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İkinci El Tütün Duman Maruziyet Riski Yüksek Çocukların Ebeveynlerine Uygulanan Sıfır Tolerans Programının Maruziyet Geri Bildirimi Vermeye Göre Çocuğun İdrar Kotinin Düzeyine Etkisi: Randomize Kontrollü Deneyin Çalışma Protokolü

Year 2023, Volume: 26 Issue: 4, 287 - 296, 29.12.2023
https://doi.org/10.5152/JANHS.2023.23390

Abstract

Amaç: Bu çalışma protokolünün amacı ebeveynlere uygulanan Sıfır Tolerans Programına (SToP) göre maruziyet geri bildirimi vermenin çocukların idrar kotinin düzeyine etkisinin karşılaştırılmasıdır.

Yöntemler: Aktif kontrol gruplu, tek kör (katılımcı), randomize kontrollü deney olan bu çalışma protokolünde tabakalı blok randomizasyon (1:1) yapılacaktır. Nisan 2023- Nisan 2024 tarihleri arasında yürütülmesi planlanan çalışmaya SToP girişim grubu (n:29) ve aktif kontrol grubu olan ikinci el sigara dumanı maruziyet geribildirim grubundan (n:29) toplamda 58 katılımcı dâhil edilmesi planlanmıştır. Birincil sonuç için kotinin duyarlı hızlı test kiti, ikincil sonuçlar için ise İkinci El Dumana Maruz Kalmaya İlişkin Bilgi formu, İkinci El Dumana Maruz Kalmaya İlişkin Tutum formu, Üçüncü El Sigara Dumanına Yönelik İnançlar (ÜESDYİ) Ölçeği ve İkinci El Sigara Dumanı Maruz Kalma Risk Algoritması (İESDM-RA) kullanılacaktır.

Bulgular: SToP grubu ile ikinci el sigara dumanı maruziyet geribildirim grubu arasındaki çocukların idrar kotinin düzeyi, ebeveynlerin bilgi, tutum ve inançları ve çocukların maruz kalma riskindeki fark, müdahalelerden sonra değerlendirilecektir. Bulgular hipotezlerimiz doğrultusunda sunulacaktır.

Sonuç: Bu protokol ikinci el sigara duman maruziyet riski yüksek çocuklar için sürdürülebilir bir program olan SToP girişimlerinin maruziyeti nasıl azaltılabileceği konusunda ebeveynlere uygulanabilir bir müdahale olup olmadığını gösterecektir.

