turkey on adaptation to pregnancy process, concerns about birth, rate of vaginal birth, and adaptation to maternity: a case-control study. Clin Nurs Res. 2016:1-28. [CrossRef]
  • 13. Rondung E, Ekdahl J, Hildingsson I, Rubertsson C, Sundin Ö. Heterogeneity in childbirth related fear or anxiety. Scand J Psychol. 2018;59(6):634-643. [CrossRef]
  • 14. Mete S, Çİçek Ö, Aluş Tokat M, Çamlıbel M, Uludağ E. The effect of childbirth preparation classes on fear of childbirth, birth preference and preparation of labor. Turkiye Klinikleri J Nurs Sci. 2017;9(3):201-206. [CrossRef]
  • 15. Çankaya S, Şimşek B. Effects of antenatal education on fear of birth, depression, anxiety, childbirth self-efficacy, and mode of delivery in primiparous pregnant women: a prospective randomized controlled study. Clin Nurs Res. 2020:1-12. [CrossRef]
  • 16. Demİrcİ H, Şİmşek HN. Effects of prenatal education on fear of childbirth. Turkiye Klinikleri J Health Sci. 2018;3(1):48-56. [CrossRef]
  • 17. Beydağ DK, Mete S. Validity and reliability study of the prenatal self evaluation questionnaire. Atatürk University School of Nursing Journal. 2008;1:16-24.
  • 18. Öner N, Le Compte A. State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Handbook. 2nd ed. Boğaziçi Publications; 1985.
  • 19. Bjelica A, Cetkovic N, Trninic-Pjevic A, Mladenovic-Segedi L. The phenomenon of pregnancy-a psychological view. Ginekol Pol.2018;89(2):102-106. [CrossRef]
  • 20. de Almeida Schiavo R, Piazentin Rolim Rodrigues oM, Benzaquen Perosa G. Variables associated with gestational anxiety in primigravidas and multigravidas. Trends Psychol. 2018;26(4):2105-2118. [CrossRef]
  • 21. Çıtak Bilgin N. PPID: AJFM-3191-2769-31 Effects of childbirth education on prenatal adaptation, prenatal and maternal attachment.Anatol JFM. 2020;3(2):128-135. [CrossRef]
  • 22. Sel G, Barut A, Solak S, Uslu S, et al. The factors having an impact on anxiety among pregnant women. Contin Med Educ. 2019;28:334-339. [CrossRef]
  • 23. Fisher J, de Mello MC, Patel V, et al. Prevalence and determinants of common perinatal mental disorders in women in low- and lower-middle-income countries: a systematic review. Bull World Health Organ. 2012;90:139-149. [CrossRef]
  • 24. Hassanzadeh R, Abbas-Alizadeh F, Meedya S, Mohammad-Alizadeh-Charandabi S, Mirghafourvand M. Fear of childbirth, anxiety and depression in three groups of primiparous pregnant women not attending, irregularly attending and regularly attending childbirth preparation classes. BMC Womens Health. 2020;20(1):180. [CrossRef]
  • 25. T.R. Ministry of Health pregnant school circular. General Directorate of Health Services, Department of Health. Available at: https ://shgmsmd b.sag lik.g ov.tr/TR-7 7063/genel geler.html . Accessed October 18, 2022.
  • 26. Maimburg RD, Væth M, Hvidman L, Dürr J, olsen J. Women’s worries in first pregnancy: results from a randomised controlled trial. Sex Reprod Healthc. 2013;4(4):129-131. [CrossRef]

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Obstetrics and Gynocology Nursing
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Pınar KARA 0000-0001-6710-6713

Ebru VAR 0000-0002-5270-4080

Evşen NAZİK

Early Pub Date December 30, 2023
Publication Date December 29, 2023
Published in Issue Year 2023 Volume: 26 Issue: 4

Cite

AMA KARA P, VAR E, NAZİK E. Determination of Adaptation to Pregnancy and Anxiety Levels in Primiparous Pregnant Women and Affecting Factors. Journal of Nursology. December 2023;26(4):280-286. doi:10.5152/JANHS.2023.23505