References

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  • 3. Braun M, Klingelhöfer D, oremek GM, Quarcoo D, Groneberg DA.Influence of second-hand smoke and prenatal tobacco smoke exposure on biomarkers, genetics and physiological processes in children—an overview in research insights of the last few years. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(9):3212. [CrossRef]
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  • 5. Scheffers-van Schayck T, Mujcic A, otten R, Engels R, Kleinjan M. The effectiveness of Smoking Cessation interventions tailored to smoking parents of children aged 0-18 years: A meta-analysis. Eur Addict Res. 2021;27(4):278-293. [CrossRef]
  • 6. Rosen LJ, Myers V, Winickoff JP, Kott J. Effectiveness of interventions to reduce tobacco smoke pollution in homes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2015;12(12):16043- 16059. [CrossRef]
  • 7. Rosen LJ, Myers V, Hovell M, Zucker D, Noach M Ben. Meta-analysis of parental protection of children from tobacco smoke exposure. Pediatrics. 2014;133(4):698-714. [CrossRef]
  • 8. Yu S, Duan Z, Redmon PB, Eriksen MP, Koplan JP, Huang C. Mhealth intervention is effective in creating smoke-free homes for newborns: a randomized controlled trial study in China. Sci Rep. 2017;7(1):9276.[CrossRef]
  • 9. Zhou YH, Mak YW, Ho GWK. Effectiveness of interventions to reduce exposure to parental secondhand smoke at home among children in China: a systematic review. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019;16(1). [CrossRef]
  • 10. Precioso J, Sousa I, Araújo C, Correia C, Cunha-machado J, Rocha V. Parental perceptions and behaviors about children’s exposure to secondhand smoke in Portugal. Sustainability. 2022;14(1):2-9. [CrossRef]
  • 11. Dai S, Au CT, Chan MHM, Kam RKT, Li AM, Chan KCC. Parental knowledge, attitude, and practice on tobacco use, Smoking Cessation, and children’s environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Front Public Health. 2021;9:733667. [CrossRef]
  • 12. T.C. Sağlik Bakanlığı. Dumansız Hava Sahası Denetim Sistemi. Accessed December 15, 2022. https ://hs gm.sa glik.gov.t r/tr/ web-uygula malar imiz/ 279-d umans %C4%B 1z-hava-sa has%C 4%B1- denetim-si stemi .HTML
  • 13. Yeşilay. Yeşil Dedektör Uygulaması. Accessed December 15, 2022. https ://ww w.yes ilay. org.t r/tr/ kurum sal-p rojel er/ye sil-d edekt or-uygulamasi
  • 14. T.C Sağlık Bakanlığı Halk Sağlığı Genel Müdürlüğü. Bebek, Çocuk, Ergen İzlem Protokolleri (Tezel B, Aydın Ş, eds.). Başak Matbaacılık; 2018.
  • 15. Republic of Turkey Ministry of Health public health institution. Aile Hekimliği Uygulamasında Önerilen Periyodik Sağlık Muayeneleri ve Tarama Testleri. İdari ve Mali İşler Dairesi Başkanlığı Yayın Birim; 2015.
  • 16. Fallavollita WL, Do EK, Schechter JC, et al. Smoke-free home rules and association with child secondhand smoke exposure among mother–child dyad relationships. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021;18(10):5256. [CrossRef]
  • 17. Higgins J, Thomas J, Chandler J, et al. Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions (Version 6.3). Cochrane; 2022.
  • 18. Chan AW, Tetzlaff JM, Altman DG, et al. SPIRIT 2013 Statement: defining standard protocol items for clinical trials. Ann Intern Med. 2013;158(3):200-207. [CrossRef]
  • 19. Boutron I, Altman DG, Moher D, Schulz KF, Ravaud P, CoNSoRT NPT Group. CoNSoRT Statement for Randomized Trials of Nonpharmacologic Treatments: A 2017 Update and a CoNSoRT Extension for Nonpharmacologic Trial Abstracts. Ann Intern Med. 2017;167(1):40-47. [CrossRef]
  • 20. Hoffmann TC, Glasziou PP, Boutron I, et al. Better reporting of interventions: template for intervention description and replication (TIDieR) checklist and guide. BMJ. 2014;348(March):g1687. [CrossRef]
  • 21. Abdullah AS, Hua F, Khan H, et al. Secondhand smoke exposure reduction intervention in Chinese households of young children: A randomized controlled trial. Acad Pediatr. 2015;15(6):588-598. [CrossRef]
  • 22. Elf JL, Kinikar A, Khadse S, et al. Secondhand smoke exposure and validity of self-report in low-income women and children in India. Pediatrics. 2018;141(suppl 1):S118-S129. [CrossRef]
  • 23. Ulbricht S, Holdys J, Meyer C, Kastirke N, Haug S, John U. Predictors of indoor smoking at young children’s homes - A cross-sectional study. Eur J Pediatr. 2014;173(9):1187-1191. [CrossRef]
  • 24. Vitória PD, Machado JC, Araújo AC, et al. Children’s exposure to second hand smoke at home: A cross-sectional study in Portugal. Rev Port Pneumol. 2015;21(4):178-184. [CrossRef]
  • 25. Global Adult Tobacco Survey Collaborative Group. Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS): core questionnaire with optional questions. GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2020. https ://cdn.who .int/ media /docs /defa ult-s ource /ncds /ncd- surve illan ce/gats/06 _gats _core quest ionna irewi thopt ional quest ions. pdf?s fvrsn=3b5c a226_ 15
  • 26. American Academy of Pediatrics. Measurement core. Accessed November 10, 2021. https://www.aap.org/en/patient-care/tobacco-control-and-prevention/tobacco-control-research/measurement-core/
  • 27. Davis LL. Instrument review: getting the most from a panel of experts. Appl Nurs Res. 1992;5(4):194-197. [CrossRef]
  • 28. Prime Screen. Cotinine (COT) Urine Test Panel; 2023. Accessed December 20, 2021. https ://pr imesc reentest.c om/product s/prime-sc reen-10-pa ck-ni cotin e-tob acco- cotin ine-u rine-test- kit-urine- dip-c ard-t estin g-cot inine -from -smok ing-w cot-1 14?va riant=4009 06997 59698 #:~:text=NICoTINE ToBACCo CoTININE URINEDIP TEST KIT - WCoT-114
  • 29. Sun MC, Frédéric JDS. Knowledge of secondhand smoke and behaviour towards its exposure among teachers in Mauritius. Tob Prev Cessat. 2020;6(May):32. [CrossRef]
  • 30. Topçu S, Akın E, Ulukol B, Şİmşek orhon F, Başkan S. Awareness, attitudes and behaviors of parents for child exposure to tobacco smoke. Turk J Fam Med Prim Care. 2018;12(1):35-42. [CrossRef]
  • 31. Haardörfer R, Berg CJ, Escoffery C, Bundy ŁT, Hovell M, Kegler MC. Development of a scale assessing Beliefs about ThirdHand Smoke (BATHS). Tob Induc Dis. 2017;15(1):4. [CrossRef]
  • 32. odacı N, Kitis Y. Üçüncü el sigara Dumanına yönelik İnançlar Ölçeğinin Türkçe Geçerlik ve Güvenirlik çalışması. Hacettepe Univ Hemşirelik Fak Derg. 2021;8(3):269-176. [CrossRef]
  • 33. Achilihu H, Feng J, Wang L, Bernert JT. Tobacco use classification by inexpensive urinary cotinine immunoassay test strips. J Anal Toxicol. 2019;43(2):149-153. [CrossRef]
  • 34. Word Health organization. WHO Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic 2021: Addressing New and Emerging Products. 8th ed. Word Health organization; 2021.
  • 35. Cooke F, Bullen C, Whittaker R, McRobbie H, Chen MH, Walker N. Diagnostic accuracy of NicAlert cotinine test strips in saliva for verifying smoking status. Nicotine Tob Res. 2008;10(4):607-612. [CrossRef]

The Effect of a Zero Tolerance Program Applied to Parents of Children at High Risk of Secondhand Smoke Exposure on the Child’s Urine Cotinine Level According to Exposure Feedback: A Study Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial

Year 2023, Volume: 26 Issue: 4, 287 - 296, 29.12.2023
https://doi.org/10.5152/JANHS.2023.23390

Abstract

Objective: This study protocol is aimed at comparing the effect of exposure feedback according to a Zero Tolerance Program (Sıfır Tolerans Programı, SToP) on urinary cotinine levels in children
aged 5 and younger (0-5 age).

Methods: This study protocol is planned as an active control group, single-blind (participant), randomized control trial, and stratified block randomization (1:1). The study is planned to be carried
out between April 2023 and April 2024 and includes 58 participants in total from the SToP group (n = 29) and the secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure feedback group (n: 29), which is the active control group. The primary outcome is the urinary cotinine level of children, which will be measured by a cotinine-sensitive rapid test kit. The Knowledge Form on Exposure to SHS, Attitude Form on
Exposure to Secondhand Smoke, Beliefs about Third-Hand Smoke Scale, and Secondhand Smoke Exposure Risk Algorithm will be used to measure secondary outcomes. Secondhand smoke exposure feedback, reminder objects, informative materials, and telephone messages will be given to the SToP group. The active control group will only take SHS exposure feedback.

Results: The difference in the children’s urinary cotinine level, parents’ knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs, and children’s exposure risk between the SToP group and SHS exposure feedback group
will be evaluated after the interventions. Findings will be presented in terms of our hypotheses.

Conclusion: This study protocol will show whether there is a viable intervention for parents on how SToP intervention, which is a sustainable program for children at high risk of SHS exposure,
can reduce exposure

References

  • 1. Word Health organization. WHo: stop tobacco industry interference. Accessed December 12, 2022. https ://ww w.who.int/ news/ item/30-05 -2012-who-stop-tobac co-in dustr y-interference
  • 2. Word Health organization. Second-hand smoke impacts health. Accessed December 12, 2022. https ://ww w.emro.who.int/ tfi/q uit-now/se condh and-s moke- impac ts-he alth. HTML
  • 3. Braun M, Klingelhöfer D, oremek GM, Quarcoo D, Groneberg DA.Influence of second-hand smoke and prenatal tobacco smoke exposure on biomarkers, genetics and physiological processes in children—an overview in research insights of the last few years. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(9):3212. [CrossRef]
  • 4. Mbulo L, Palipudi KM, Andes L, et al. Secondhand smoke exposure at home among one billion children in 21 countries: findings from the global adult tobacco survey (GATS). Tob Control. 2016;25(e2):e95-e100. [CrossRef]
  • 5. Scheffers-van Schayck T, Mujcic A, otten R, Engels R, Kleinjan M. The effectiveness of Smoking Cessation interventions tailored to smoking parents of children aged 0-18 years: A meta-analysis. Eur Addict Res. 2021;27(4):278-293. [CrossRef]
  • 6. Rosen LJ, Myers V, Winickoff JP, Kott J. Effectiveness of interventions to reduce tobacco smoke pollution in homes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2015;12(12):16043- 16059. [CrossRef]
  • 7. Rosen LJ, Myers V, Hovell M, Zucker D, Noach M Ben. Meta-analysis of parental protection of children from tobacco smoke exposure. Pediatrics. 2014;133(4):698-714. [CrossRef]
  • 8. Yu S, Duan Z, Redmon PB, Eriksen MP, Koplan JP, Huang C. Mhealth intervention is effective in creating smoke-free homes for newborns: a randomized controlled trial study in China. Sci Rep. 2017;7(1):9276.[CrossRef]
  • 9. Zhou YH, Mak YW, Ho GWK. Effectiveness of interventions to reduce exposure to parental secondhand smoke at home among children in China: a systematic review. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019;16(1). [CrossRef]
  • 10. Precioso J, Sousa I, Araújo C, Correia C, Cunha-machado J, Rocha V. Parental perceptions and behaviors about children’s exposure to secondhand smoke in Portugal. Sustainability. 2022;14(1):2-9. [CrossRef]
  • 11. Dai S, Au CT, Chan MHM, Kam RKT, Li AM, Chan KCC. Parental knowledge, attitude, and practice on tobacco use, Smoking Cessation, and children’s environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Front Public Health. 2021;9:733667. [CrossRef]
  • 12. T.C. Sağlik Bakanlığı. Dumansız Hava Sahası Denetim Sistemi. Accessed December 15, 2022. https ://hs gm.sa glik.gov.t r/tr/ web-uygula malar imiz/ 279-d umans %C4%B 1z-hava-sa has%C 4%B1- denetim-si stemi .HTML
  • 13. Yeşilay. Yeşil Dedektör Uygulaması. Accessed December 15, 2022. https ://ww w.yes ilay. org.t r/tr/ kurum sal-p rojel er/ye sil-d edekt or-uygulamasi
  • 14. T.C Sağlık Bakanlığı Halk Sağlığı Genel Müdürlüğü. Bebek, Çocuk, Ergen İzlem Protokolleri (Tezel B, Aydın Ş, eds.). Başak Matbaacılık; 2018.
  • 15. Republic of Turkey Ministry of Health public health institution. Aile Hekimliği Uygulamasında Önerilen Periyodik Sağlık Muayeneleri ve Tarama Testleri. İdari ve Mali İşler Dairesi Başkanlığı Yayın Birim; 2015.
  • 16. Fallavollita WL, Do EK, Schechter JC, et al. Smoke-free home rules and association with child secondhand smoke exposure among mother–child dyad relationships. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021;18(10):5256. [CrossRef]
  • 17. Higgins J, Thomas J, Chandler J, et al. Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions (Version 6.3). Cochrane; 2022.
  • 18. Chan AW, Tetzlaff JM, Altman DG, et al. SPIRIT 2013 Statement: defining standard protocol items for clinical trials. Ann Intern Med. 2013;158(3):200-207. [CrossRef]
  • 19. Boutron I, Altman DG, Moher D, Schulz KF, Ravaud P, CoNSoRT NPT Group. CoNSoRT Statement for Randomized Trials of Nonpharmacologic Treatments: A 2017 Update and a CoNSoRT Extension for Nonpharmacologic Trial Abstracts. Ann Intern Med. 2017;167(1):40-47. [CrossRef]
  • 20. Hoffmann TC, Glasziou PP, Boutron I, et al. Better reporting of interventions: template for intervention description and replication (TIDieR) checklist and guide. BMJ. 2014;348(March):g1687. [CrossRef]
  • 21. Abdullah AS, Hua F, Khan H, et al. Secondhand smoke exposure reduction intervention in Chinese households of young children: A randomized controlled trial. Acad Pediatr. 2015;15(6):588-598. [CrossRef]
  • 22. Elf JL, Kinikar A, Khadse S, et al. Secondhand smoke exposure and validity of self-report in low-income women and children in India. Pediatrics. 2018;141(suppl 1):S118-S129. [CrossRef]
  • 23. Ulbricht S, Holdys J, Meyer C, Kastirke N, Haug S, John U. Predictors of indoor smoking at young children’s homes - A cross-sectional study. Eur J Pediatr. 2014;173(9):1187-1191. [CrossRef]
  • 24. Vitória PD, Machado JC, Araújo AC, et al. Children’s exposure to second hand smoke at home: A cross-sectional study in Portugal. Rev Port Pneumol. 2015;21(4):178-184. [CrossRef]
  • 25. Global Adult Tobacco Survey Collaborative Group. Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS): core questionnaire with optional questions. GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2020. https ://cdn.who .int/ media /docs /defa ult-s ource /ncds /ncd- surve illan ce/gats/06 _gats _core quest ionna irewi thopt ional quest ions. pdf?s fvrsn=3b5c a226_ 15
  • 26. American Academy of Pediatrics. Measurement core. Accessed November 10, 2021. https://www.aap.org/en/patient-care/tobacco-control-and-prevention/tobacco-control-research/measurement-core/
  • 27. Davis LL. Instrument review: getting the most from a panel of experts. Appl Nurs Res. 1992;5(4):194-197. [CrossRef]
  • 28. Prime Screen. Cotinine (COT) Urine Test Panel; 2023. Accessed December 20, 2021. https ://pr imesc reentest.c om/product s/prime-sc reen-10-pa ck-ni cotin e-tob acco- cotin ine-u rine-test- kit-urine- dip-c ard-t estin g-cot inine -from -smok ing-w cot-1 14?va riant=4009 06997 59698 #:~:text=NICoTINE ToBACCo CoTININE URINEDIP TEST KIT - WCoT-114
  • 29. Sun MC, Frédéric JDS. Knowledge of secondhand smoke and behaviour towards its exposure among teachers in Mauritius. Tob Prev Cessat. 2020;6(May):32. [CrossRef]
  • 30. Topçu S, Akın E, Ulukol B, Şİmşek orhon F, Başkan S. Awareness, attitudes and behaviors of parents for child exposure to tobacco smoke. Turk J Fam Med Prim Care. 2018;12(1):35-42. [CrossRef]
  • 31. Haardörfer R, Berg CJ, Escoffery C, Bundy ŁT, Hovell M, Kegler MC. Development of a scale assessing Beliefs about ThirdHand Smoke (BATHS). Tob Induc Dis. 2017;15(1):4. [CrossRef]
  • 32. odacı N, Kitis Y. Üçüncü el sigara Dumanına yönelik İnançlar Ölçeğinin Türkçe Geçerlik ve Güvenirlik çalışması. Hacettepe Univ Hemşirelik Fak Derg. 2021;8(3):269-176. [CrossRef]
  • 33. Achilihu H, Feng J, Wang L, Bernert JT. Tobacco use classification by inexpensive urinary cotinine immunoassay test strips. J Anal Toxicol. 2019;43(2):149-153. [CrossRef]
  • 34. Word Health organization. WHO Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic 2021: Addressing New and Emerging Products. 8th ed. Word Health organization; 2021.
  • 35. Cooke F, Bullen C, Whittaker R, McRobbie H, Chen MH, Walker N. Diagnostic accuracy of NicAlert cotinine test strips in saliva for verifying smoking status. Nicotine Tob Res. 2008;10(4):607-612. [CrossRef]

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Public Health Nursing, Nursing (Other)
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Sebahat GÖZÜM 0000-0001-8672-8016

Ercan ASİ 0000-0003-3265-2268

Early Pub Date December 30, 2023
Publication Date December 29, 2023
Published in Issue Year 2023 Volume: 26 Issue: 4

Cite

AMA GÖZÜM S, ASİ E. The Effect of a Zero Tolerance Program Applied to Parents of Children at High Risk of Secondhand Smoke Exposure on the Child’s Urine Cotinine Level According to Exposure Feedback: A Study Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of Nursology. December 2023;26(4):287-296. doi:10.5152/JANHS.2023.23390